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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898853/the-design-and-rationale-for-the-dapagliflozin-effect-on-cardiovascular-events-declare-timi-58-trial
#1
Stephen D Wiviott, Itamar Raz, Marc P Bonaca, Ofri Mosenzon, Eri T Kato, Avivit Cahn, Michael G Silverman, Sameer Bansilal, Deepak L Bhatt, Lawrence A Leiter, Darren K McGuire, John Ph Wilding, Ingrid Am Gause-Nilsson, Anna Maria Langkilde, Peter A Johansson, Marc S Sabatine
BACKGROUND: Dapagliflozin is a sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT-2) inhibitor that reduces blood glucose in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) by promoting glycosuria via inhibiting urinary glucose reabsorption. In addition to improving blood glucose control, treatment with dapagliflozin results in glucose-induced osmotic diuresis, weight loss, and blood pressure lowering. Previous trials of SGLT-2 inhibitors showed reductions in cardiovascular (CV) events, including CV death and hospitalization for heart failure, and ischemic events in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD)...
June 2018: American Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29887534/-influence-of-pre-existing-cognitive-impairment-on-rehabilitation-outcomes-in-patients-with-cerebral-infarction
#2
Yuzo Araki, Masahiro Furuichi, Hiroaki Nokura, Tatsuo Iwata
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The present study determined the effects of pre-existing cognitive impairment (PreCI) on the rehabilitation outcomes in patients with cerebral infarction. METHODS: From June 2013 to August 2015, we classified 52 patients with unilateral cerebral hemispheric infarction into the PreCI and non-PreCI group based on three-dimensional stereotactic surface projection (3D-SSP) cerebral blood flow (CBF) decrease images and the past history of dementia...
June 2018: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29862306/effects-of-human-relaxin-2-serelaxin-on-hypoxic-pulmonary-vasoconstriction-during-acute-hypoxia-in-a-sheep-model
#3
René Schiffner, Marius Nistor, Sabine Juliane Bischoff, Georg Matziolis, Martin Schmidt, Thomas Lehmann
Purpose: Hypoxia induces pulmonary vasoconstriction with a subsequent increase of pulmonary artery pressure (PAP), which can result in pulmonary hypertension. Serelaxin has shown an increase of pulmonary hemodynamic parameters after serelaxin injection. We therefore investigated the response of pulmonary hemodynamic parameters after serelaxin administration in a clinically relevant model. Methods: Six controls and six sheep that received 30 μg/kg serelaxin underwent right heart catheterization during a 12-minute hypoxia period (inhalation of 5% oxygen and 95% nitrogen) and subsequent reoxygenation...
2018: Hypoxia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29850244/efficacy-of-high-dose-and-low-dose-simvastatin-on-vascular-oxidative-stress-and-neurological-outcomes-in-patient-with-acute-ischemic-stroke-a-randomized-double-blind-parallel-controlled-trial
#4
Nattaphol Uransilp, Pannawat Chaiyawatthanananthn, Sombat Muengtaweepongsa
Backgrounds: Stroke is the leading cause of death and long-term disability. Oxidative stress is elevated during occurrence of acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Soluble LOX-1 (sLOX-1) and NO are used as biomarkers for vascular oxidative stress that can reflect stabilization of atherosclerotic plaque. Previous study showed that simvastatin can reduce oxidative stress and LOX-1 expression. Objectives: To evaluate neurological outcomes and serum sLOX-1 and NO levels in patients with AIS treatment with low dose 10 mg/day and high dose 40 mg/day of simvastatin...
