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Succinate dehydrogenase

S M Plummer, J Wright, R A Currie
An increased incidence of liver tumours in the long term rodent bioassay is not an uncommon finding, invariably as a result of a non-genotoxic mode of action. Non-genotoxic liver carcinogenesis has been found to involve activation of certain nuclear hormone receptors (NHR) including the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) and arylhydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and more recently the induction of specific microRNAs (miRs), has also been demonstrated following CAR activation in studies up to 90 days (Koufaris et al...
2018: Toxicology Reports
Konstantinos Feidantsis, Hans O Pörtner, Elisavet Vlachonikola, Efthimia Antonopoulou, Basile Michaelidis
Seasonal temperature changes may take organisms to the upper and lower limit of their thermal range, with respective variations in their biochemical and metabolic profile. To elucidate these traits, we investigated metabolic and antioxidant patterns in tissues of sea bream Sparus aurata during seasonal acclimatization for 1 yr in the field. Metabolic patterns were assessed by determining lactate dehydrogenase, citrate synthase, and β-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase activities, their kinetic properties and plasma levels of glucose, lactate, and triglycerides and tissue succinate levels...
May 2018: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
Ye Jianwen, Hu Dingkai, Che Xuemei, Jiang Xiaoran, Li Teng, Chen Jinchun, Zhang Haoqian, Chen Guo-Qiang
Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) [P(3HB-co-4HB)] is one of the most promising biomaterials expected to be used in a wide range of scenarios. However, its large-scale production is still hindered by the high cost. Here we report the engineering of Halomonas bluephagenesis as a low-cost platform for non-sterile and continuous fermentative production of P(3HB-co-4HB) from glucose. Two interrelated 4-hydroxybutyrate (4HB) biosynthesis pathways were constructed to guarantee 4HB monomer supply for P(3HB-co-4HB) synthesis by working in concert with 3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB) pathway...
March 15, 2018: Metabolic Engineering
Yuzhi Zuo, Xiaoxin Li, Xingcheng Wu, Jing Zhou, Jianyi Wang, Jing Wang, Zhihong Wu, Hanzhong Li, Xuebin Zhang
Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGLs) are rare autosomal dominant disorders derived from the neural crest chromaffin tissuesof the autonomic nervous system. The succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit D (SDHD) gene has been implicated as one of the pathogenic genes. Although more than 100 SDHD mutations have been reported, the phenotype-genotype association remains unclear. Here we reported a case of a patient who presented with multifocal PPGLs and with a rare SDHD mutation. It is the first report linking this variant to multifocal PPGLs...
March 12, 2018: Urology
Ciqiong Chen, Li Long, Fusheng Zhang, Qin Chen, Cheng Chen, Xiaorui Yu, Qingya Liu, Jinku Bao, Zhangfu Long
Curcuma longa possesses powerful antifungal activity, as demonstrated in many studies. In this study, the antifungal spectrum of Curcuma longa alcohol extract was determined, and the resulting EC50 values (mg/mL) of its extract on eleven fungi, including Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium chlamydosporum, Alternaria alternate, Fusarium tricinctum, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Botrytis cinerea, Fusarium culmorum, Rhizopus oryzae, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Fusarium oxysporum and Colletotrichum higginsianum, were 0...
2018: PloS One
Long-Long Li, Dian Wang, Chong-Yang Ge, Lei Yu, Jin-Long Zhao, Hai-Tian Ma
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) possesses fat-reducing effect, while little information is available on whether DHEA regulates cell proliferation and mitochondrial function, which would, in turn, affect lipid droplet accumulation in broiler. In this study, the lipid droplet accumulation, cell proliferation, cell cycle and mitochondrial membrane potential were analysis in primary chicken hepatocytes treated with DHEA. The results showed that total area and counts of lipid droplet were significantly decreased in hepatocytes after DHEA treated...
