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Succinate dehydrogenase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730528/sulforaphane-promotes-mitochondrial-protection-in-sh-sy5y-cells-exposed-to-hydrogen-peroxide-by-an-nrf2-dependent-mechanism
#1
Marcos Roberto de Oliveira, Flávia de Bittencourt Brasil, Cristina Ribas Fürstenau
Sulforaphane (SFN; C6H11NOS2) is an isothiocyanate found in cruciferous vegetables, such as broccoli, kale, and radish. SFN exhibits antioxidant, anti-apoptotic, anti-tumor, and anti-inflammatory activities in different cell types. However, it was not previously demonstrated whether and how this natural compound would exert mitochondrial protection experimentally. Therefore, we investigated here the effects of a pretreatment (for 30 min) with SFN at 5 μM on mitochondria obtained from human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) at 300 μM for 24 h...
July 20, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725638/isolation-of-f-novicida-containing-phagosome-from-infected-human-monocyte-derived-macrophages
#2
Valentina Marecic, Olga Shevchuk, Mateja Ozanic, Mirna Mihelcic, Michael Steinert, Antonija Jurak Begonja, Yousef Abu Kwaik, Marina Santic
Francisella is a gram-negative bacterial pathogen, which causes tularemia in humans and animals. A crucial step of Francisella infection is its invasion of macrophage cells. Biogenesis of the Francisella-containing phagosome (FCP) is arrested for ~15 min at the endosomal stage, followed by gradual bacterial escape into the cytosol, where the microbe proliferates. The crucial step in pathogenesis of tularemia is short and transient presence of the bacterium within phagosome. Isolation of FCPs for further studies has been challenging due to the short period of time of bacterial residence in it and the characteristics of the FCP...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724664/biochemical-molecular-and-clinical-characterization-of-succinate-dehydrogenase-subunit-a-variants-of-unknown-significance
#3
Amber E Bannon, Jason D Kent, Isaac Forquer, Ajia Town, Lillian R Klug, Kelly E McCann, Carol Beadling, Olivier Harismendy, Jason K Sicklick, Christopher L Corless, Ujwal Shinde, Michael C Heinrich
Patients who inherit a pathogenic loss-of-function genetic variant involving one of the four succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) subunit genes have up to an 86% chance of developing one or more cancers by the age of 50. If tumors are identified and removed early in these high-risk patients, they have a higher potential for cure.  Unfortunately, many alterations identified in these genes are variants of unknown significance (VUS), confounding the identification of high-risk patients. If we could identify misclassified SDH VUS as benign or pathogenic SDH mutations, we could better select patients for cancer screening procedures and remove tumors at earlier stages...
July 19, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718507/gene-expression-analyses-reveal-metabolic-specifications-in-acute-o2-sensing-chemoreceptor-cells
#4
Lin Gao, Victoria Bonilla-Henao, Paula García-Flores, Ignacio Arias-Mayenco, Patricia Ortega-Sáenz, José López-Barneo
Acute O2 sensing is a fundamental property of cells in the peripheral chemoreceptors, e.g. glomus cells in the carotid body (CB) and chromaffin cells in the adrenal medulla (AM), and is necessary for adaptation to hypoxia. These cells contain O2 -sensitive ion channels, which mediate membrane depolarization and transmitter release upon exposure to hypoxia. However, the mechanisms underlying the detection of changes in O2 tension by cells are still poorly understood. Recently, we suggested that CB glomus cells have specific metabolic features that favour the accumulation of reduced quinone and the production of mitochondrial NADH and reactive oxygen species during hypoxia...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716098/awakening-sleeping-beauty-production-of-propionic-acid-in-escherichia-coli-through-the-sbm-operon-requires-the-activity-of-a-methylmalonyl-coa-epimerase
#5
Ricardo Axayacatl Gonzalez-Garcia, Tim McCubbin, Annalena Wille, Manuel Plan, Lars Keld Nielsen, Esteban Marcellin
BACKGROUND: Propionic acid is used primarily as a food preservative with smaller applications as a chemical building block for the production of many products including fabrics, cosmetics, drugs, and plastics. Biological production using propionibacteria would be competitive against chemical production through hydrocarboxylation of ethylene if native producers could be engineered to reach near-theoretical yield and good productivity. Unfortunately, engineering propionibacteria has proven very challenging...