2018: Neurology Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793480/acid-sensing-ion-channels-dual-function-proteins-for-chemo-sensing-and-mechano-sensing
#5
REVIEW
Yuan-Ren Cheng, Bo-Yang Jiang, Chih-Cheng Chen
BACKGROUND: Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are a group of amiloride-sensitive ligand-gated ion channels belonging to the family of degenerin/epithelial sodium channels. ASICs are predominantly expressed in both the peripheral and central nervous system and have been characterized as potent proton sensors to detect extracellular acidification in the periphery and brain. MAIN BODY: Here we review the recent studies focusing on the physiological roles of ASICs in the nervous system...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791822/extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-for-severe-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#6
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Alain Combes, David Hajage, Gilles Capellier, Alexandre Demoule, Sylvain Lavoué, Christophe Guervilly, Daniel Da Silva, Lara Zafrani, Patrice Tirot, Benoit Veber, Eric Maury, Bruno Levy, Yves Cohen, Christian Richard, Pierre Kalfon, Lila Bouadma, Hossein Mehdaoui, Gaëtan Beduneau, Guillaume Lebreton, Laurent Brochard, Niall D Ferguson, Eddy Fan, Arthur S Slutsky, Daniel Brodie, Alain Mercat
BACKGROUND: The efficacy of venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in patients with severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) remains controversial. METHODS: In an international clinical trial, we randomly assigned patients with very severe ARDS, as indicated by one of three criteria - a ratio of partial pressure of arterial oxygen (Pao2 ) to the fraction of inspired oxygen (Fio2 ) of less than 50 mm Hg for more than 3 hours; a Pao2 :Fio2 of less than 80 mm Hg for more than 6 hours; or an arterial blood pH of less than 7...
May 24, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785872/effect-evaluation-on-use-of-bedside-fiber-bronchoscope-in-treating-stroke-associated-pneumonia
#7
Qiu Han, Chun Chen, Hai-Qin Hu, Jun Shen, Guang Yang, Bin Chen, Lei Xia
Background The bedside fiber bronchoscope has been widely used in the diagnosis and treatment of respiratory disease. This study aims to assess the effect of using bedside fiber bronchoscope in sputum suction and alveolar lavage for treatment of stroke-associated pneumonia (SAP), compared with the use of conventional suction catheter. Methods One hundred and six patients with SAP were randomly divided into control group (n = 53) and experimental group (n = 53) for a controlled study. Patients in the two groups were conventionally treated with phlegm-resolving and anti-infective therapy...
May 22, 2018: Topics in Stroke Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784606/associated-with-ischemic-stroke-risk-reduction-after-endoscopic-thoracic-sympathectomy-for-palmar-sweating
#8
Chun-Gu Cheng, Chun-An Cheng, Wu-Chien Chien, Chi-Hsiang Chung, Jiunn-Tay Lee
BACKGROUND: Endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy (ETS) was performed to cure palmar hyperhidrosis (PH). After ETS, blood pressure decreased, and cerebral flow velocity increased within 1 month. However, no studies distinguish between subsequent ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke following ETS for PH. The association between stroke type and PH after ETS must be evaluated. METHODS: We surveyed newly diagnosed patients with PH using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) diagnostic code 708...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743121/high-frequency-oscillatory-ventilation-guided-by-transpulmonary-pressure-in-acute-respiratory-syndrome-an-experimental-study-in-pigs
#9
Philipp Klapsing, Onnen Moerer, Christoph Wende, Peter Herrmann, Michael Quintel, Annalen Bleckmann, Jan Florian Heuer
BACKGROUND: Recent clinical studies have not shown an overall benefit of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV), possibly due to injurious or non-individualized HFOV settings. We compared conventional HFOV (HFOVcon ) settings with HFOV settings based on mean transpulmonary pressures (PLmean ) in an animal model of experimental acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). METHODS: ARDS was induced in eight pigs by intrabronchial installation of hydrochloric acid (0...
May 9, 2018: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739912/early-cerebral-vein-after-endovascular-ischemic-stroke-treatment-predicts-symptomatic-reperfusion-hemorrhage
#10
Samuel C D Cartmell, Robyn L Ball, Rajani Kaimal, Nicholas A Telischak, Michael P Marks, Huy M Do, Robert L Dodd, Gregory W Albers, Maarten G Lansberg, Jeremy J Heit
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Parenchymal hemorrhage (PH) after endovascular mechanical thrombectomy in acute ischemic stroke leads to worse outcomes. Better clinical and imaging biomarkers of symptomatic reperfusion PH are needed to identify patients at risk. We identified clinical and imaging predictors of reperfusion PH after endovascular mechanical thrombectomy with attention to early cerebral veins (ECVs) on postreperfusion digital subtraction angiography. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of consecutive acute ischemic stroke patients undergoing endovascular mechanical thrombectomy at our neurovascular referral center...
