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Bipolar affective disorder

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223329/the-impact-of-psychosis-on-brain-anatomy-in-bipolar-disorder-a-structural-mri-study
#1
A Carlo Altamura, Eleonora Maggioni, Taj Dhanoa, Valentina Ciappolino, Riccardo A Paoli, Laura Cremaschi, Cecilia Prunas, Giulia Orsenigo, Elisabetta Caletti, Claudia M Cinnante, Fabio M Triulzi, Bernardo Dell'Osso, Lakshmi Yatham, Paolo Brambilla
BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BD) is a major psychiatric illness characterized by heterogeneous symptoms including psychotic features. Up until now, neuroimaging studies investigating cerebral morphology in patients with BD have underestimated the potential impact of psychosis on brain anatomy in BD patients. In this regard, psychotic and non-psychotic BD may represent biologically different subtypes of the disorder, being possibly associated with specific cerebral features. METHODS: In the present study, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 3T was used to identify the neuroanatomical correlates of psychosis in an International sample of BD patients...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216484/beliefs-about-the-causes-of-and-treatments-for-depression-and-bipolar-disorder-among-south-koreans
#2
Subin Park, Hyesue Jang, Adrian Furnham, Mina Jeon, Se Jin Park
Public beliefs about psychiatric disorders are important for understanding help-seeking behaviours. We investigated factors that affect South Koreans' beliefs about the causes and treatment of depression and bipolar disorder. We recruited 654 participants aged 15-54 years using an online panel survey. Participants completed two questionnaires: 34 possible causes of and 33 possible treatments for depression and bipolar disorder. For both disorders, the questionnaires about causes revealed four factors: social-environmental, God/fate, heath/lifestyle, and biological; the questionnaires about treatments revealed five factors: self-help/stress management, physical treatment/health management, seeking mental health services, religious help, and resting...
November 21, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209876/mentalization-deficit-in-bipolar-patients-during-an-acute-depressive-and-manic-episode-association-with-cognitive-functions
#3
Anna Bodnar, Janusz K Rybakowski
BACKGROUND: A number of studies in bipolar patients have shown a deficit in mentalization (theory of mind), one of the main aspects of social cognition. The aim of current study was to assess both cognitive and affective mentalization in well-defined groups of depressed and manic bipolar patients, compared to healthy control subjects, using a battery of tests measuring mentalization processes. The second aim was to investigate a possible relationship between cognitive and affective mentalization and cognitive functions in bipolar patients during a depressive and manic episode...
December 6, 2017: International Journal of Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200562/prevalence-and-sociodemographic-profile-of-lithium-induced-cutaneous-side-effects-in-bipolar-affective-disorder-patients-a-1-year-prospective-observational-study-in-south-india
#4
B S Suganya Priyadharshini, I Syed Ummar
Objectives: Objective in our study is i) To assess the prevalence and sociodemographic profile of cutaneous side effects in bipolar affective disorder patients (BPAD) on lithium. ii) To assess the course of pre-existing skin reactions, when patient is initiated on lithium therapy. Methods: Lithium induced cutaneous side effects were assessed at baseline and monthly for 6 months followed by every 2 months over a year. Dermatologist opinion obtained to diagnose and treat for each patient who developed cutaneous side effects...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200553/sociodemographic-and-clinical-predictors-of-response-in-manic-episodes-a-naturalistic-prospective-cohort-study
#5
Jasmin Garg, Ajeet Sidana, B S Chavan, Shikha Goel
Background: Response to treatment of a manic episode is dependent on several sociodemographic and clinical factors as reported by researchers from other countries. The prescription of mood stabilizers and/or antipsychotics for manic episode depends on these factors. There is a lack of availability of data from India on this topic. Hence, this study was planned to identify the predictors of pharmacological response. Materials and Methods: Forty-two patients with a diagnosis of bipolar affective disorder current episode manic were enrolled and assessed for sociodemographic variables and clinical variables such as age of onset, family history, comorbidities, index episode, and number of past episodes...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199810/ketamine-as-treatment-for-depression
#6
Tero Taiminen
Ketamine infusions administered intravenously 1 to 3 times per week are the quickest and most effective treatment for depression. Short-course ketamine medication is established treatment both for unipolar depression and depressive episodes of bipolar affective disorder. Ketamine is suitable for initiating the treatment for treatment-resistant depression, alleviation of suicidal tendencies, and treatment of depressive patients suffering from simultaneous pain. The safety of prolonged treatment with ketamine is not known to sufficient degree...
