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Bipolar spectrum disorder

Hilde de Kluiver, Jacobine E Buizer-Voskamp, Conor V Dolan, Dorret I Boomsma
We review the hypotheses concerning the association between the paternal age at childbearing and childhood psychiatric disorders (autism spectrum- and attention deficit/hyperactive disorder) and adult disorders (schizophrenia, bipolar-, obsessive-compulsive-, and major depressive disorder) based on epidemiological studies. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the paternal age effect. We discuss the four main-not mutually exclusive-hypotheses. These are the de novo mutation hypothesis, the hypothesis concerning epigenetic alterations, the selection into late fatherhood hypothesis, and the environmental resource hypothesis...
October 22, 2016: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
Alessandro Minarini, Silvia Ferrari, Martina Galletti, Nina Giambalvo, Daniela Perrone, Giulia Rioli, Gian Maria Galeazzi
N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is widely known for its role as a mucolytic and as an antidote to paracetamol overdose. There is increasing interest in the use of NAC in the treatment of several psychiatric disorders. The rationale for the administration of NAC in psychiatric conditions is based on its role as a precursor to the antioxidant glutathione, and its action as a modulating agent of glutamatergic, dopaminergic, neurotropic and inflammatory pathways. Areas covered: This study reviews the available data regarding the use of NAC in different psychiatric disorders including substance use disorders, autism, obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorder...
October 21, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Danella Hafeman, Genna Bebko, Michele A Bertocci, Jay C Fournier, Henry W Chase, Lisa Bonar, Susan B Perlman, Michael Travis, Mary Kay Gill, Vaibhav A Diwadkar, Jeffrey L Sunshine, Scott K Holland, Robert A Kowatch, Boris Birmaher, David Axelson, Sarah M Horwitz, L Eugene Arnold, Mary A Fristad, Thomas W Frazier, Eric A Youngstrom, Robert L Findling, Mary L Phillips
OBJECTIVE: Both bipolar spectrum disorders (BPSD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) present with emotion-regulation deficits, but require different clinical management. We examined how the neurobiological underpinnings of emotion regulation might differentiate youth with BPSD versus ADHD (and healthy controls, HCs), specifically assessing functional connectivity (FxC) of amygdala-prefrontal circuitry during an implicit emotion processing task. METHODS: We scanned a subset of the Longitudinal Assessment of Manic Symptoms (LAMS) sample, a clinically recruited cohort with elevated behavioral and emotional dysregulation, and age/sex-ratio matched HCs...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
E Rizos, N Siafakas, E Skourti, C Papageorgiou, J Tsoporis, T H Parker, D I Christodoulou, D A Spandidos, E Katsantoni, V Zoumpourlis
Schizophrenia (SZ) and cancer (Ca) have a broad spectrum of clinical phenotypes and a complex biological background, implicating a large number of genetic and epigenetic factors. SZ is a chronic neurodevelopmental disorder signified by an increase in the expression of apoptotic molecular signals, whereas Ca is conversely characterized by an increase in appropriate molecular signaling that stimulates uncontrolled cell proliferation. The rather low risk of developing Ca in patients suffering from SZ is a hypothesis that is still under debate...
October 14, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Christine H Oedegaard, Lesley Berk, Michael Berk, Eric A Youngstrom, Steven C Dilsaver, Robert H Belmaker, Ketil J Oedegaard, Ole B Fasmer, Ingunn M Engebretsen
OBJECTIVE: Clinical management of bipolar disorder patients might be affected by culture and is further dependent on the context of healthcare delivery. There is a need to understand how healthcare best can be delivered in various systems and cultures. The objective of this qualitative study was to gain knowledge about culture-specific values, beliefs and practices in the medical care provided to patients with bipolar disorders from a provider perspective in various areas of the world...
October 14, 2016: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
Frank Qiu, Hagop S Akiskal, John R Kelsoe, Tiffany A Greenwood
BACKGROUND: Temperament and personality traits have been suggested as endophenotypes for bipolar disorder based on several lines of evidence, including heritability. Previous work suggested an anxious-reactive factor identified across temperament and personality inventories that produced significant group discrimination and could potentially be useful in genetic analyses. We have attempted to further characterize this factor structure in a sample of bipolar patients. METHODS: A sample of 1195 subjects with bipolar I disorder was evaluated, all with complete data available...