May 8, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29622982/cardiovascular-disease-and-abo-blood-groups-in-africans-are-blood-group-a-individuals-at-higher-risk-of-ischemic-disease-a-pilot-study
#11
Djibril Marie Ba, Mamadou Saidou Sow, Aminata Diack, Khadidiatou Dia, Mouhamed Cherif Mboup, Pape Diadie Fall, Moussa Daouda Fall
Background: Since the discovery of the ABO blood group system by Karl Landsteiner in 1901, several reports have suggested an important involvement of the ABO blood group system in the susceptibility to thrombosis. Assessing that non-O blood groups in particular A blood group confer a higher risk of venous and arterial thrombosis than group O.Epidemiologic data are typically not available for all racial and ethnics groups.The purpose of this pilot study was to identify a link between ABO blood group and ischemic disease (ID) in Africans, and to analyze whether A blood group individuals were at higher risk of ischemic disease or not...
December 2017: The Egyptian heart journal: (EHJ): official bulletin of the Egyptian Society of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614631/simple-chronic-transfusion-therapy-a-crucial-therapeutic-option-for-sickle-cell-disease-improves-but-does-not-normalize-blood-rheology-what-should-be-our-goals-for-transfusion-therapy
#12
Jon A Detterich
Sickle cell anemia is characterized by a mutation resulting in the formation of an abnormal beta-hemoglobin called hemoglobin S. Hemoglobin S polymerizes upon deoxygenation, causing impaired red blood cell deformability and increased blood viscosity at equivalent hematocrits. Thus, sickle cell disease is a hemorheologic disease that results in various pathologic processes involving multiple organ systems including the lungs, heart, kidneys and brain. Red blood cell mechanics and the perturbations on blood flow-endothelial interaction underlie much of the pathology found in sickle cell disease...
2018: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570476/patent-foramen-ovale-and-hypoxemia
#13
Mohammad K Mojadidi, Juan C Ruiz, Jason Chertoff, Muhammad O Zaman, Islam Y Elgendy, Ahmed N Mahmoud, Mohammad Al-Ani, Akram Y Elgendy, Nimesh K Patel, Ghanshyam Shantha, Jonathan M Tobis, Bernhard Meier
Patent foramen ovale (PFO), an embryonic remnant of the fetal circulation, is present in 20-25% of adults. While recent observational studies and clinical trials have established the link between PFO-mediated right-to-left shunting with cryptogenic stroke and migraine with aura, the role of a PFO in exacerbating hypoxemic medical conditions (i.e., sleep apnea, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pulmonary hypertension, platypnea-orthodeoxia, pulmonary arteriovenous malformation, high altitude pulmonary edema, and exercise desaturation) remains poorly evaluated...
March 22, 2018: Cardiology in Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523920/diminished-cardiac-performance-and-left-ventricular-dimensions-in-neonates-with-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia
#14
Gabriel Altit, Shazia Bhombal, Krisa Van Meurs, Theresa A Tacy
INTRODUCTION: Newborns with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) have varying degrees of pulmonary hypoplasia and pulmonary hypertension (PH), and there is limited evidence that cardiac dysfunction is present. We sought to study early neonatal biventricular function and performance in these patients by reviewing early post-natal echocardiography (ECHO) measurements and comparing them to normal term newborns. METHODS: Retrospective case-control study reviewing clinical and ECHO data on term newborns with CDH and normal controls born between 2009 and 2016...
June 2018: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29473384/five-year-prospective-study-on-cardiovascular-events-in-patients-with-erectile-dysfunction-and-hypotestosterone
#15
Rosanna Iacona, Vito Bonomo, Mariaconcetta Di Piazza, Angela Sansone, Manuela Usala, Salvatore Novo, Carlo Pavone
OBJECTIVE: Testosterone levels play a role in cardiac and vascular pathology. In the present study we investigated the prognostic significance of this hormone for cardiovascular outcome, in a 5-year follow-up. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our cohort included 802 adult subjects, from 40 to 80 years. Patients were excluded if they had a past history of peripheral or coronary artery disease, and revascularization. A blood sample was drawn to valuate testosterone level, and we considered normal testosterone levels 300 ng/dl...