March 12, 2018: Physiological Research
Susana Gonzalez, Thozhukat Sathyapalan, Zeeshan Javed, Stephen L Atkin
Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of growth hormone therapy (rGH) on mitochondrial function on peripheral muscle and to correlate with exercise capacity in subjects with severe adult growth hormone deficiency (GHD). Design: Six months, double-blind, randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled trial of subcutaneous rGH in 17 patients with GHD. Measurements: Quadriceps muscle biopsies were obtained at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months to measure succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) to assess mitochondrial activity...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Maria S Yusseppone, Iara Rocchetta, Sebastian E Sabatini, Carlos M Luquet, Maria Del Carmen Ríos de Molina, Christoph Held, Doris Abele
Hypoxia in freshwater ecosystems is spreading as a consequence of global change, including pollution and eutrophication. In the Patagonian Andes, a decline in precipitation causes reduced lake water volumes and stagnant conditions that limit oxygen transport and exacerbate hypoxia below the upper mixed layer. We analyzed the molecular and biochemical response of the North Patagonian bivalve Diplodon chilensis after 10 days of experimental anoxia (<0.2 mg O2 /L), hypoxia (2 mg O2 /L), and normoxia (9 mg O2 /L)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Cheng-Ju Kuo, Sin-Tian Wang, Chia-Mei Lin, Hao-Chieh Chiu, Cheng-Rung Huang, Der-Yen Lee, Geen-Dong Chang, Ting-Chen Chou, Jenn-Wei Chen, Chang-Shi Chen
The enteric pathogen enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is responsible for outbreaks of bloody diarrhea and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) worldwide. Several molecular mechanisms have been described for the pathogenicity of EHEC; however, the role of bacterial metabolism in the virulence of EHEC during infection in vivo remains unclear. Here we show that aerobic metabolism plays an important role in the regulation of EHEC virulence in Caenorhabditis elegans. Our functional genomic analyses showed that disruption of the genes encoding the succinate dehydrogenase complex (Sdh) of EHEC, including the sdhA gene, attenuated its toxicity toward C...
March 7, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Megan J Maher, Anuradha S Herath, Saumya R Udagedara, David A Dougan, Kaye N Truscott
Succinate:quinone oxidoreductase (SQR) functions in energy metabolism, coupling the tricarboxylic acid cycle and electron transport chain in bacteria and mitochondria. The biogenesis of flavinylated SdhA, the catalytic subunit of SQR, is assisted by a highly conserved assembly factor termed SdhE in bacteria via an unknown mechanism. By using X-ray crystallography, we have solved the structure of Escherichia coli SdhE in complex with SdhA to 2.15-Å resolution. Our structure shows that SdhE makes a direct interaction with the flavin adenine dinucleotide-linked residue His45 in SdhA and maintains the capping domain of SdhA in an "open" conformation...
March 7, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
ZunGuo Du, XiuJuan Liu, Tao Chen, WenChao Gao, ZhengMing Wu, ZhiQian Hu, Dong Wei, ChunFang Gao, QingQuan Li
A major obstacle for successful management of patients with colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is resistance to anti-cancer cytotoxic treatments. Here, we identified a mechanism of multidrug resistance in wild-type Kras CRCs based on the survival of a cell subpopulation characterized by Sirt5 expression. Sirt5+ cells in wild-type Kras CRCs are resistant to either chemotherapeutic agents or cetuximab and serve as a reservoir for recurrence. Sirt5 demalonylates and inactivates succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit A (SDHA), leading to an accumulation of the oncometabolite succinate...
March 6, 2018: Cell Reports
Makoto Ohtake, Kensuke Tateishi, Hidetoshi Murata, Yoji Nagashima, Shoji Yamanaka, Tetsuya Yamamoto
BACKGROUND: Paragangliomas are generally benign, slow-growing tumors. However, approximately 10-20% are malignant, characterized by distant metastasis. Recently, a germline mutation in succinate dehydrogenase B subunit (SDHB) has been shown to be associated with malignant behavior in paraganglioma. Herein, we present a case of SDHB-negative malignant paraganglioma of the jugular foramen with pseudo-hypoxic microenvironment and unique imaging features on [18 F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography ([18 F]-FDG PET), and discuss the significance of SDHB immunohistochemistry and the potential of [18 F]-FDG PET for clinical management...
March 3, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Anthony A Duplanty, Robert W Siggins, Timothy Allerton, Liz Simon, Patricia E Molina
Work from our group demonstrated that chronic binge alcohol (CBA)-induces mitochondrial gene dysregulation at end-stage disease of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection in antiretroviral therapy (ART) naïve rhesus macaques. Alterations in gene expression can disrupt mitochondrial homeostasis and in turn contribute to the risk of metabolic comorbidities characterized by loss of skeletal muscle (SKM) functional mass that are associated with CBA, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and prolonged ART...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
Ioannis F Kalampokis, George C Kapetanakis, Konstantinos A Aliferis, George Diallinas
The development of fungicide-resistant fungal populations represents a major challenge for the agrochemical and agri-food sectors, which threatens food supply and security. The issue becomes complex for fungi that cause quantitative and qualitative losses due to mycotoxin biosynthesis. Nonetheless, currently, the molecular details underlying fungicide action and fungal resistance mechanisms are partially known. Here, we have investigated whether plasma membrane transporters contribute to specific fungicide uptake in the model fungus Aspergillus nidulans...