October 2, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
A E Bobrov, E G Starostina, M M Aleksandrova
AIM: To study mental disorders in acromegaly due to somatotropinoma. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 115 consecutively recruited patients with acromegaly (95 female and 20 male, aged from 21 to 78 years). Acromegaly was diagnosed by endocrinologists according to current guidelines based on clinical, laboratory data and brain MRI. All patients underwent a clinical psychiatric interview based on ICD-10 criteria. The Mini-Mental State Examination scale and Hypomania-Checklist (HCL-32) were used...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Lin Cui, Wei Sun, Ming Yu, Nan Li, Li Guo, Huating Gu, Yu Zhou
Disrupted-in-schizophrenia 1(DISC1) is a promising candidate susceptibility gene for a spectrum of psychiatric illnesses that share cognitive impairments in common, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression. Here we report that DISC1 L100P homozygous mutant shows normal anxiety- and depression-like behavior, but impaired object recognition which is prevented by administration of atypical antipsychotic drug clozapine. Ca(2+) image analysis reveals suppression of glutamate-evoked elevation of cytoplasmic [Ca(2+)] in L100P hippocampal slices...
October 12, 2016: Molecular Brain
Hee Ryung Wang, Young-Eun Jung, Sang-Keun Chung, Jeongwan Hong, Na Ri Kang, Moon-Doo Kim, Won-Myong Bahk
BACKGROUND: We investigate the rate of bipolar spectrum disorder comorbid with ADHD features using two screening instruments, the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ) and the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS), in a nonclinical young adult population. METHODS: College and graduate students aged 18 years or older from four universities in Korea were selected. Comorbidity was defined as both MDQ positivity and WURS positivity. To look for a trend in clinical characteristics according to the severity of the comorbid condition, we used the Jonckheere-Terpstra test and the linear-by-linear association test...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Shari L Hutchison, Jaswinder K Ghuman, Harinder S Ghuman, Irina Karpov, James M Schuster
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most commonly diagnosed mental health disorders and is associated with higher incidence of comorbid oppositional or conduct, mood, anxiety, pervasive developmental, and substance-use disorders. Comorbid mental health conditions may alter the presence of symptoms and treatment of ADHD. Atomoxetine (ATX), a nonstimulant medication for the treatment of ADHD, may be prescribed for individuals with ADHD and comorbid conditions despite some risk for certain undesirable side effects and lower effectiveness for the treatment of ADHD than stimulants...
October 2016: Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology
Yi Wang, Yi Deng, Zhi Li, Xu Li, Chen-Yuan Zhang, Zhen Jin, Ming-Xia Fan, Michael T Compton, Eric F C Cheung, Kelvin O Lim, Raymond C K Chan
Minor physical anomalies (MPAs) are subtle signs of fetal developmental abnormalities that have been considered to be among the most replicated risk markers for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. However, quantitative approaches are needed to measure craniofacial MPAs. The present study adopted an imaging-based quantitative approach to examine craniofacial MPAs across the spectrum of schizophrenia and affective disorders, to address their sensitivity and specificity. We sampled 31 patients with schizophrenia, 30 of their unaffected relatives, and 30 individuals with schizotypal personality traits, as well as 37 non-schizotypal controls...
October 8, 2016: PsyCh Journal
Nils Eiel Steen, Monica Aas, Carmen Simonsen, Ingrid Dieset, Martin Tesli, Mari Nerhus, Erlend Gardsjord, Ragni Mørch, Ingrid Agartz, Ingrid Melle, Torill Ueland, Olav Spigset, Ole A Andreassen
OBJECTIVES: Antipsychotics are effective in treating psychosis and mood episodes; however, the effect on cognition is less known. We investigated the association between serum levels of second generation antipsychotics (SGAs) and cognitive performance in psychosis spectrum disorders in a naturalistic setting. METHODS: A total of n = 495 patients with a DSM-IV Schizophrenia and Other Psychotic Disorders (SCZ, n = 373) or Bipolar Disorder (BD, n = 122) diagnosis treated with olanzapine, quetiapine, aripiprazole or risperidone were tested neuropsychologically with concurrent measurement of the serum concentration of the drug...
