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Succinate dehydrogenase

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163802/evaluation-of-somatostatin-cxcr4-chemokine-and-endothelin-a-receptor-expression-in-a-large-set-of-paragangliomas
#1
Daniel Kaemmerer, Jörg Sänger, Ruza Arsenic, Jan G D'Haese, Jens Neumann, Annette Schmitt-Graeff, Ralph Markus Wirtz, Stefan Schulz, Amelie Lupp
Paragangliomas are predominantly benign tumors, but in some cases invasive growth and also metastasis are observed. Given the limited number of nonsurgical treatment options, novel target structures for diagnostics and therapy of this tumor entity are urgently needed. In the present study, expression of all five somatostatin receptor (SST) subtypes, chemokine receptor CXCR4 and endothelin receptor type A (ETA) was assessed by means of immunohistochemistry in a total of 66 paraffin-embedded paraganglioma samples from 55 patients...
October 27, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162555/11%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-1-deficiency-alters-brain-energy-metabolism-in-acute-systemic-inflammation
#2
Manu Verma, Tiina M J Kipari, Zhenguang Zhang, Tak Yung Man, Thorsten Forster, Natalie Z M Homer, Jonathan R Seckl, Megan C Holmes, Karen E Chapman
Chronically elevated glucocorticoid levels impair cognition and are pro-inflammatory in the brain. Deficiency or inhibition of 11 β -hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type-1 (11 β -HSD1), which converts inactive into active glucocorticoids, protects against glucocorticoid-associated chronic stress- or age-related cognitive impairment. Here, we hypothesised that 11 β -HSD1 deficiency attenuates the brain cytokine response to inflammation. Because inflammation is associated with altered energy metabolism, we also examined the effects of 11 β -HSD1 deficiency upon hippocampal energy metabolism...
November 18, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158345/stable-oxidative-cytosine-modifications-accumulate-in-cardiac-mesenchymal-cells-from-type2-diabetes-patients-rescue-by-alpha-ketoglutarate-and-tet-tdg-functional-reactivation
#3
Francesco Spallotta, Chiara Cencioni, Sandra Atlante, Davide Garella, Mattia Cocco, Mattia Mori, Raffaella Mastrocola, Carsten Künne, Stefan Günther, Simona Nanni, Valerio Azzimato, Sven Zukunft, Angela Kornberger, Duran Sueruen, Frank Schnutgen, Harald von Melchner, Antonella Di Stilo, Manuela Aragno, Maarten Braspenning, Wim Van Criekinge, Miles J De Blasio, Rebecca H Ritchie, Germana Zaccagnini, Fabio Martelli, Antonella Farsetti, Ingrid Fleming, Thomas Braun, Andres Beiras-Fernandez, Bruno Botta, Massimo Collino, Massimo Bertinaria, Andreas M Zeiher, Carlo Gaetano
Rationale: Human cardiac mesenchymal cells (CMSCs) are a therapeutically-relevant primary cell population. Diabetes compromises CMSC function as consequence of metabolic alterations and incorporation of stable epigenetic changes. Objective: To investigate the role of α-ketoglutarate (αKG) in the epi-metabolic control of DNA demethylation in CMSCs. Methods and Results: Quantitative global analysis, methylated and hydroxymethylated DNA sequencing and gene specific GC methylation detection revealed an accumulation of 5mC, 5hmC and 5fC in the genomic DNA of human CMSCs isolated from diabetic (D) donors (D-CMSCs)...
November 20, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157600/receptor-structure-based-discovery-of-non-metabolite-agonists-for-the-succinate-receptor-gpr91
#4
Mette Trauelsen, Elisabeth Rexen Ulven, Siv A Hjorth, Matjaz Brvar, Claudia Monaco, Thomas M Frimurer, Thue W Schwartz
OBJECTIVE: Besides functioning as an intracellular metabolite, succinate acts as a stress-induced extracellular signal through activation of GPR91 (SUCNR1) for which we lack suitable pharmacological tools. METHODS AND RESULTS: Here we first determined that the cis conformation of the succinate backbone is preferred and that certain backbone modifications are allowed for GPR91 activation. Through receptor modeling over the X-ray structure of the closely related P2Y1 receptor, we discovered that the binding pocket is partly occupied by a segment of an extracellular loop and that succinate therefore binds in a very different mode than generally believed...
