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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649671/early-life-stress-mood-and-anxiety-disorders
#1
Shariful A Syed, Charles B Nemeroff
Early life stress has been shown to exert profound short- and long-term effects on human physiology both in the central nervous system and peripherally. Early life stress has demonstrated clear association with many psychiatric disorders including major depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and bipolar disorder. The Diagnostic and Statistics Manuel of Mental Disorders (DSM) diagnostic categorical system has served as a necessary framework for clinical service, delivery, and research, however has not been completely matching the neurobiological research perspective...
February 2017: Chronic stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647613/validating-a-two-dimensional-bipolar-spectrum-model-integrating-dsm-5-s-mixed-features-specifier-for-major-depressive-disorder
#2
Panagiotis Ferentinos, Konstantinos N Fountoulakis, Cathryn M Lewis, Evgenia Porichi, Dimitris Dikeos, Charalambos Papageorgiou, Athanassios Douzenis
INTRODUCTION: The literature on DSM-5's 'Major Depressive Disorder with lifetime mixed features' (MDD-MF) is limited. This study investigated MDD-MF's potential inclusion into a bipolar spectrum. METHODS: We recruited 287 patients with Bipolar I disorder (BD-I), BD-II, MDD-MF or 'MDD without lifetime mixed features' (MDD-noMF); most (N=280) were stabilized for at least one year on medication. Sixteen validators (clinical features, psychiatric family history, temperament, stabilizing treatment) were compared across groups and subjected to trend analyses...
June 16, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638703/childhood-trauma-and-negative-memory-bias-as-shared-risk-factors-for-psychopathology-and-comorbidity-in-a-naturalistic-psychiatric-patient-sample
#3
Janna N Vrijsen, Camiel T van Amen, Bauke Koekkoek, Iris van Oostrom, Aart H Schene, Indira Tendolkar
BACKGROUND: Both childhood trauma and negative memory bias are associated with the onset and severity level of several psychiatric disorders, such as depression and anxiety disorders. Studies on these risk factors, however, generally use homogeneous noncomorbid samples. Hence, studies in naturalistic psychiatric samples are lacking. Moreover, we know little about the quantitative relationship between the frequency of traumatic childhood events, strength of memory bias and number of comorbid psychiatric disorders; the latter being an index of severity...
June 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627743/polygenic-scores-for-schizophrenia-and-educational-attainment-are-associated-with-behavioural-problems-in-early-childhood-in-the-general-population
#4
Philip R Jansen, Tinca J C Polderman, Koen Bolhuis, Jan van der Ende, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Frank C Verhulst, Tonya White, Danielle Posthuma, Henning Tiemeier
BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies in adults have identified numerous genetic variants related to psychiatric disorders and related traits, such as schizophrenia and educational attainment. However, the effects of these genetic variants on behaviour in the general population remain to be fully understood, particularly in younger populations. We investigated whether polygenic scores of five psychiatric disorders and educational attainment are related to emotional and behaviour problems during early childhood...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622159/weeding-out-the-justification-for-marijuana-treatment-in-patients-with-developmental-and-behavioral-conditions
#5
Theodora Nelson, Yi Hui Liu, Kara S Bagot, Martin T Stein
Alex is a 13-year-old adolescent with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-combined type, anxiety, and depression. He has been resistant to engaging in therapy and treatment with various medications has been unsuccessful. Alex's parents are concerned about his anxiety, isolation, oppositional behaviors, academic underachievement, truancy, and substance use. A recent altercation with his stepfather led to a police intervention and a brief removal of Alex from the home...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619247/childhood-maltreatment-severity-is-associated-with-elevated-c-reactive-protein-and-body-mass-index-in-adult-with-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-diagnoses
#6
Monica Aas, Ingrid Dieset, Sigrun Hope, Eva Hoseth, Ragni Mørch, Elina Reponen, Nils Eiel Steen, Jannicke F Anderssen, Thor Ueland, Pål Aukrust, Ingrid Agartz, Ole A Andreassen, Ingrid Melle
BACKGROUND: Several studies have described an association between childhood maltreatment and inflammatory markers in the psychotic disorders (schizophrenia [SZ] and bipolar disorder [BD]). Previous studies have been relatively small (<50 participants), and the severity of abuse and the putative influence of body mass index (BMI) have not been properly investigated. METHODS: The combined effects of childhood abuse severity and clinical diagnosis on inflammatory markers were investigated in a large sample (n=483) of patients with a disorder on the psychosis spectrum and in healthy controls (HCs)...
