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Affective instability

F Giorgiutti-Dauphiné, L Pauchard
The drying of complex fluids involves a large number of microscopic phenomena (transport and organization of non-volatile solutes) as well as hydrodynamic and mechanical instabilities. These phenomena can be captured in drying sessile drops where different domains can be identified: strong concentration gradients, formation of a glassy or porous envelope that withstands mechanical stress, and consolidation of a layer strongly adhering to the substrate at the drop edge. In colloidal systems, we quantify the evolution of the particle volume fraction at a nanometric scale and microscopic scale and identify the conditions for the envelope formation at the free surface by balancing the effect of diffusion and evaporation...
March 19, 2018: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
Yong-Jun Xu, Hui Sheng, Tian-Wen Wu, Qing-Yue Bao, You Zheng, Yan-Min Zhang, Yu-Xiang Gong, Jian-Qiang Lu, Zhen-Dong You, Yang Xia, Xin Ni
Pregnant women at risk of preterm labor usually receive synthetic glucocorticoids (sGCs) to promote fetal lung development. Emerging evidence indicates that antenatal sGC increases the risk of affective disorders in offspring. Data from animal studies show that such disorders can be transmitted to the second generation. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the intergenerational effects of prenatal sGC remain largely unknown. Here we show that prenatal dexamethasone (Dex) administration in late pregnancy induced depression-like behavior in first-generation (F1) offspring, which could be transmitted to second-generation (F2) offspring with maternal dependence...
March 15, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
JongEun Yim, Jerrold Petrofsky, Haneul Lee
Ankle and foot injuries are common among athletes and physically active individuals. The most common residual disability, ankle sprain, is characterized by instability along with postural sway. If the supporting structures around a joint become lax, posture stability and balance are also affected. Previous studies have examined muscle stiffness and elasticity and postural sway separately; however, the relationship between these factors is yet unknown. It is well known that the levels of sex hormones, especially estrogen, change in women over the phase of the menstrual cycle...
2018: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
Kivanc Atesok, Nobuhiro Tanaka, Andrew O'Brien, Yohan Robinson, Dachling Pang, Donald Deinlein, Sakthivel Rajaram Manoharan, Jason Pittman, Steven Theiss
"Spinal Cord Injury without Radiographic Abnormality" (SCIWORA) is a term that denotes objective clinical signs of posttraumatic spinal cord injury without evidence of fracture or malalignment on plain radiographs and computed tomography (CT) of the spine. SCIWORA is most commonly seen in children with a predilection for the cervical spinal cord due to the increased mobility of the cervical spine, the inherent ligamentous laxity, and the large head-to-body ratio during childhood. However, SCIWORA can also be seen in adults and, in rare cases, the thoracolumbar spinal cord can be affected too...
2018: Advances in Orthopedics
Guohong Liu, Francois X Claret, Fuling Zhou, Yunbao Pan
C-Jun activation domain-binding protein-1 (Jab1) involves in controlling cellular proliferation, cell cycle, apoptosis, affecting a series of pathways, as well as regulating genomic instability and DNA damage response (DDR). Jab1/COPS5 dysregulation contributes to oncogenesis by deactivating several tumor suppressors and activating oncogenes. Jab1 overexpression was found in many tumor types, illuminating its important role in cancer initiation, progression, and prognosis. Jab1/COPS5 has spurred a strong research interest in developing inhibitors of oncogenes/oncoproteins for cancer therapy...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Wan Yang, Shilong He, Ming Han, Bingbing Wang, Qigui Niu, Yujia Xu, Yi Chen, Haibo Wang
In this study, the nitrogen removal performance and microbial community structure were investigated during the start-up, instability, and recovery stages of an anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) reactor loaded with compound carriers (shale ceramsite and suspended ball carrier). The results indicated that the anammox reactor successfully started up on 116th d when the nitrogen loading rate (NLR) reached 0.72 ± 0.05 kg N m-3  d-1 . The anammox reactor ran well with free ammonia (FA) at 13.65 ± 2...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
Gregory C Fanelli, David G Fanelli
The posterior cruciate ligament (PCL)-based multiple ligament injury, or dislocated knee, is often part of a multisystem injury complex that not only includes the knee ligaments, but may also include blood vessels, skin, nerves, fractures, and other organ system trauma. These factors must be considered in the scope of treating this complex knee injury. These complex knee ligament injuries can result in significant functional instability for the affected individual. This article will discuss multiple ligament knee injury evaluation, treatment, and special considerations in the pediatric and adolescent population...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Knee Surgery
Gamal Badr, Halise Inci Gul, Cem Yamali, Amal A M Mohamed, Badr M Badr, Mustafa Gul, Ahmad Abo Markeb, Nagwa Abo El-Maali
Recent developments in the literature have demonstrated that curcumin exhibit antioxidant properties supporting its anti-inflammatory, chemopreventive and antitumoral activities against aggressive and recurrent cancers. Despite the valuable findings of curcumin against different cancer cells, the clinical use of curcumin in cancer treatment is limited due to its extremely low aqueous solubility and instability, which lead to poor in vivo bioavailability and limited therapeutic effects. We therefore focused in the present study to evaluate the anti-tumor potential of curcumin analogues on the human breast carcinoma cell lines MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7, as well as their effects on non-tumorigenic normal breast epithelial cells (MCF-10)...