December 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151860/dose-dependent-selection-drives-lineage-replacement-during-the-experimental-evolution-of-sdhi-fungicide-resistance-in-zymoseptoria%C3%A2-tritici
#5
Omar Gutiérrez-Alonso, Nichola J Hawkins, Hans J Cools, Michael W Shaw, Bart A Fraaije
Fungicide resistance is a constant threat to agricultural production worldwide. Molecular mechanisms of fungicide resistance have been studied extensively in the wheat pathogen Zymoseptoria tritici. However, less is known about the evolutionary processes driving resistance development. In vitro evolutionary studies give the opportunity to investigate this. Here, we examine the adaptation of Z. tritici to fluxapyroxad, a succinate dehydrogenase (Sdh) inhibitor. Replicate populations of Z. tritici derived from the sensitive isolate IPO323 were exposed to increasing concentrations of fluxapyroxad with or without UV mutagenesis...
December 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144820/pheochromocytoma-a-genetic-and-diagnostic-update
#6
Leilani B Mercado-Asis, Katherine I Wolf, Ivana Jochmanova, David Taïeb
OBJECTIVE: Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) are neuroendocrine tumors derived from adrenal or extra-adrenal locations, respectively. Upon suspicion of PPGL, specific metabolomic, molecular, biochemical, imaging, and histopathological studies are performed to prove, localize, treat, and monitor disease progression. Recently, improved diagnostic tools allow physicians to accurately diagnose PPGL, even in patients presenting with small (less than 1 cm) or biochemically silent tumors, which previously delayed proper detection and treatment...
November 16, 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144179/effects-of-active-immunization-against-akirin2-on-muscle-fiber-type-composition-in-pigs
#7
Xiaoling Chen, Yafei Guo, Gang Jia, Hua Zhao, Guangmang Liu, Zhiqing Huang
The objective of this study was to investigate effects of active immunization against Akirin2 on muscle fiber-type composition in pigs. Here we showed that the titer of Akirin2 antibody in pigs immunized with porcine Akirin2 (pAkirin2) was significantly increased. Active immunization against pAkirin2 decreased succinic dehydrogenase and malate dehydrogenase activities and increased lactate dehydrogenase activity in the longissimus dorsi muscle of pigs. Active immunization against pAkirin2 significantly decreased MyHC I and MyHC IIa mRNA expressions and MyHC I protein expression and increased mRNA expressions of MyHC IIb as well as protein expressions of MyHC IIb and fast-MyHC...
November 16, 2017: Animal Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142828/metabolic-engineering-of-ustilago-trichophora-tz1-for-improved-malic-acid-production
#8
Thiemo Zambanini, Hamed Hosseinpour Tehrani, Elena Geiser, Christiane K Sonntag, Joerg M Buescher, Guido Meurer, Nick Wierckx, Lars M Blank
Ustilago trichophora RK089 has been found recently as a good natural malic acid producer from glycerol. This strain has previously undergone adaptive laboratory evolution for enhanced substrate uptake rate resulting in the strain U. trichophora TZ1. Medium optimization and investigation of process parameters enabled titers and rates that are able to compete with those of organisms overexpressing major parts of the underlying metabolic pathways. Metabolic engineering can likely further increase the efficiency of malate production by this organism, provided that basic genetic tools and methods can be established for this rarely used and relatively obscure species...
June 2017: Metabolic Engineering Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138850/role-of-mitochondrial-function-in-the-invasiveness-of-human-colon-cancer-cells
#9
Chen-Sung Lin, Li-Tzu Liu, Liang-Hung Ou, Siao-Cian Pan, Chia-I Lin, Yau-Huei Wei
We investigated the role of mitochondrial function in the invasiveness of human colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines, using paired primary SW480 and metastatic SW620 cells, and appraised the clinical relevance of the alteration of mtDNA copy number in 33 pairs of CRC specimens after surgical resection. Suppression of mitochondrial function was achieved by the exposure of cells to oligomycin A (OA) or by knockdown of mitochondrial transcriptional factor A (TFAM) to evaluate their effects on energy metabolism, reactive oxygen species, protein expression levels of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers and invasive activity of CRC cells...