2017: Duodecim; Lääketieteellinen Aikakauskirja
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199760/effectivity-and-cost-effectivity-of-the-maintenance-electroconvulsive-therapy-a-mirror-naturalistic-analysis
#7
Albert Cosculluela, Jesús Cobo, Erika Martínez-Amorós, Montse Paños, Angel M Santiago, Sara Crivillés, María Camposo, Joan C Oliva, Albert Granero, Diego J Palao
INTRODUCTION: Maintenance Electroconvulsive Therapy (mECT) is a biological long-term treatment in which patients receive ECT on periods from 2 to 4 weeks, during a variable period of time, usually for more than 6 months. Recent studies showed the efficacy of mECT in prevention of relapse and recurrences. Our study wants to demostrate the effectivity and cost-effectivity of this therapy in the naturalistic conditions of our area. METHODOLOGY: HASH(0x4d5a8c0) DESIGN: Retrospective longitudinal study, with mirror analysis in naturalistic conditions...
November 2017: Actas Españolas de Psiquiatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195773/cognitive-deficits-in-bipolar-disorders-implications-for-emotion
#8
REVIEW
Isabela M M Lima, Andrew D Peckham, Sheri L Johnson
Prominent cognitive deficits have been documented in bipolar disorder, and multiple studies suggest that these deficits can be observed among non-affected first-degree relatives of those with bipolar disorder. Although there is variability in the degree of cognitive deficits, these deficits are robustly relevant for functional outcomes. A separate literature documents clear difficulties in emotionality, emotion regulation, and emotion-relevant impulsivity within bipolar disorder, and demonstrates that these emotion-relevant variables are also central to outcome...
November 21, 2017: Clinical Psychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193655/polygenic-risk-scores-distinguish-patients-from-non-affected-adult-relatives-and-from-normal-controls-in-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder-multi-affected-kindreds
#9
Sébastien Boies, Chantal Mérette, Thomas Paccalet, Michel Maziade, Alexandre Bureau
Recent studies have used results on SNP association with schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) to create polygenic risk scores (PRS) discriminating non-familial unrelated patients from controls. Little is known about the role of PRS in densely affected multigenerational families. We tested PRS differences between affected SZ and BD family members from their non-affected adult relatives (NAARs) in Eastern Quebec Kindreds and from controls. We examined 1227 subjects: from 17 SZ and BD kindreds, we studied 153 patients (57 SZ, 13 schizoaffective, and 83 BD) and 180 NAARs, and 894 unrelated controls from the Eastern Quebec population...
November 28, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187730/genome-wide-analysis-in-uk-biobank-identifies-four-loci-associated-with-mood-instability-and-genetic-correlation-with-major-depressive-disorder-anxiety-disorder-and-schizophrenia
#10
Joey Ward, Rona J Strawbridge, Mark E S Bailey, Nicholas Graham, Amy Ferguson, Donald M Lyall, Breda Cullen, Laura M Pidgeon, Jonathan Cavanagh, Daniel F Mackay, Jill P Pell, Michael O'Donovan, Valentina Escott-Price, Daniel J Smith
Mood instability is a core clinical feature of affective and psychotic disorders. In keeping with the Research Domain Criteria approach, it may be a useful construct for identifying biology that cuts across psychiatric categories. We aimed to investigate the biological validity of a simple measure of mood instability and evaluate its genetic relationship with several psychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder (BD), schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), anxiety disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)...
