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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329865/what-doesn-t-kill-you-doesn-t-make-you-stronger-the-long-term-consequences-of-nonfatal-injury-for-older-adults
#1
Dongjuan Xu, Julia A Rivera Drew
Purpose: The majority of research efforts centering on injury among older adults focus on fall-related injuries and short-term consequences of injury. Little is known about the long-term consequences of all-cause nonfatal injuries, including minor injuries. Using a recent, large, and nationally representative sample of the U.S. non-institutionalized civilian population, the current study examines whether older adults who sustained a nonfatal injury (serious and minor) have higher risk of long-term morbidity and mortality outcomes compared with noninjured seniors...
March 10, 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329841/using-latent-class-analysis-to-identify-profiles-of-elder-abuse-perpetrators
#2
Marguerite DeLiema, Jeanine Yonashiro-Cho, Zach D Gassoumis, Yongjie Yon, Ken J Conrad
Objectives: Research suggests that abuser risk factors differ across elder mistreatment types, but abuse interventions are not individualized. To move away from assumptions of perpetrator homogeneity and to inform intervention approaches, this study classifies abusers into subtypes according to their behavior profiles. Method: Data are from the Older Adult Mistreatment Assessment administered to victims by Adult Protective Service (APS) in Illinois. Latent class analysis was used to categorize abusers (N = 336) using victim and caseworker reports on abusers' harmful and supportive behaviors and characteristics...
March 8, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329377/time-to-refocus-assessment-of-vision-in-older-adults-contrast-sensitivity-but-not-visual-acuity-is-associated-with-gait-in-older-adults
#3
Eoin Duggan, Orna Donoghue, Rose Anne Kenny, Hilary Cronin, James Loughman, Ciarán Finucane
Background: The relationship between measures of visual function and gait related risk factors for falls is unclear. In this study, we examine the relationship between visual function (visual acuity [VA] and contrast sensitivity [CS] at multiple spatial frequencies) and quantitative spatiotemporal gait, using a large, nationally representative sample of community dwelling older adults. Methods: Participants aged 50 and over were recruited as part of The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA)...
February 28, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329183/remote-traumatic-brain-injury-is-associated-with-motor-dysfunction-in-older-military-veterans
#4
Raquel C Gardner, Carrie B Peltz, Kimbra Kenney, Kenneth E Covinsky, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Kristine Yaffe
Background: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been identified as a risk factor for Parkinson's disease (PD). Motor dysfunction among TBI-exposed elders without PD has not been well characterized. We sought to determine whether remote TBI is a risk factor for motor dysfunction on exam and functionally relevant motor dysfunction in day-to-day life among independently living elders without PD. Methods: This is a cross-sectional cohort study of independently living retired military veterans aged 50 or older with (n = 78) and without (n = 85) prior TBI-all without diagnosed PD...
January 20, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326869/design-and-evaluation-of-vibratory-shoe-on-balance-control-for-elderly-subjects-technical-note
#5
Atefeh Aboutorabi, Mokhtar Arazpour, Farzam Farahmand, Mahmood Bahramizadeh, Reza Fadayevatan, Ehsan Abdollahi
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Aging often results in a decline in somatosensory function, and such changes are associated with diminished motor performance. Input noise can enhance sensory and motor function through a mechanism known as stochastic resonance (SR). This paper describes the development and testing of a new vibrating shoe to possibly assist the elderly patients in controlling their balance and decreasing their falling risks. TECHNIQUE: The new vibrating shoe was evaluated to ascertain its ability to generate appropriate random and nonlinear vibrations...
March 22, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321507/the-relationship-between-cumulative-lifetime-ultraviolet-radiation-exposure-bone-mineral-density-falls-risk-and-fractures-in-older-adults
#6
M J W Thompson, D A Aitken, P Otahal, J Cicolini, T M Winzenberg, G Jones
Data linking cumulative lifetime vitamin D status with skeletal outcomes are lacking. We show that increasing cumulative sun exposure was associated with higher bone mineral density in younger males and protective against fractures in females independent of current vitamin D. This supports the concept that cumulative sun exposure is an important contributor to skeletal health. INTRODUCTION: While low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels are associated with increased fracture risk, this reflects only recent sun exposure...
March 20, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321393/an-integrated-approach-to-falls-prevention-a-model-for-linking-clinical-and-community-interventions-through-the-massachusetts-prevention-and-wellness-trust-fund
#7
Laura J Coe, Julie Ann St John, Santhi Hariprasad, Kalpana N Shankar, Patricia A MacCulloch, Amy L Bettano, Jean Zotter
Older adult falls continue to be a public health priority across the United States-Massachusetts (MA) being no exception. The MA Prevention and Wellness Trust Fund (PWTF) program within the MA Department of Public Health aims to reduce the physical and economic burdens of chronic health conditions by linking evidence-based clinical care with community intervention programs. The PWTF partnerships that focused on older adult falls prevention integrated the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Stopping Elderly Accidents, Death and Injuries toolkit into clinical settings...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302594/a-human-centered-design-methodology-to-enhance-the-usability-human-factors-and-user-experience-of-connected-health-systems-a-three-phase-methodology
#8
Richard Harte, Liam Glynn, Alejandro Rodríguez-Molinero, Paul Ma Baker, Thomas Scharf, Leo R Quinlan, Gearóid ÓLaighin
BACKGROUND: Design processes such as human-centered design, which involve the end user throughout the product development and testing process, can be crucial in ensuring that the product meets the needs and capabilities of the user, particularly in terms of safety and user experience. The structured and iterative nature of human-centered design can often present a challenge when design teams are faced with the necessary, rapid, product development life cycles associated with the competitive connected health industry...