July 17, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710913/expression-and-promoter-methylation-of-succinate-dehydrogenase-and-fumarase-genes-in-maize-under-anoxic-conditions
#6
Alexander T Eprintsev, Dmitry N Fedorin, Maria A Dobychina, Abir U Igamberdiev
Succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and fumarase enzyme activity and expression of genes encoding the SDH subunits A (Sdh1-2), B (Sdh2-3), C (Sdh3), D (Sdh4) and the mitochondrial (Fum1) and cytosolic (Fum2) isoforms of fumarase were quantified in maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings exposed to atmospheres of air (control), N2, and CO2. The catalytic activity of SDH gradually declined in plants exposed to N2 atmospheres, with ∼40% activity remaining after 24h. In seedlings incubated in CO2, the suppression was even more pronounced...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700220/mechanistic-characterization-of-escherichia-coli-l-aspartate-oxidase-from-kinetic-isotope-effects
#7
Carmen Chow, Subray S Hegde, John S Blanchard
L-Aspartate oxidase, encoded by the nadB gene, is the first enzyme in the de novo synthesis of NAD+ in bacteria. This FAD-dependent enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of L-aspartate to generate iminoaspartate and reduced flavin. Distinct from most amino acid oxidases, it can use either molecular oxygen or fumarate to reoxidize the reduced enzyme. Primary sSequence alignments and the three-dimensional crystal structure have revealed that the overall fold and catalytic residues of NadB closely resemble those of the succinate dehydrogenase/fumarate reductase family rather than the prototypical D-amino acid oxidases...
July 12, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686977/cardioprotective-effect-of-the-xanthones-from-gentianella-acuta-against-myocardial-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-in-isolated-rat-heart
#8
Zhibin Wang, Gaosong Wu, Hua Liu, Na Xing, Yanping Sun, Yadong Zhai, Bingyou Yang, Ah-Ng Tony Kong, Haixue Kuang, Qiuhong Wang
Gentianella acuta (Michx.) Hulten is widely used for the treatment of arrhythmia and coronary heart disease in Ewenki Folk Medicinal Plants and Mongolian Medicine, popularly known as "Wenxincao" in China. To investigate the potential protective role of the xanthones from G. acuta against myocardial I/R injury in isolated rat heart and its possible related mechanism. The protective role of xanthones on myocardial I/R injury was studied on Langendorff apparatus. The hemodynamic parameters including the left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), the maximum rate of up/down left intraventricular pressure (±dp/dtmax), coronary flow (CF) and heart rate (HR) were recorded during the perfusion...
July 4, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677248/identification-of-suitable-reference-genes-during-the-formation-of-chlamydospores-in-clonostachys-rosea-67-1
#9
Jun Zhang, Zhanbin Sun, Shidong Li, Manhong Sun
Clonostachys rosea is a potential biocontrol fungus that can produce highly resistant chlamydospores under specific conditions. To investigate the genes related to chlamydospore formation, we identified reliable reference genes for quantification of gene expression in C. rosea 67-1 during sporulation. In this study, nine reference genes, actin (ACT), elongation factor 1 (EF1), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), histone (HIS), RNA polymerase II CTD phosphatase Fcp1 (RPP), succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSD), TATA-binding protein (TBP), ubiquitin (UBQ), and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (UCE), were selected and cloned from 67-1, and their expression stability during chlamydospore formation was determined using reverse transcription quantitative PCR and assessed using the software geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper...
July 5, 2017: MicrobiologyOpen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670912/mandibular-lytic-lesion-in-familial-paraganglioma-syndrome-type-i-a-clinical-conundrum
#10
Parul Sinha, Sonia N Yuen, Rebecca D Chernock, Bruce H Haughey
OBJECTIVE: The entity of primary mandibular paraganglioma (PGL) is not well accepted within the head and neck. Mandibular PGLs hitherto reported in literature are malignant metastatic lesions, mostly from a pheochromocytoma. METHODS: We report a case of mandibular lytic lesion in a young female with multifocal PGLs but no family history of PGLs. We also performed a literature search to identify published cases of mandibular PGL. RESULTS: Lack of established criteria for malignancy in a PGL made diagnosis and treatment challenging...