November 30, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174739/episode-accumulation-associated-with-hastened-recurrence-and-delayed-recovery-in-bipolar-disorder
#11
Dong Yeon Park, Dennis Do, Lauren Chang, Saloni Shah, Laura D Yuen, Farnaz Hooshmand, Po W Wang, Shefali Miller, Terence A Ketter
AIMS: Assess episode accumulation (≥ 10 prior mood episodes) associations with demographic/baseline clinical characteristics and mood episode recurrence/recovery in bipolar disorder (BD). METHODS: Stanford BD Clinic outpatients enrolled during 2000-2011 were assessed with Systematic Treatment Enhancement Program for BD (STEP-BD) Affective Disorders Evaluation. Among recovered and syndromal mood episode patients, we assessed episode accumulation associations with demographic/baseline clinical characteristics and with recurrence/recovery (by Kaplan-Meier survival analyses, with mediators assessed with Cox Proportional Hazard Ratio (HR) analyses)...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173175/imaging-the-role-of-inflammation-in-mood-and-anxiety-related-disorders
#12
Jennifer C Felger
BACKGROUND: Studies investigating the impact of a variety of inflammatory stimuli on the brain and behavior have reported evidence that inflammation and release of inflammatory cytokines affect circuitry relevant to both reward and threat sensitivity to contribute to behavioral change. Of relevance to mood and anxiety-related disorders, biomarkers of inflammation such as inflammatory cytokines and acute-phase proteins are reliably elevated in a significant proportion of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)...
November 23, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167880/association-between-schizophrenia-related-polygenic-liability-and-the-occurrence-and-level-of-mood-incongruent-psychotic-symptoms-in-bipolar-disorder
#13
Judith Allardyce, Ganna Leonenko, Marian Hamshere, Antonio F Pardiñas, Liz Forty, Sarah Knott, Katherine Gordon-Smith, David J Porteous, Caroline Haywood, Arianna Di Florio, Lisa Jones, Andrew M McIntosh, Michael J Owen, Peter Holmans, James T R Walters, Nicholas Craddock, Ian Jones, Michael C O'Donovan, Valentina Escott-Price
Importance: Bipolar disorder (BD) overlaps schizophrenia in its clinical presentation and genetic liability. Alternative approaches to patient stratification beyond current diagnostic categories are needed to understand the underlying disease processes and mechanisms. Objective: To investigate the association between common-variant liability for schizophrenia, indexed by polygenic risk scores (PRSs), and psychotic presentations of BD. Design, Setting, and Participants: This case-control study in the United Kingdom used multinomial logistic regression to estimate differential PRS associations across categories of cases and controls...
November 22, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160338/changes-in-energy-and-motor-activity-core-symptoms-of-bipolar-mania-and-depression
#14
Elie Cheniaux, Rafael de A da Silva, Cristina M Santana, Alberto Filgueiras
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate how well symptom rating scales differentiate bipolar disorder (BD) episode types. METHODS: One hundred and six patients with BD were followed for 13 years. At each visit, the following clinical scales were administered: Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS), Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D) and Clinical Global Impressions scale for use in bipolar illness (CGI-BP). To perform a comparison between the affective states of BP, three time points in each patient's follow-up period were chosen for evaluation: the most severe manic episode, the most severe depressive episode, and the euthymic period with least symptoms...
November 9, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158579/rare-susceptibility-variants-for-bipolar-disorder-suggest-a-role-for-g-protein-coupled-receptors
#15
C Cruceanu, J-F Schmouth, S G Torres-Platas, J P Lopez, A Ambalavanan, E Darcq, F Gross, B Breton, D Spiegelman, D Rochefort, P Hince, J M Petite, J Gauthier, R G Lafrenière, P A Dion, C M Greenwood, B L Kieffer, M Alda, G Turecki, G A Rouleau
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a prevalent mood disorder that tends to cluster in families. Despite high heritability estimates, few genetic susceptibility factors have been identified over decades of genetic research. One possible interpretation for the shortcomings of previous studies to detect causative genes is that BD is caused by highly penetrant rare variants in many genes. We explored this hypothesis by sequencing the exomes of affected individuals from 40 well-characterized multiplex families. We identified rare variants segregating with affected status in many interesting genes, and found an enrichment of deleterious variants in G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family genes, which are important drug targets...