November 9, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137485/heat-stress-prevents-the-decrease-in-succinate-dehydrogenase-activity-in-the-extensor-digitorum-longus-of-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#10
K Nonaka, S Une, M Komatsu, R Yamaji, J Akiyama
This study aimed to investigate whether heat stress (HS) prevents a decrease in succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity and heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) and superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) contents in the extensor digitorum longus of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Twelve-week-old male Wistar rats were assigned to one of the four groups (n=6/group): control (Con), HS, diabetes mellitus (DM), and diabetes mellitus and heat stress (DM+HS). Diabetes was induced by the administration of STZ (50 mg/kg)...
November 10, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133896/the-food-borne-pathogen-campylobacter-jejuni-responds-to-the-bile-salt-deoxycholate-with-countermeasures-to-reactive-oxygen-species
#11
Nicholas M Negretti, Christopher R Gourley, Geremy Clair, Joshua N Adkins, Michael E Konkel
Bile plays an important role in digestion, absorption of fats, and the excretion of waste products, while concurrently providing a critical barrier against colonization by harmful bacteria. Previous studies have demonstrated that gut pathogens react to bile by adapting their protein synthesis. The ability of pathogens to respond to bile is remarkably complex and still incompletely understood. Here we show that Campylobacter jejuni, a leading bacterial cause of human diarrheal illness worldwide, responds to deoxycholate, a component of bile, by altering global gene transcription in a manner consistent with a strategy to mitigate exposure to reactive oxygen stress...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133864/effects-of-microgravity-on-osteoblast-mitochondria-a-proteomic-and-metabolomics-profile
#12
Anna Michaletti, Magda Gioia, Umberto Tarantino, Lello Zolla
The response of human primary osteoblasts exposed to simulated microgravity has been investigated and analysis of metabolomic and proteomic profiles demonstrated a prominent dysregulation of mitochondrion homeostasis. Gravitational unloading treatment induced a decrease in mitochondrial proteins, mainly affecting efficiency of the respiratory chain. Metabolomic analysis revealed that microgravity influenced several metabolic pathways; stimulating glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathways, while the Krebs cycle was interrupted at succinate-fumarate transformation...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126304/sdhc-promoter-methylation-a-novel-pathogenic-mechanism-in-parasympathetic-paragangliomas
#13
Cristóbal Bernardo-Castiñeira, Nuria Valdés, Marta I Sierra, Inés Sáenz-de-Santa-María, Gustavo F Bayón, Raúl F Perez, Agustín F Fernández, Mario F Fraga, Aurora Astudillo, Rafael Menéndez, Belén Fernández, Maribel Del Olmo, Carlos Suarez, María-Dolores Chiara
Context: Germline mutations in the succinate dehydrogenase A, B, C, and D genes (collectively, SDHx) predispose to the development of paragangliomas (PGLs) arising at the parasympathetic or sympathetic neuroendocrine systems. SDHx mutations cause absence of tumoral immunostaining for SDHB. However, negative SDHB-immunostaining has also been found in a subset of PGLs that lack SDHx mutations. Settings: Here, we report the comprehensive molecular characterization of one such a tumor of parasympathetic origin compared with healthy paraganglia and other PGLs with or without SDHx mutations...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122174/differential-gene-expression-profiling-analysis-in-pleurotus-ostreatus-during-interspecific-antagonistic-interactions-with-dichomitus-squalens-and-trametes-versicolor
#14
Zixuan Zhong, Liu Li, Peng Chang, Haiying Xie, Huiting Zhang, Yasuo Igarashi, Nannan Li, Feng Luo
This study provided analysis of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in Pleurotus ostreatus under the interaction with Dichomitus squalens and Trametes versicolor, which is valuable for exploration on the fungal defence system against stressful condition caused by interspecific antagonistic interaction. Our result showed significant upregulation of abundant defence-related genes encoding laccase, manganese peroxidase, aldo-keto reductase, and glutathione S-transferase, which all play important roles in oxidative stress-resistant response...
December 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119535/mitochondria-bound-hexokinase-mt-hk-activity-differ-in-cortical-and-hypothalamic-synaptosomes-differential-role-of-mt-hk-in-h2o2-depuration
#15
João Paulo Cavalcanti-de-Albuquerque, Eduardo de Souza Ferreira, Denise Pires de Carvalho, Antonio Galina
Glucose and oxygen are vital for the brain, as these molecules provide energy and metabolic intermediates that are necessary for cell function. The glycolysis pathway and mitochondria play a pivotal role in cell energy metabolism, which is closely related to reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Hexokinase (HK) is a key enzyme involved in glucose metabolism that modulates the level of brain mitochondrial ROS by recycling ADP for oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos). Here, we hypothesize that the control of mitochondrial metabolism by hexokinase differs in distinct areas of the brain, such as the cortex and hypothalamus, in which ROS might function as signaling molecules...