February 28, 2018: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
Amy L Dimachkieh, Allison Dobbie, Damon R Olson, Mark A Lovell, Jeremy D Prager
OBJECTIVE: To review tracheal paragangliomas and describe the clinical presentation, radiologic findings, operative management, and histologic findings of a pediatric patient who presented with stridor refractory to traditional asthma therapy. METHODS: Chart review of an 8-year-old male who presented to a tertiary care pediatric hospital and literature review of tracheal paragangliomas. RESULTS: We present the case of an 8-year-old male who presented with new-onset of wheezing and dyspnea on exertion...
April 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Chung Thong Lim, Márta Korbonits
Pituitary adenomas are the third most common central nervous system tumours and arise from the anterior pituitary within the pituitary fossa. The signs and symptoms of patients with pituitary adenomas vary from 'mass effects' caused by a large adenoma to features secondary to excess pituitary hormones produced by the functioning pituitary adenoma. Detailed histopathological assessment, based on novel classifications and the latest WHO guidelines, helps to categorise pituitary adenomas into different subtypes and identify features that, in some cases, help to predict their behaviour...
March 2, 2018: Endocrine Practice
Zvonimir Marelja, Silke Leimkühler, Fanis Missirlis
Iron sulfur (Fe-S) clusters and the molybdenum cofactor (Moco) are present at enzyme sites, where the active metal facilitates electron transfer. Such enzyme systems are soluble in the mitochondrial matrix, cytosol and nucleus, or embedded in the inner mitochondrial membrane, but virtually absent from the cell secretory pathway. They are of ancient evolutionary origin supporting respiration, DNA replication, transcription, translation, the biosynthesis of steroids, heme, catabolism of purines, hydroxylation of xenobiotics, and cellular sulfur metabolism...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Yi-Ping Hou, Xue-Wei Mao, Shi-Peng Lin, Xiu-Shi Song, Ya-Bing Duan, Jian-Xin Wang, Ming-Guo Zhou
Pyraziflumid is a novel member of succinate dehydrogenase inhibitor fungicides (SDHI). In this study, baseline sensitivity of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary to pyraziflumid was determined using 105 strains collected during 2015 and 2017 from different geographical regions in Jiangsu Province of China, and the average EC50 value was 0.0561 (±0.0263)μg/ml for mycelial growth. There was no cross-resistance between pyraziflumid and the widely used fungicides carbendazim, dimethachlon and the phenylpyrrole fungicide fludioxonil...
February 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Claudine M Kraan, Kim M Cornish, Quang M Bui, Xin Li, Howard R Slater, David E Godler
Relationships between Fragile X Mental Retardation 1 (FMR1) mRNA levels in blood and intragenic FMR1 CGG triplet expansions support the pathogenic role of RNA gain of function toxicity in premutation (PM: 55-199 CGGs) related disorders. Real-time PCR (RT-PCR) studies reporting these findings normalised FMR1 mRNA level to a single internal control gene called β-glucuronidase (GUS). This study evaluated FMR1 mRNA-CGG correlations in 33 PM and 33 age- and IQ-matched control females using three normalisation strategies in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs): (i) GUS as a single internal control; (ii) the mean of GUS, Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 4A2 (EIF4A2) and succinate dehydrogenase complex flavoprotein subunit A (SDHA); and (iii) the mean of EIF4A2 and SDHA (with no contribution from GUS)...
2018: PloS One
S Ramlugon, R-A Levendal, C L Frost
The objectives of this paper is to investigate, demonstrate, and compare the mechanism of action of phytocannabinoids as antidiabetic and anti-obesity agents in preadipocytes and adipocytes, relative to rosiglitazone and metformin. Briefly, cannabis extract, Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol (in very low dosages) were shown to promote glucose uptake higher or to equivalent levels, reduce fat accumulation, and reverse the insulin-resistant state of 3T3-L1 cells more effectively, relative to rosiglitazone and metformin...
February 21, 2018: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
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