March 16, 2017: JMIR Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302422/paramedic-assessment-of-older-adults-after-falls-including-community-care-referral-pathway-cluster-randomized-trial
#9
Helen A Snooks, Rebecca Anthony, Robin Chatters, Jeremy Dale, Rachael T Fothergill, Sarah Gaze, Mary Halter, Ioan Humphreys, Marina Koniotou, Phillipa Logan, Ronan A Lyons, Suzanne Mason, Jon Nicholl, Julie Peconi, Ceri Phillips, Alison Porter, Aloysius Niroshan Siriwardena, Mushtaq Wani, Alan Watkins, Lynsey Wilson, Ian T Russell
STUDY OBJECTIVE: We aim to determine clinical and cost-effectiveness of a paramedic protocol for the care of older people who fall. METHODS: We undertook a cluster randomized trial in 3 UK ambulance services between March 2011 and June 2012. We included patients aged 65 years or older after an emergency call for a fall, attended by paramedics based at trial stations. Intervention paramedics could refer the patient to a community-based falls service instead of transporting the patient to the emergency department...
March 13, 2017: Annals of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302314/a-new-measure-of-trip-risk-integrating-minimum-foot-clearance-and-dynamic-stability-across-the-swing-phase-of-gait
#10
Brian W Schulz
Minimum toe clearance (MTC) is thought to quantify the risk of the toe contacting the ground during the swing phase of gait and initiating a trip, but there are methodological issues with this measure and the risk of trip-related falls has been shown to also be associated with gait speed and dynamic stability. This paper proposes and evaluates a new measure, trip risk integral (TRI), that circumvents many issues with MTC as typically calculated at a single point by considering minimum foot clearance across the entire swing phase and taking into account dynamic stability to estimate risk of falling due to a trip rather than risk of the foot contacting the floor...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301451/traumatic-brain-injury-related-emergency-department-visits-hospitalizations-and-deaths-united-states-2007-and-2013
#11
Christopher A Taylor, Jeneita M Bell, Matthew J Breiding, Likang Xu
PROBLEM/CONDITION: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has short- and long-term adverse clinical outcomes, including death and disability. TBI can be caused by a number of principal mechanisms, including motor-vehicle crashes, falls, and assaults. This report describes the estimated incidence of TBI-related emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations, and deaths during 2013 and makes comparisons to similar estimates from 2007. REPORTING PERIOD: 2007 and 2013. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM: State-based administrative health care data were used to calculate estimates of TBI-related ED visits and hospitalizations by principal mechanism of injury, age group, sex, and injury intent...
March 17, 2017: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299643/retention-of-the-first-trial-effect-in-gait-slip-among-community-living-older-adults
#12
Xuan Liu, Tanvi Bhatt, Shuaijie Wang, Feng Yang, Yi-Chung Clive Pai
"First-trial effect" characterizes the rapid adaptive behavior that changes the performance outcome (from fall to non-fall) after merely a single exposure to postural disturbance. The purpose of this study was to investigate how long the first-trial effect could last. Seventy-five (≥ 65 years) community-dwelling older adults, who were protected by an overhead full body harness system, were retested for a single slip 6-12 months after their initial exposure to a single gait-slip. Subjects' body kinematics that was used to compute their proactive (feedforward) and reactive (feedback) control of stability was recorded by an eight-camera motion analysis system...
February 2017: Geroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295143/impaired-orthostatic-blood-pressure-recovery-is-associated-with-unexplained-and-injurious-falls
#13
Ciarán Finucane, Matthew D L O'Connell, Orna Donoghue, Kathryn Richardson, George M Savva, Rose Anne Kenny
OBJECTIVES: Cardiovascular disorders are recognized as important modifiable risk factors for falls. However, the association between falls and orthostatic hypotension (OH) remains ambivalent, particularly because of poor measurement methods of previous studies. The goal was to determine for the first time to what extent OH (and variants) are risk factors for incident falls, unexplained falls (UF), injurious falls (IF) and syncope using dynamic blood pressure (BP) measurements in a population study...