November 8, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117221/validation-of-pathological-grading-systems-for-predicting-metastatic-potential-in-pheochromocytoma-and-paraganglioma
#16
Jung-Min Koh, Seong Hee Ahn, Hyeonmok Kim, Beom-Jun Kim, Tae-Yon Sung, Young Hoon Kim, Suck Joon Hong, Dong Eun Song, Seung Hun Lee
PURPOSE: The Grading system for Adrenal Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma (GAPP) was proposed for predicting the metastatic potential of pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma to overcome the limitations of the Pheochromocytoma of the Adrenal Scaled Score (PASS). However, to date, no study validating the GAPP has been conducted, and previous studies did not include mutations in the succinate dehydrogenase type B (SDHB) gene in the score calculation. In this retrospective cohort study, we validated the prediction ability of GAPP and assessed whether it would be improved by inclusion of the loss of SDHB immunohistochemical staining...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116682/flavin-n5-covalent-intermediate-in-the-non-redox-dehalogenation-reaction-catalyzed-by-an-atypical-flavoenzyme
#17
Yumin Dai, Karina Kizjakina, Ashley C Campbell, David A Korasick, John J Tanner, Pablo Sobrado
The flavin-dependent enzyme 2-haloacrylate hydratase (2-HAH) catalyzes the conversion of 2-chloroacrylate, a major component in the manufacture of acrylic polymers, to pyruvate. The enzyme from has been expressed in Escherichia coli, purified, and characterized. 2-HAH is monomeric in solution and contains a non-covalent, yet tightly bound, FAD. Although the reaction catalyzed is redox neutral, 2-HAH is active only in the reduced state. A covalent flavin-substrate intermediate, consistent with the flavin-acrylate iminium ion, was trapped with cyanoborohydride and characterized by mass spectrometry...
November 8, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095973/antimicrobial-activity-and-mechanism-of-larch-bark-procyanidins-against-staphylococcus-aureus
#18
Xinchao Li, Congfen He, Liya Song, Ting Li, Shumei Cui, Liping Zhang, Yan Jia
Larch bark procyanidins (LBPC) have not only antioxidant and antitumor properties, but also strong bacteriostatic effects. However, it is not clear about the antibacterial mechanisms of LBPC. In this work, the antibacterial effects and mechanisms of LBPC on Staphylococcus aureus were studied in the aspects of morphological structure, cell wall and membrane, essential proteins, and genetic material. The results showed that LBPC effectively inhibited bacterial growth at a minimum inhibitory concentration of 1...
October 31, 2017: Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091925/insight-into-cordycepin-biosynthesis-of-cordyceps-militaris-comparison-between-a-liquid-surface-culture-and-a-submerged-culture-through-transcriptomic-analysis
#19
Ahmad Suparmin, Tatsuya Kato, Hideo Dohra, Enoch Y Park
Cordyceps militaris produces cordycepin, which is known to be a bioactive compound. Currently, cordycepin hyperproduction of C. militaris was carried out in a liquid surface culture because of its low productivity in a submerged culture, however the reason was not known. In this study, 4.92 g/L of cordycepin was produced at the 15th day of C. militaris NBRC 103752 liquid surface culture, but only 1 mg/L was produced in the submerged culture. RNA-Seq was used to clarify the gene expression profiles of the cordycepin biosynthetic pathways of the submerged culture and the liquid surface culture...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090117/modern-pathologic-diagnosis-of-renal-oncocytoma
#20
REVIEW
Sara E Wobker, Sean R Williamson
Oncocytoma is a well-defined benign renal tumor, with classic gross and histologic features, including a tan or mahogany-colored mass with central scar, microscopic nested architecture, bland cytology, and round, regular nuclei with prominent central nucleoli. As a result of variations in this classic appearance, difficulty in standardizing diagnostic criteria, and entities that mimic oncocytoma, such as eosinophilic variant chromophobe renal cell carcinoma and succinate dehydrogenase-deficient renal cell carcinoma, pathologic diagnosis remains a challenge...
2017: Journal of Kidney Cancer and VHL
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