June 12, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615770/the-mood-spectrum-and-temperamental-instability-in-unipolar-and-bipolar-disorder
#7
Manish Kumar, Pradeep Kumar Saha, Anwesha Mondal
BACKGROUND: The current categorical split of mood disorders in bipolar (BP) disorders and depressive disorders has recently been questioned. The presence of a significant number of manic/hypomanic symptoms in patients with recurrent unipolar depression seems to challenge the traditional dichotomy of unipolar-BP disorder. Two highly unstable personality features, i.e., the cyclothymic temperament (CT) and borderline personality disorder, have been found to be more common in BP disorder than in major depressive disorder...
May 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615204/human-cytomegalovirus-ie2-protein-disturbs-brain-development-by-dysregulating-neural-stem-cell-maintenance-and-the-polarization-of-migrating-neurons
#8
Dasol Han, Sung-Hyun Byun, Juwan Kim, Mookwang Kwon, Samuel J Pleasure, Jin-Hyun Ahn, Keejung Yoon
Despite the high incidence of severe defects in the central nervous system caused by human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) congenital infection, the mechanism of HCMV neuropathogenesis and the roles of individual viral genes have not yet been fully determined. In this study, we show that the immediate-early 2 (IE2) protein may play a key role in HCMV-caused neurodevelopmental disorders. IE2-transduced neural progenitor cells gave rise to neurospheres with a lower frequency and produced smaller neurospheres than control cells in vitro, indicating reduction of self-renewal and expansion of neural progenitors by IE2...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610482/randomised-controlled-trial-of-a-healthy-lifestyle-intervention-among-smokers-with-psychotic-disorders-outcomes-to-36%C3%A2-months
#9
Amanda L Baker, Robyn Richmond, Frances J Kay-Lambkin, Sacha L Filia, David Castle, Jill M Williams, Terry J Lewin, Vanessa Clark, Robin Callister, Kerrin Palazzi
OBJECTIVE: People living with psychotic disorders (schizophrenia spectrum and bipolar disorders) have high rates of cardiovascular disease risk behaviours, including smoking, physical inactivity and poor diet. We report cardiovascular disease risk, smoking cessation and other risk behaviour outcomes over 36 months following recruitment into a two-arm randomised controlled trial among smokers with psychotic disorders. METHODS: Participants ( N = 235) drawn from three sites were randomised to receive nicotine replacement therapy plus (1) a Healthy Lifestyles intervention delivered over approximately 9 months or (2) a largely telephone-delivered intervention (designed to control for nicotine replacement therapy provision, session frequency and other monitoring)...
June 1, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608620/genome-wide-association-study-of-facial-emotion-recognition-in-children-and-association-with-polygenic-risk-for-mental-health-disorders
#10
Jonathan R I Coleman, Kathryn J Lester, Robert Keers, Marcus R Munafò, Gerome Breen, Thalia C Eley
Emotion recognition is disrupted in many mental health disorders, which may reflect shared genetic aetiology between this trait and these disorders. We explored genetic influences on emotion recognition and the relationship between these influences and mental health phenotypes. Eight-year-old participants (n = 4,097) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) completed the Diagnostic Analysis of Non-Verbal Accuracy (DANVA) faces test. Genome-wide genotype data was available from the Illumina HumanHap550 Quad microarray...
