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Lauren E Kelly, Lauren M Jansson, Wendy Moulsdale, Jodi Pereira, Sarah Simpson, Astrid Guttman, Karel Allegaert, Lisa Askie, Henry Roukema, Thierry Lacaze, Jonathan M Davis, Loretta Finnegan, Paula Williamson, Martin Offringa
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is increasing globally resulting in an increased incidence of adverse neonatal outcomes and health system costs. Evidence regarding the effectiveness of NAS prevention and management strategies is very weak and further research initiatives are critically needed to support meta-analysis and clinical practice guidelines. In NAS research, the choice of outcomes and the use of valid, responsive and feasible measurement instruments are crucial...
November 8, 2016: Trials
Kevin C Rose, Craig E Williamson, Carrie E H Kissman, Jasmine E Saros
Ecosystems are subsidized with inputs of mass and energy from their surroundings. These allochthonous inputs regulate many ecosystem characteristics. In inland waters, terrestrial inputs of organic matter regulate food-web structure, ecosystem metabolism, water clarity, and thermal stratification. Future changes in allochthony may be especially pronounced in high-elevation ecosystems due to increases in vegetation and precipitation associated with climate change. Several techniques exist to characterize the degree of allochthony of organic matter in aquatic systems, including metrics such as ΔH, the net isotopic discrimination between water and particulate organic matter (POM) of deuterium stable isotopes, and the fluorescence index (FI), which characterizes the fluorescence of dissolved organic matter (DOM)...
December 2015: Ecology
C N Jayasena, A Abbara, C Izzi-Engbeaya, A N Comninos, R A Harvey, J Gonzalez Maffe, Z Sarang, Z Ganiyu-Dada, A I Padilha, M Dhanjal, C Williamson, L Regan, M A Ghatei, S R Bloom, W S Dhillo
CONTEXT: Kisspeptin is a recently identified hormone encoded by the KISS1 gene, playing a critical role in human reproduction. Plasma kisspeptin levels rise dramatically during normal pregnancy due to placental synthesis, which implicates it as a potential tool for assessing risks of pregnancy complications. No previous prospective study has investigated the association between plasma kisspeptin and risk of miscarriage. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to determine whether a single plasma kisspeptin or serum human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) measurement in asymptomatic women attending their booking antenatal visit is associated with miscarriage...
December 2014: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
S Dupuis, J-A Amiel, M Desgroseilliers, D R Williamson, Z Thiboutot, K Serri, M M Perreault, P Marsolais, A J Frenette
Summary Current guidelines recommend the administration of hormonal combination therapy including immunosuppressive doses of corticosteroids to donors with low left ventricular ejection fractions and to consider hormonal therapy administration to all donors. However, these recommendations are largely based on observational data. The aim of this systematic review (SR) was to assess the clinical efficacy and safety of corticosteroids in brain-dead potential organ donors. MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched from the earliest accessible date up to March 2013 with a qualified librarian...
September 2014: British Journal of Anaesthesia
D V Sunitha, H Nagabhushana, S C Sharma, B M Nagabhushana, B Daruka Prasad, R P S Chakradhar
A series of Dy(3+) (1-5mol.%) activated Sr2SiO4 nanophosphors were prepared by low temperature solution combustion method using oxalyl dihydrazide (ODH) as a fuel. The obtained phosphor was well characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and UV-visible spectroscopy. The average crystallite sizes were estimated by Debye-Scherrer formula and Williamson-Hall plots and found to be in the range 20-32nm. Energy band gap was found to be widened with increase of Dy(3+) ion dopant. Photoluminescence spectra consist of three main groups of peaks in 460-500nm (blue), 555-610nm (yellow) and 677nm (red) respectively...
June 5, 2014: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Stephen P Foster, Verity L Paul, Russell Slater, Anne Warren, Ian Denholm, Linda M Field, Martin S Williamson
BACKGROUND: The grain aphid, Sitobion avenae Fabricius (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is an important pest of cereal crops. Pesticides are the main method for control but carry the risk of selecting for resistance. In response to reports of reduced efficacy of pyrethroid sprays applied to S. avenae, field samples were collected and screened for mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel, the primary target site for pyrethroids. Aphid mobility and mortality to lambda-cyhalothrin were measured in coated glass vial bioassays...