March 7, 2018: Bioorganic Chemistry
Gordon Parker, Stacey McCraw, Adam Bayes
OBJECTIVES: To determine if differing developmental factors show specificity to differing manifestations of borderline personality disorder (BPD). METHODS: A clinical sample of 73 females diagnosed with BPD undertook a psychiatrist interview and completed self-report questionnaires, including the semi-structured Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders (DIPD-IV) assessing for BPD status. A set of negative and potentially traumatic developmental factors were included in the assessment...
March 1, 2018: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
Teng Gong, Xue-Tao Su, Qun Xia, Jing-Gui Wang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the reason of postoperative axial pain (PAP) complication caused by unilaterally open-door cervical laminoplasty with Centerpiece mini-plate fixations for the treatment of multilevel cervical spondylotic myelopathy(CSM). METHODS: The clinical data of 79 patients with CSM who underwent unilaterally open-door cervical laminoplasty from January 2010 to December 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. There were 45 males and 34 females, aged from 48 to 75 years old with an average of (58...
January 25, 2018: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
Veronica L Cox, Anas A Saeed Bamashmos, Wai Chin Foo, Shiva Gupta, Sireesha Yedururi, Naveen Garg, Hyunseon Christine Kang
Lynch syndrome is the most common hereditary cancer syndrome, the most common cause of heritable colorectal cancer, and the only known heritable cause of endometrial cancer. Other cancers associated with Lynch syndrome include cancers of the ovary, stomach, urothelial tract, and small bowel, and less frequently, cancers of the brain, biliary tract, pancreas, and prostate. The oncogenic tendency of Lynch syndrome stems from a set of genomic alterations of mismatch repair proteins. Defunct mismatch repair proteins cause unusually high instability of regions of the genome called microsatellites...
March 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Johanna Hepp, Sean P Lane, Andrea M Wycoff, Ryan W Carpenter, Timothy J Trull
Affective instability and interpersonal stress are key features of borderline personality disorder (BPD). They were shown to covary in the daily lives of patients in a recent ambulatory assessment study (Hepp et al., 2017) that observed comparatively larger positive associations between interpersonal stressors and negative affect in individuals with BPD than those with depressive disorders. The present study sought to replicate these findings, collecting data on hostility, sadness, fear, and rejection or disagreement events from 56 BPD and 60 community control participants for 21 days, 6 times a day...
February 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
Polyanna Arruda, Marine Raquel Diniz da Rosa, Larissa Nadjara Alves Almeida, Leandro de Araujo Pernambuco, Anna Alice Almeida
Estradiol production varies cyclically, changes in levels are hypothesized to affect the voice. The main objective of this study was to investigate vocal acoustic and auditory-perceptual characteristics during fluctuations in the levels of the hormone estradiol during the menstrual cycle. A total of 44 volunteers aged between 18 and 45 were selected. Of these, 27 women with regular menstrual cycles comprised the test group (TG) and 17 combined oral contraceptive users comprised the control group (CG). The study was performed in two phases...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
J Steiner, H Prüß, S Köhler, A Hasan, P Falkai
Despite intensive research, a precise cause of schizophrenic and schizoaffective disorders has not yet been identified. Therefore, psychiatric diagnoses are still made based on clinical ICD-10/DSM‑5 criteria and not on any objective markers; however, various causes or pathophysiological processes may ultimately lead to similar symptoms. An important task for the future of psychiatry is to identify disease subtypes with a distinct pathophysiology to develop more specific and causally acting therapies. A new diagnostic entity has become established in clinical neurology and psychiatry in recent years: autoimmune encephalitis with psychotic symptoms caused by specific antineuronal antibodies has been identified as a rare but potentially treatable cause of psychotic disorders; however, these inflammatory brain diseases are not reliably detected by routine psychiatric diagnostics...