June 13, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596468/-the-unitary-psychosis-theory
#11
Hiroki Kikuyama, Tetsufumi Kanazawa, Seiichiro Tarutani, Tatsushi Okayama, Hiroshi Yoneda
Since E. Kraepelin isolated schizophrenia and bipolar disorder as heterogeneous diseases, attempts to categorize mental illnesses have continued to the DSM-5. Meanwhile, cases of psychosis occurring as a result of neurosyphilis have been reported. Whilst in some cases it is useful to divide mental illnesses, in others imposing such classifications may be not be feasible. Since 2008 numerous papers have been published showing that the same genes are related to an increased incidence of several psychiatric diseases including intellectual disorder, autism, ADHD, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and depression...
June 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590365/the-efficacy-of-psychostimulants-in-major-depressive-episodes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
Roger S McIntyre, Yena Lee, Aileen J Zhou, Joshua D Rosenblat, Evyn M Peters, Raymond W Lam, Sidney H Kennedy, Carola Rong, Jeanette M Jerrell
BACKGROUND: Psychostimulants are frequently prescribed off-label for adults with major depressive disorder or bipolar disorder. The frequent and increasing usage of stimulants in mood disorders warrants a careful appraisal of the efficacy of this class of agents. Herein, we aim to estimate the efficacy of psychostimulants in adults with unipolar or bipolar depression. METHODS: The PubMed/Medline database was searched from inception to January 16, 2016 for randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials investigating the antidepressant efficacy of psychostimulants in the treatment of adults with unipolar or bipolar depression...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586480/lifetime-prevalence-and-correlates-of-schizophrenia-spectrum-affective-and-other-non-affective-psychotic-disorders-in-the-chinese-adult-population
#13
Wing Chung Chang, Corine Sau Man Wong, Eric Yu Hai Chen, Linda Chiu Wa Lam, Wai Chi Chan, Roger Man Kin Ng, Se Fong Hung, Eric Fuk Chi Cheung, Pak Chung Sham, Helen Fung Kum Chiu, Ming Lam, Edwin Ho Ming Lee, Tin Po Chiang, Lap Kei Chan, Gary Kar Wai Lau, Allen Ting Chun Lee, Grace Tak Yu Leung, Joey Shuk Yan Leung, Joseph Tak Fai Lau, Jim van Os, Glyn Lewis, Paul Bebbington
Lifetime prevalence of psychotic disorders varies widely across studies. Epidemiological surveys have rarely examined prevalences of specific psychotic disorders other than schizophrenia, and the majority used a single-phase design without employing clinical reappraisal interview for diagnostic verification. The current study investigated lifetime prevalence, correlates and service utilization of schizophrenia-spectrum, affective, and other non-affective psychotic disorders in a representative sample of community-dwelling Chinese adult population aged 16-75 years (N = 5719) based on a territory-wide, population-based household survey for mental disorders in Hong Kong...
June 6, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585386/understanding-neurodevelopmental-disorders-using-human-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-neurons
#14
Claudia Tamburini, Meng Li
Research into psychiatric disorders has long been hindered by the lack of appropriate models. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) offer an unlimited source of patient-specific cells, which in principle can be differentiated into all disease-relevant somatic cell types to create in vitro models of the disorder of interest. Here, neuronal differentiation protocols available for this purpose and the current progress on iPSCs-based models of schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders and bipolar disorder were reviewed...
July 2017: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570797/depression-and-anxiety-in-the-postpartum-period-and-risk-of-bipolar-disorder-a-danish-nationwide-register-based-cohort-study
#15
Xiaoqin Liu, Esben Agerbo, Jiong Li, Samantha Meltzer-Brody, Veerle Bergink, Trine Munk-Olsen
OBJECTIVE: The first-onset affective episode requiring inpatient treatment in the postpartum period can be a marker of bipolar disorder, but it is unknown whether milder postpartum affective episodes are also indicators of underlying bipolarity. Therefore, we aimed to study whether women with a nonpsychotic postpartum affective episode treated with antidepressants have an increased risk of bipolar disorder. METHODS: A register-based cohort study was conducted in Denmark of 122,622 parous women without psychiatric history who received a first-time antidepressant prescription during 1997-2012...