June 1, 2017: Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667082/new-hif2a-inhibitors-implications-for-pheochromocytomas-and-paragangliomas
#11
Rodrigo Almeida Toledo
Two recent independent studies published in Nature show robust responses of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) cell lines, preclinical ccRCC xenograft models and, remarkably, a patient with progressive ccRCC despite receiving multiple lines of treatment, to the long-awaited, recently developed inhibitors of hypoxia-inducible factor 2-alpha (HIF2α). This Commentary is based on the recognition of similar molecular drivers in ccRCC and the endocrine neoplasias pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs), ultimately leading to stabilization of HIFs...
June 30, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662997/next-generation-immunohistochemistry-emerging-substitutes-to-genetic-testing
#12
REVIEW
Juliana Andrici, Anthony J Gill, Jason L Hornick
The identification of at-risk kindreds facilitates screening and risk reduction strategies for patients with hereditary cancer predisposition syndromes. Recently, immunohistochemistry (IHC) has emerged as a cost-effective strategy for detecting or inferring the presence of mutations in both tumors and the germline of patients presenting with tumors associated with hereditary cancer predisposition syndromes. In this review we discuss the use of novel IHC markers, including PRKAR1A, β-catenin, SDHB, fumarate hydratase and 2SC, HRASQ61R, BAP1, parafibromin and glucagon, which have either established applications or show promise for surgical pathologists to complement morphological or clinical suspicion of hereditary cancer predisposition syndromes...
June 27, 2017: Seminars in Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659748/anti-fatigue-effects-of-dietary-nucleotides-in-mice
#13
Meihong Xu, Rui Liang, Yong Li, Junbo Wang
As the building blocks of nucleic acids, nucleotides are conditionally essential nutrients that exhibit multifaceted activities. The present study aimed to evaluate the anti-fatigue effects of dietary nucleotides (NTs) on mice and explore the possible underlying mechanism. Mice were randomly divided into four experimental sets to detect different indicators. Each set of mice was then divided into four groups: (i) one control group and (ii) three NTs groups, which were fed diets supplemented with NTs at concentrations of 0%, 0...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655216/phenotypic-and-genomic-survey-on-organic-acid-utilization-profile-of-pseudomonas-mendocina-strain-s5-2-a-vineyard-soil-isolate
#14
Teik Min Chong, Jian-Woon Chen, Wah-Seng See-Too, Choo-Yee Yu, Geik-Yong Ang, Yan Lue Lim, Wai-Fong Yin, Catherine Grandclément, Denis Faure, Yves Dessaux, Kok-Gan Chan
Root exudates are chemical compounds that are released from living plant roots and provide significant energy, carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus sources for microbes inhabiting the rhizosphere. The exudates shape the microflora associated with the plant, as well as influences the plant health and productivity. Therefore, a better understanding of the trophic link that is established between the plant and the associated bacteria is necessary. In this study, a comprehensive survey on the utilization of grapevine and rootstock related organic acids were conducted on a vineyard soil isolate which is Pseudomonas mendocina strain S5...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651317/effects-of-multi-environmental-factors-on-physiological-and-biochemical-responses-of-large-yellow-croaker-larimichthys-crocea
#15
Qian-Feng Wang, Wei-Liang Shen, Cheng Liu, Dan-Li Mu, Xiong-Fei Wu, Nian-Gang Guo, Jun-Quan Zhu
Land-based recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) and cage culture are important methods of Larimichthys crocea production. The effects of environmental factors on physiological and biochemical aspects of L. crocea require clarification. Temperature and salinity are controlled in RAS and directly affect L. crocea growth and survival. To explore optimal parameters, the oxygen consumption rate (RO), ammonium excretion rate (RN), and O/N ratio at different temperatures (8, 14, 20, 26, and 32 °C) and salinities (5, 15, 25, and 35‰) were determined...