August 2014: Pest Management Science
P Gringras, C Gamble, A P Jones, L Wiggs, P R Williamson, A Sutcliffe, P Montgomery, W P Whitehouse, I Choonara, T Allport, A Edmond, R Appleton
OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness and safety of melatonin in treating severe sleep problems in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. DESIGN: 12 week double masked randomised placebo controlled phase III trial. SETTING: 19 hospitals across England and Wales. PARTICIPANTS: 146 children aged 3 years to 15 years 8 months were randomised. They had a range of neurological and developmental disorders and a severe sleep problem that had not responded to a standardised sleep behaviour advice booklet provided to parents four to six weeks before randomisation...
2012: BMJ: British Medical Journal
A Junaidi, P E Williamson, T E Trigg, J M Cummins, G B Martin
The present study is part of a programme of research designed to evaluate the efficacy of the GnRH superagonist,deslorelin (D-Trp6-Pro9-des-Gly10-LHRH ethylamide), as a contraceptive for male dogs. Adult dogs were assigned to a completely randomized design comprising six groups of four animals. Each dog in the control group received a blank implant (placebo) and each dog in the other five groups received a 6 mg deslorelin implant. One group of deslorelin treated dogs was sacrificed on each of days 16, 26, 41, 101 and 620, and testicular and prostate tissues were collected for study by light and electron microscopy...
October 2009: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Matthew D Muller, Edward J Ryan, David M Bellar, Chul-Ho Kim, Megan E Williamson, Ellen L Glickman, Robert P Blankfield
Salt intake may cause conflict for the cardiovascular system as it attempts to simultaneously maintain blood pressure (BP) and temperature homeostasis. Our objective was to determine the effect of a salt and water load vs. a water load upon rectal temperature (Tre) in healthy volunteers. Twenty-two healthy, non-hypertensive Caucasian men enrolled in two trials in which they ingested either salt and body temperature water (SALT), or body temperature water (WATER). BP, Tre, cardiac index, peripheral resistance and urine output were monitored one, 2 and 3 h post-baseline...
June 2011: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
Gillian M Keating, Katherine A Lyseng-Williamson
Varenicline (Chantix, Champix) is an orally administered alpha4beta2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist that is indicated as an aid to smoking cessation. Well designed clinical trials indicate that varenicline is an effective aid to smoking cessation. During the last 4 weeks of treatment, carbon monoxide-confirmed continuous abstinence rates were generally significantly higher with varenicline than with placebo, bupropion sustained release (SR) or nicotine replacement therapy. Varenicline also reduced cravings, the reinforcing effects of smoking and some withdrawal symptoms...
2010: PharmacoEconomics
A Junaidi, P E Williamson, G B Martin, P G Stanton, M A Blackberry, J M Cummins, T E Trigg
The present study tested whether exogenous gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and luteinising hormone (LH) can stimulate LH and testosterone secretion in dogs chronically treated with a GnRH superagonist. Twenty male adult dogs were assigned to a completely randomised design comprising five groups of four animals. Each dog in the control group received a blank implant (placebo) and each dog in the other four groups received a 6-mg implant containing a slow-release formulation of deslorelin (d-Trp6-Pro9-des-Gly10-LH-releasing hormone ethylamide)...
2007: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Giovanni M Lasio, Bruce R Whiting, Jeffrey F Williamson
Statistical image reconstruction (SR) algorithms have the potential to significantly reduce x-ray CT image artefacts because they use a more accurate model than conventional filtered backprojection and can incorporate effects such as noise, incomplete data and nonlinear detector response. Most SR algorithms assume that the CT detectors are photon-counting devices and generate Poisson-distributed signals. However, actual CT detectors integrate energy from the x-ray beam and exhibit compound Poisson-distributed signal statistics...
April 21, 2007: Physics in Medicine and Biology
Ali Parvizi, Terry Lindquist, Robert Schneider, Derrick Williamson, Daniel Boyer, Deborah V Dawson
PURPOSE: This study compared the linear dimensional changes of 3 injection-molded denture base materials to that of conventionally processed polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) resin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An impression of an aluminum maxillary edentulous arch was made with a condensation silicone impression material (Denture Elasticon) to fabricate a gypsum master cast that was replicated as a silicone mold. A maxillary complete denture with acrylic teeth was waxed to full contour on the master cast and replicated to make 40 wax dentures...