May 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560261/brain-structure-function-and-neurochemistry-in-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder-a-systematic-review-of-the-magnetic-resonance-neuroimaging-literature
#16
Badari Birur, Nina Vanessa Kraguljac, Richard C Shelton, Adrienne Carol Lahti
Since Emil Kraepelin's conceptualization of endogenous psychoses as dementia praecox and manic depression, the separation between primary psychotic disorders and primary affective disorders has been much debated. We conducted a systematic review of case-control studies contrasting magnetic resonance imaging studies in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. A literature search in PubMed of studies published between January 2005 and December 2016 was conducted, and 50 structural, 29 functional, 7 magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and 8 combined imaging and genetic studies were deemed eligible for systematic review...
2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548194/-heritability-and-genetic-comorbidity-of-attention-deficit-disorder-with-hyperactivity
#17
Giannina Puddu, Paula Rothhammer, Ximena Carrasco, Francisco Aboitiz, Francisco Rothhammer
This review aims to summarize information about the genetic etiology of attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity (ADHD), with particular reference to the contributions of our research group. We also discuss the genetic comorbidity estimated from genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP´s) between ADHD and major psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia (E), major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder (BD) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). A high genetic comorbidity was found between E and BD (46%), a moderate comorbidity between MDD and E, MDD and BD and MDD and ADHD (18%, 22% and 10% respectively) and a low comorbidity between E and ASD (2...
March 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508319/trpc-channels-and-mental-disorders
#18
Karina Griesi-Oliveira, Angela May Suzuki, Alysson Renato Muotri
Transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels mediate the influx of different types of cations through the cell membrane and are involved in many functions of the organism. Evidences of involvement of TRPC channels in neuronal development suggest that this family of proteins might play a role in certain neurological disorders. As reported, knockout mice for different TRPC channels show alterations in neuronal morphological and functional parameters, with behavioral abnormalities, such as in exploratory and social behaviors...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506622/meta-analyses-of-reln-variants-in-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#19
Na Chen, Yanping Bao, Yanxue Xue, Yan Sun, Die Hu, Shiqiu Meng, Lin Lu, Jie Shi
Reelin is a critical extracellular matrix glycoprotein and implicated in neurodevelopment and psychiatric disorders in animal model studies. The genetic polymorphism of RELN has also been reported to be associated with several psychiatric disorders, but the results remain controversial. Here, we conducted meta-analyses of RELN gene SNPs and related neuropsychiatric disorders (schizophrenia, autistic spectrum disorders, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, Alzheimer's disease and bipolar disorders). A total of 12 SNPs (rs736707, rs362691, rs607755, rs2229864, rs7341475, rs262355, rs362719, rs11496125, g...
May 12, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501739/risk-of-postpartum-episodes-in-women-with-bipolar-disorder-after-lamotrigine-or-lithium-use-during-pregnancy-a-population-based-cohort-study
#20
Richard Wesseloo, Xiaoqin Liu, Crystal T Clark, Steven A Kushner, Trine Munk-Olsen, Veerle Bergink
BACKGROUND: Women with bipolar disorder are at high risk for relapse/recurrence postpartum. Among all mood stabilizers, lithium has the largest evidence base for efficacy in the peripartum period, but lamotrigine is increasingly prescribed for bipolar spectrum disorders during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to investigate whether lamotrigine use during pregnancy is as effective as lithium in the prevention of severe episodes postpartum. METHODS: Danish national registries were used to identify pregnancies of women with a diagnosis of bipolar spectrum disorders at the time of conception who used lamotrigine or lithium during pregnancy...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
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