June 13, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650885/aggressive-imaging-features-in-a-malignant-pheochromocytoma-with-a-novel-mutation-of-the-sdhb-gene
#16
Soon-Ah Park, Dae Ho Lee, Hun Soo Kim
We describe a 15-year-old boy with a huge bilateral adrenal pheochromocytoma that had a de novo germline mutation in the succinate dehydrogenase subunit B (SDHB) gene. F-FDG PET/CT revealed bilateral metabolically active large masses in the adrenal glands and the activated brown adipose tissues. The I-MIBG scintigraphic findings revealed only a mild accumulation of MIBG in the right adrenal mass, but a high uptake in the left adrenal mass. Thus, F-FDG PET/CT imaging may be more effective than I-MIBG scintigraphy for the evaluation of pheochromocytomas that are associated with highly malignant characteristics resulting from mutations of the SDHB gene...
June 24, 2017: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649510/targeted-screening-of-succinic-semialdehyde-dehydrogenase-deficiency-ssadhd-employing-an-enzymatic-assay-for-%C3%AE-hydroxybutyric-acid-ghb-in-biofluids
#17
C Wernli, S Finochiaro, C Volken, H Andresen-Streichert, A Buettler, D Gygax, G S Salomons, E E Jansen, G R Ainslie, K R Vogel, K M Gibson
HYPOTHESIS: An enzymatic assay for quantification of γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) in biofluids can be employed for targeted screening of succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency (SSADHD) in selected populations. RATIONALE: We used a two-tiered study approach, in which the first study (proof of concept) examined 7 urine samples derived from patients with SSADHD and 5 controls, and the second study (feasibility study) examined a broader sample population of patients and controls, including plasma...
June 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646318/primary-renal-paragangliomas-and-renal-neoplasia-associated-with-pheochromocytoma-paraganglioma-analysis-of-von-hippel-lindau-vhl-succinate-dehydrogenase-sdhx-and-transmembrane-protein-127-tmem127
#18
Sounak Gupta, Jun Zhang, Dragana Milosevic, John R Mills, Stefan K Grebe, Steven C Smith, Lori A Erickson
Alterations of von Hippel-Lindau (VHL), succinate dehydrogenase (SDHX), and TMEM127 have been associated with the development of pheochromocytomas (PCs) and paragangliomas (PGLs) and are also associated with the development of renal neoplasms. This study involved 2 primary renal PGL and 12 cases of PC/PGL with associated renal neoplasia with a mean follow up of 74 months. Germline VHL and SDHX mutation status was obtained from the medical record. Immunohistochemistry for SDHB and mutation analysis for TMEM127 was performed, in addition to analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas datasets for SDHX and TMEM127 mutated renal cell carcinomas (RCCs)...
June 23, 2017: Endocrine Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646182/high-intensity-interval-training-improves-mitochondrial-function-and-suppresses-thrombin-generation-in-platelets-undergoing-hypoxic-stress
#19
Li-Hua Wu, Shao-Chiang Chang, Tieh-Cheng Fu, Ching-Hui Huang, Jong-Shyan Wang
This study elucidates how high-intensity interval training (HIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MCT) affect mitochondrial functionality and thrombin generation (TG) in platelets following hypoxic exercise (HE, 100 W under 12% O2 for 30 min). Forty-five healthy sedentary males were randomized to engage either HIT (3-minute intervals at 40% and 80%VO2max, n = 15) or MCT (sustained 60%VO2max, n = 15) for 30 minutes/day, 5 days/week for 6 weeks, or to a control group (CTL, n = 15) that did not received exercise intervention...
June 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640743/glucose-consumption-in-carbohydrate-mixtures-by-phosphotransferase-system-mutants-of-escherichia-coli
#20
Tian Xia, Neeraj Sriram, Sarah A Lee, Ronni Altman, Jeffrey L Urbauer, Elliot Altman, Mark A Eiteman
Escherichia coli lacking the glucose phosphotransferase system (PTS), mannose PTS and glucokinase are supposedly unable to grow on glucose as the sole carbon source (Curtis SJ, Epstein W. J Bacteriol 1975;122:1189-1199). We report that W ptsG manZ glk (ALS1406) grows slowly on glucose in media containing glucose with a second carbon source: ALS1406 metabolizes glucose after that other carbon source, including arabinose, fructose, glycerol, succinate or xylose, is exhausted. Galactose is an exception to this rule, as ALS1406 simultaneously consumes both galactose and glucose...
June 22, 2017: Microbiology
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