March 9, 2018: Der Nervenarzt
Lorenza Garribba, Wei Wu, Özgün Özer, Rahul Bhowmick, Ian D Hickson, Ying Liu
Our conventional understanding of the process of DNA replication is that it occurs in the S-phase of the cell division cycle. However, during investigations into the mechanism by which common fragile sites (CFSs) drive genome instability, we observed that some DNA synthesis was still occurring in early mitosis at these loci. This curious phenomenon of mitotic DNA synthesis (which we now term "MiDAS") appears to be a form of break-induced DNA replication (BIR), a DNA repair process based on homologous recombination that has been characterized in detail only in lower eukaryotes...
2018: Methods in Enzymology
Shivakumar Subbanna, Nagaraja N Nagre, Madhu Shivakumar, Vikram Joshi, Delphine Psychoyos, Abdullah Kutlar, Nagavedi S Umapathy, Balapal S Basavarajappa
Alcohol exposure can affect brain development, leading to long-lasting behavioral problems, including cognitive impairment, which together is defined as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). However, the fundamental mechanisms through which this occurs are largely unknown. In this study, we report that the exposure of postnatal day 7 (P7) mice to ethanol activates caspase-3 via cannabinoid receptor type-1 (CB1R) in neonatal mice and causes a reduction in methylated DNA binding protein (MeCP2) levels. The developmental expression of MeCP2 in mice is closely correlated with synaptogenesis and neuronal maturation...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Andrea Achtnich, Wolf Petersen, Lukas Willinger, Andreas Sauter, Michael Rasper, Klaus Wörtler, Andreas B Imhoff, Theresa Diermeier
PURPOSE: Meniscus extrusion has always been described as an indirect sign of meniscus pathology and is associated with a loss of function of the affected meniscus. The current cut-off value of 3 mm displacement is indicated as abnormal and has been determined on magnetic resonance images (MRI) and ultrasound (US). However, it has to be considered that there is no description of the physiological meniscus extrusion in healthy knees depending on age or different weight-bearing conditions...
March 6, 2018: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
Clara B García-Calderón, José Antonio Bejarano-García, Isabel Tinoco-Gago, María José Castro, Paula Moreno-Gordillo, José I Piruat, Teresa Caballero-Velázquez, José A Pérez-Simón, Iván V Rosado
Metabolically reactive formaldehyde is a genotoxin and a carcinogen. Mice lacking the main formaldehyde-detoxifying gene Adh5 combined with the loss of the Fanconi anemia (FA) DNA repair pathway rapidly succumbed to bone marrow failure (BMF) primarily due to the extensive ablation of the hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) pool. However, the mechanism by which formaldehyde mediates these toxic effects is still unknown. We uncover a detrimental role of tetrahydrofolic acid (THF) in cells lacking Adh5 or the FA repair pathway...
March 6, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
Teresa Musumeci, Antonio Leonardi, Angela Bonaccorso, Rosario Pignatello, Giovanni Puglisi
BACKGROUND: Purification is a key step for different type of approaches, ranging from food, biotechnology to pharmaceutical fields. In biotechnology tangential flow filtration (TFF) allows to obtain the separation of different components of cells without instability phenomena. In food industry, TFF ensures the removal of contaminants or other substances that negatively affect visual appearance, organoleptic attributes, nutritional value and/or safety of aliments. Purification is an important and necessary step controlling the quality of final product also in the pharmaceutical area...
March 6, 2018: Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology
Federico Cilento, Giulia Manzoni, Andrea Sterzi, Simone Peli, Andrea Ronchi, Alberto Crepaldi, Fabio Boschini, Cephise Cacho, Richard Chapman, Emma Springate, Hiroshi Eisaki, Martin Greven, Mona Berciu, Alexander F Kemper, Andrea Damascelli, Massimo Capone, Claudio Giannetti, Fulvio Parmigiani
Many puzzling properties of high-critical temperature ( T c ) superconducting (HTSC) copper oxides have deep roots in the nature of the antinodal quasiparticles, the elementary excitations with wave vector parallel to the Cu-O bonds. These electronic states are most affected by the onset of antiferromagnetic correlations and charge instabilities, and they host the maximum of the anisotropic superconducting gap and pseudogap. We use time-resolved extreme-ultraviolet photoemission with proper photon energy (18 eV) and time resolution (50 fs) to disclose the ultrafast dynamics of the antinodal states in a prototypical HTSC cuprate...
February 2018: Science Advances
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