June 2004: Journal of Prosthodontics: Official Journal of the American College of Prosthodontists
A Junaidi, P E Williamson, J M Cummins, G B Martin, M A Blackberry, T E Trigg
In the present study, we tested the effect of treatment with a slow-release implant containing the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist Deslorelin(TM) (Peptech Animal Health Australia, North Ryde, NSW, Australia) on pituitary and testicular function in mature male dogs. Four dogs were treated with Deslorelin (6-mg implant) and four were used as controls (blank implant). In control dogs, there were no significant changes over the 12 months of the study in plasma concentrations of luteinising hormone (LH) or testosterone, or in testicular volume, semen output or semen quality...
2003: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
D L Williamson, B Sakaguchi, K J Hackett, R F Whitcomb, J G Tully, P Carle, J M Bové, J R Adams, M Konai, R B Henegar
Progenies from some wild-caught females of Drosophila willistoni and three other sibling species are entirely female. The proclivity for production of unisexual female progeny by these flies was named the sex ratio (SR) trait and was originally thought to be genetic. However, experiments in the laboratory of Donald F. Poulson in the early 1960s demonstrated that this 'trait' was vertically transmitted and infectious, in that it could be artificially transferred by injection from infected females to non-infected females...
April 1999: International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology
H Albus, R Williamson
PURPOSE: Studies in invertebrates and cultured mammalian neurons suggested that valproate (VPA) mediates its main antiepileptic effect by slowing the recovery from inactivation of voltage-dependent sodium channels. This predicts an effect on the refractory period of the action potential and, consequently, on the bursting behavior of neurons. METHODS: We investigated this prediction using intracellular and extracellular recording techniques in hippocampal slices prepared from adult rats...
February 1998: Epilepsia
D J Williamson, R J Hargreaves, R G Hill, S L Shepheard
This study describes a novel intravital microscope technique for direct measurement of dural blood vessel diameter through a closed cranial window in anaesthetized rats. This technique avoids removal of the skull, which can lead to problems of altered vessel reactivity and brain swelling that are encountered with open cranial window techniques. Substance P and calcitonin gene-related (CGRP) evoked increases in dural vessel diameter, which were abolished by the NK1 receptor antagonist, RP67580 and the CGRP receptor antagonist, human-alpha CGRP(8-37) respectively...
June 1997: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
D E Evans, F L Theodoulou, I M Williamson, J M Boyce
Active calcium transport in higher plant cell membranes involves both H(+)-linked antiport (at the tonoplast) and direct (P-type) calcium pumping ATPases. Both systems act to remove calcium from the cytoplasm either by pumping it into intracellular stores or into the apoplast. This chapter considers recent advances in our knowledge of the calcium-pumping ATPases of the plant cell, located both at the plasma membrane and in intracellular membranes. Progress in characterising the types of Ca2+ pump in plant cells is particularly important as it becomes increasingly clear that designations applicable to other eukaryotic Ca2+ pumps ('PM-type' and 'SR/ER type') are much less relevant for plant cells...
1994: Symposia of the Society for Experimental Biology
A N Belcastro, I MacLean, J Gilchrist, R Turcotte, S Wall, S M Williamson
The self-organization of biological systems is, in part, described by dynamical order and cooperativity of system elements. Consideration of this, therefore, should form the infrastructure of future Exercise/Sport Biochemistry Research in Canada since a solely elemental focus, in its' interpretation, may not be meaningful if the synergy among system elements is not appreciated. This approach is illustrated through a description of the central role of Ca2+ metabolism in coordinating subcellular events associated with muscle contraction...
March 1986: Canadian Journal of Applied Sport Sciences. Journal Canadien des Sciences Appliquées Au Sport
R Weiss, E Charney, R A Baumgardner, P S German, E D Mellits, E A Skinner, J W Williamson
To explore some determinants of physicians' decisions to change practice habits, we posed three questions: To what extent are some particular innovations diffused among office-based primary care physicians? What characterizes the physicians who have adopted these innovations? And, what caused them to change their behavior and adopt the innovations? Three "markers," recent innovation in medical practice, were chosen using an expert consensus technique. A telephone survey of 200 office-based pediatricians was conducted, and the physicians were asked whether or not they used the following three innovations in medical practice: continuous rather than intermittent phenobarbital for the prevention of febrile seizures, glycosylated hemoglobin measurement in the management of diabetes, and slow release theophylline in the management of asthma...
May 1990: Pediatrics
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