December 31, 2017: Archivio Italiano di Urologia, Andrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29470156/journal-club-evaluation-of-diffusion-kurtosis-imaging-of-stroke-lesion-with-hemodynamic-and-metabolic-mri-in-a-rodent-model-of-acute-stroke
#16
Dongshuang Lu, Yinghua Jiang, Yang Ji, Iris Yuwen Zhou, Emiri Mandeville, Eng H Lo, Xiaoying Wang, Phillip Zhe Sun
OBJECTIVE: Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) has emerged as a new acute stroke imaging approach, augmenting routine DWI. Although it has been shown that a diffusion lesion without kurtosis abnormality is more likely to recover after reperfusion, whereas a kurtosis lesion shows poor response, little is known about the underlying pathophysiologic profile of the kurtosis lesion versus the kurtosis lesion-diffusion lesion mismatch. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed multiparametric MRI, including arterial spin labeling, pH-sensitive amide proton transfer, and DKI, in a rodent model of acute stroke caused by embolic middle cerebral artery occlusion...
April 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460150/ph-modulation-of-voltage-gated-sodium-channels
#17
Colin H Peters, Mohammad-Reza Ghovanloo, Cynthia Gershome, Peter C Ruben
Changes in blood and tissue pH accompany physiological and pathophysiological conditions including exercise, cardiac ischemia, ischemic stroke, and cocaine ingestion. These conditions are known to trigger the symptoms of electrical diseases in patients carrying sodium channel mutations. Protons cause a diverse set of changes to sodium channel gating, which generally lead to decreases in the amplitude of the transient sodium current and increases in the fraction of non-inactivating channels that pass persistent currents...
February 20, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402060/penumbral-imaging-based-thrombolysis-with-tenecteplase-is-feasible-up-to-24-hours-after-symptom-onset
#18
Mahesh Kate, Robert Wannamaker, Harsha Kamble, Parnian Riaz, Laura C Gioia, Brian Buck, Thomas Jeerakathil, Penelope Smyth, Ashfaq Shuaib, Kenneth Butcher, Derek Emery
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Thrombolysis >4.5 hours after ischemic stroke onset is unproven. We assessed the feasibility of tenecteplase (TNK) treatment in patients with evidence of an ischemic penumbra 4.5 to 24 hours after onset. METHODS: Acute ischemic stroke patients underwent perfusion computed tomography (CT)/magnetic resonance imaging. Patients with cerebral blood volume (CBV) or diffusion weighted imaging Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Scores (ASPECTS) >6 and mismatch score >2 (defined as >2 ASPECTS regions with delay on mean transit time maps and normal CBV) were eligible for treatment with TNK (0...
January 2018: Journal of Stroke
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29394350/blood-pressure-and-cardiovascular-outcomes-in-patients-with-diabetes-and-high-cardiovascular-risk
#19
Brian A Bergmark, Benjamin M Scirica, Ph Gabriel Steg, Christina L Fanola, Yared Gurmu, Ofri Mosenzon, Avivit Cahn, Itamar Raz, Deepak L Bhatt
Aims: Optimal blood pressure for prevention of cardiovascular (CV) events in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) remains uncertain and there is concern for increased risk with low diastolic blood pressure (DBP). This study analysed the association between blood pressure and CV outcomes in high-risk patients with T2DM. Methods and results: Patients with T2DM and elevated CV risk were enrolled in the Saxagliptin Assessment of Vascular Outcomes Recorded in patients with diabetes mellitus-Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 53 trial...
January 31, 2018: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377071/how-i-manage-red-cell-transfusions-in-patients-with-sickle-cell-disease
#20
REVIEW
David C Rees, Susan Robinson, Jo Howard
Sickle cell disease is one of the commonest serious inherited diseases in the world, and red cell transfusion is still one of the few effective treatments for acute and chronic complications. Transfusion corrects anaemia and dilutes out the number of red cells able to cause vaso-occlusion and vascular damage. Urgent red cell transfusions are used to correct acute anaemia, treat acute chest syndrome and patients with acute neurological symptoms. We use elective transfusions preoperatively for moderate risk surgery, and in some pregnant women...
February 2018: British Journal of Haematology
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