October 7, 2016: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Ales Grambal, Jan Prasko, Dana Kamaradova, Klara Latalova, Michaela Holubova, Marketa Marackova, Marie Ociskova, Milos Slepecky
INTRODUCTION: Self-stigma arises from one's acceptance of societal prejudices and is common in psychiatric patients. This investigation compares the self-stigma of a sample of patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD), schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SCH), major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar affective disorder (BAD), and anxiety disorders (AD) and explores of the self-stigma with the subjective and objective measures of the severity of the disorder and demographic factors...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
E S Gouvea, V K Ota, C Noto, M L Santoro, L M Spindola, P N Moretti, C M Carvalho, G Xavier, A C Rios, J R Sato, M A F Hayashi, E Brietzke, A Gadelha, R A Bressan, Q Cordeiro, S I Belangero
Psychotic disorders affect ~3% of the general population and are among the most severe forms of mental diseases. In early stages of psychosis, clinical aspects may be difficult to distinguish from one another. Undifferentiated psychopathology at the first-episode of psychosis (FEP) highlights the need for biomarkers that can improve and refine differential diagnosis. We investigated gene expression differences between patients with FEP-schizophrenia spectrum (SCZ; N=53) or FEP-Mania (BD; N=16) and healthy controls (N=73)...
October 4, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
Chen Zhang
The present diagnostic classification of mental illnesses is primarily based on symptomatology. A recent cross-disorder genome-wide association study revealed that there were genetic similarities between multiple clinically defined diagnoses (including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and autism spectrum disorder) on regions of chromosomes 3p21 and 10q24 and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within two L-type voltage-gated calcium channel subunits of CACNA1C and CACNB2...
February 25, 2016: Shanghai Archives of Psychiatry
D S Karhson, A Y Hardan, K J Parker
Core deficits in social functioning are associated with various neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders, yet biomarker identification and the development of effective pharmacological interventions has been limited. Recent data suggest the intriguing possibility that endogenous cannabinoids, a class of lipid neuromodulators generally implicated in the regulation of neurotransmitter release, may contribute to species-typical social functioning. Systematic study of the endogenous cannabinoid signaling could, therefore, yield novel approaches to understand the neurobiological underpinnings of atypical social functioning...
2016: Translational Psychiatry
Giovanni Casella, Roberta Pozzi, Marta Cicognetti, Francesco Bachetti, Gabriele Torti, Moris Cadei, Vincenzo Villanacci, Vittorio Baldini, Gabrio Bassotti
The association between gluten related disorders and psychiatric diseases has been firmly demonstrated. Non celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) is a syndrome diagnosed in patients responsive to gluten free diet after ruling out celiac disease and wheat allergy. The pathogenesis of neuro-psychiatric disorders in NCGS is unclear. An association between gluten and schizophrenia was described for the first time in 1950 by Bender et al. In the 50', Dicke noted that gluten free diet improved mood in celiac patients...
September 20, 2016: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
Rachel A Câmara, Cristiano A Köhler, Michael Maes, Paulo R Nunes-Neto, André R Brunoni, João Quevedo, Brisa S Fernandes, Giulio Perugi, Thomas N Hyphantis, André F Carvalho
OBJECTIVES: Preliminary evidence indicates that premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) may be frequently co-morbid with bipolar spectrum disorders. In addition, the manifestations of PMDD seem similar to a subthreshold depressive mixed state. Nevertheless, the associations between PMDD and affective temperaments and emotional traits have not been previously investigated. METHODS: A consecutive sample of 514 drug-free Brazilian women (mean age: 22.8; SD=5.4years) took part in this cross-sectional study...
August 18, 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Matthew R Cribbet, Ryan W Logan, Mathew D Edwards, Erin Hanlon, Clara Bien Peek, Jeremy J Stubblefield, Sridhar Vasudevan, Fiona Ritchey, Ellen Frank
This paper focuses on the relationship between the circadian system and glucose metabolism. Research across the translational spectrum confirms the importance of the circadian system for glucose metabolism and offers promising clues as to when and why these systems go awry. In particular, basic research has started to clarify the molecular and genetic mechanisms through which the circadian system regulates metabolism. The study of human behavior, especially in the context of psychiatric disorders, such as bipolar disorder and major depression, forces us to see how inextricably linked mental health and metabolic health are...
September 2, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Cheng-Che Shen, Li-Yu Hu, Shih-Jen Tsai, Albert C Yang, Pan-Ming Chen, Ya-Han Hu
AIM: To develop a risk stratification model for the early diagnosis of borderline personality disorder (BPD) using Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective case-control study of 6132 patients (292 BPD patients and 5840 control subjects) who were selected from the National Health Insurance Research Database. Psychiatric co-morbidities including depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorder, substance-use disorder, personality disorders other than BPD, sleep disorder, eating disorder, autistic spectrum disorder, mental retardation and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, which were diagnosed within 3 years before enrolment, were collected...
September 1, 2016: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
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