November 21, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158232/development-and-validation-of-qdiabetes-2018-risk-prediction-algorithm-to-estimate-future-risk-of-type-2-diabetes-cohort-study
#16
Julia Hippisley-Cox, Carol Coupland
Objectives To derive and validate updated QDiabetes-2018 prediction algorithms to estimate the 10 year risk of type 2 diabetes in men and women, taking account of potential new risk factors, and to compare their performance with current approaches.Design Prospective open cohort study.Setting Routinely collected data from 1457 general practices in England contributing to the QResearch database: 1094 were used to develop the scores and a separate set of 363 were used to validate the scores.Participants 11...
November 20, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156424/blink-reflex-under-external-emotional-stimuli-in-bipolar-i-and-ii-disorders
#17
Qisha Zhu, Jiawei Wang, Hongying Fan, Guorong Ma, Bingren Zhang, Chanchan Shen, Wei Wang
Bipolar disorder types I (BD I) and II (BD II) might present different cortico-brainstem circuit dysfunctions under external emotions, which might be reflected by the blink reflex. We therefore invited 32 BD I and 23 BD II patients, and 46 healthy volunteers to answer the Mood Disorder Questionnaire, the Hypomania Checklist-32, and the Plutchik - van Praag Depression inventory, and to undergo the blink reflex test under external emotions (emotional pictures plus sounds) of Disgust, Erotica, Fear, Happiness, and Sadness...
November 10, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156296/associations-between-severity-of-anxiety-and-clinical-and-biological-features-of-major-affective-disorders
#18
Fernanda Liboni Cavicchioli, Michael Maes, Chutima Roomruangwong, Kamila Landucci Bonifacio, Decio Sabbatini Barbosa, George Anderson, Heber Odebrecht Vargas, Sandra Odebrecht Vargas Nunes
Patients with major affective disorders (MAFD) with comorbid anxiety show a greater functional impairment than those without anxiety. The aim of this study is to delineate the associations between severity of anxiety in MAFD, namely bipolar disorder (BD) and major depression (MDD), and MAFD characteristics and serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels. Recruited were 82 participants with anxiety disoders and 83 without anxiety disoders, including 101 MAFD patients and 51 healthy controls. We used the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) to measure severity of anxiety and made the diagnoses of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), panic disorder (PD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and phobias...
November 8, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144157/the-influence-of-sunlight-exposure-on-hospitalization-in-emergency-psychiatry
#19
Andrea Aguglia, Antonio Borsotti, Francesco Cuniberti, Gianluca Serafini, Mario Amore, Giuseppe Maina
OBJECTIVE: Environmental conditions during early life may affect individual vulnerability to both physiological changes as well as psychiatric conditions, especially in those with a genetic susceptibility. Among all factors, sunlight exposure intensity has a crucial effect on affecting circadian functions high-risk individuals. A potential explanation of this relation is that excessive sunlight exposure is able to impair biological mechanisms, possibly through the dysregulation of serotonin and/or melatonin production/metabolism...
November 16, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143763/intellectual-functioning-in-offspring-of-parents-with-bipolar-disorder-a-review-of-the-literature
#20
REVIEW
Bonnie Klimes-Dougan, Jake Jeong, Kevin P Kennedy, Timothy A Allen
Impaired intellectual functioning is an important risk factor for the emergence of severe mental illness. Unlike many other forms of mental disorder however, the association between bipolar disorder and intellectual deficits is unclear. In this narrative review, we examine the current evidence on intellectual functioning in children and adolescents at risk for developing bipolar disorder. The results are based on 18 independent, peer-reviewed publications from 1980 to 2017 that met criteria for this study. The findings yielded no consistent evidence of lower or higher intellectual quotient (IQ) in offspring of parents diagnosed with bipolar disorder...
October 28, 2017: Brain Sciences
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