March 10, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293145/nursing-home-nurses-and-community-dwelling-older-adults-reported-knowledge-attitudes-and-behavior-toward-antibiotic-use
#14
Christine E Kistler, Anna Beeber, Sylvia Becker-Dreps, Kimberly Ward, Megan Meade, Brittany Ross, Philip D Sloane
BACKGROUND: Antibiotic overuse causes antibiotic resistance, one of the most important threats to human health. Older adults, particularly those in nursing homes, often receive antibiotics when they are not indicated. METHODS: To understand knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of nursing home (NH) nurses and community-dwelling older adults towards antibiotic use, especially in clinical situations consistent with antibiotic overuse, we conducted a mixed-method survey in two NHs and one Family Medicine clinic in North Carolina, among English-speaking nurses and community-dwelling, cognitively intact adults aged 65 years or older...
2017: BMC Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291808/foraging-and-metabolic-consequences-of-semi-anadromy-for-an-endangered-estuarine-fish
#15
Bruce G Hammock, Steven B Slater, Randall D Baxter, Nann A Fangue, Dennis Cocherell, April Hennessy, Tomofumi Kurobe, Christopher Y Tai, Swee J Teh
Diadromy affords fish access to productive ecosystems, increasing growth and ultimately fitness, but it is unclear whether these advantages persist for species migrating within highly altered habitat. Here, we compared the foraging success of wild Delta Smelt-an endangered, zooplanktivorous, annual, semi-anadromous fish that is endemic to the highly altered San Francisco Estuary (SFE)-collected from freshwater (<0.55 psu) and brackish habitat (≥0.55 psu). Stomach fullness, averaged across three generations of wild Delta Smelt sampled from juvenile through adult life stages (n = 1,318), was 1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291562/consequences-of-sarcopenia-among-nursing-home-residents-at%C3%A2-long-term%C3%A2-follow-up
#16
Tim Henwood, Bothaina Hassan, Paul Swinton, Hugh Senior, Justin Keogh
The consequences of and transition into sarcopenia with long-term survival was investigated in the nursing home setting. Eligible residents from 11 nursing homes were followed-up 18-months after their assessment for sarcopenia using the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People criteria, with other demographic, physical and cognitive health measures collected. Of the 102 older adults who consented at baseline, 22 had died and 58 agreed to participate at follow-up, 51.7% of whom had sarcopenic. Sarcopenia at baseline was associated with a depression (p < ...
March 10, 2017: Geriatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290748/acute-effects-of-walking-exercise-on-stair-negotiation-in-sedentary-and-physically-active-older-adults
#17
Marcos R Kunzler, Emmanuel S da Rocha, Maarten F Bobbert, Jacques Duysens, Felipe P Carpes
BACKGROUND: In negotiating stairs, low foot clearance increases the risk of tripping and a fall. Foot clearance may be related to physical fitness, which differs between active and sedentary participants, and be acutely affected by exercise. Impaired stair negotiation could be an acute response to exercise. Here we determined acute changes in foot clearances during stair walking in sedentary (n=15) and physically active older adults (n=15) after prolonged exercise. METHODS: Kinematic data were acquired during negotiation with a 3-steps staircase while participants walked at preferred speed, before and after a 30 min walking at preferred speed and using a treadmill...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290746/virtual-reality-training-with-three-dimensional-video-games-improves-postural-balance-and-lower-extremity-strength-in-community-dwelling-older-adults
#18
Yongwoo Lee, Wonjae Choi, Kyeongjin Lee, Changho Song, Seungwon Lee
Avatar-based three-dimensional technology is a new approach to improve physical function in older adults. The aim of this study was to use three-dimensional video gaming technology in virtual reality training to improve postural balance and lower extremity strength in a population of community-dwelling older adults. The experimental group participated in the virtual reality training program for 60 minutes, twice a week, for 6 weeks. Both experimental and control groups were given 3 times for falls prevention education at the first, third, and fifth weeks...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289679/efficacy-of-a-student-led-community-based-multifactorial-fall-prevention-program-stay-in-balance
#19
Cheryl A Der Ananian, Melanie Mitros, Matthew Paul Buman
BACKGROUND: Falls are a major public health concern in older adults. Recent fall prevention guidelines recommend the use of multifactorial fall prevention programs (FPPs) that include exercise for community-dwelling older adults; however, the availability of sustainable, community-based FPPs is limited. METHODS: We conducted a 24-week quasi-experimental study to evaluate the efficacy of a community-based, multifactorial FPP [Stay in Balance (SIB)] on dynamic and functional balance and muscular strength...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288563/is-independence-of-older-adults-safe-considering-the-risk-of-falls
#20
Dorota Talarska, Magdalena Strugała, Marlena Szewczyczak, Sławomir Tobis, Michał Michalak, Izabela Wróblewska, Katarzyna Wieczorowska-Tobis
BACKGROUND: Falls affect approx. 30% of elderly population per year. They cause major injuries and reduce independence of the older adults' functioning. The main objective of the study was to evaluate the degree of independence and find the fall risk factors in the study group. METHODS: The study included 506 - older adults. The study group included patients from GP clinics and members of two senior centers. The study duration was 12 months. Our study tools included EASY- Care Standard 2010 questionnaire, Abbreviated Mental Test Score (AMTS), Index Barthel, Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale (IADL), Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS), Timed Up and Go (TUG)...
March 14, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
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