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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035965/effectiveness-of-bedrails-in-preventing-falls-among-hospitalized-older-adults-a-systematic-review
#1
Paulo Marques, Carmen Queirós, João Apóstolo, Daniela Cardoso
BACKGROUND: Falls are a major problem today affecting adults of any age, but the elderly are a population that is more susceptible to falls. Falls are the leading cause of injury or death among older adults. Hospitalized older people are particularly vulnerable to falls. Falls cause direct injuries (minor injuries, severe wounds of the soft tissues and bone fractures) to patients and increased length of stay. The prevention of falls is commonly considered an indicator of the quality of care...
October 2017: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031347/rehabilitation-needs-of-the-elder-with-traumatic-brain-injury
#2
REVIEW
Manuel F Mas, Amy Mathews, Ekua Gilbert-Baffoe
The incidence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) in older adults is increasing. As the expected life expectancy increases, there is a heightened need for comprehensive rehabilitation for this population. Elderly patients with TBI benefit from rehabilitation interventions at all stages of injury and can achieve functional gains during acute inpatient rehabilitation. Clinicians should be vigilant of unique characteristics of this population during inpatient rehabilitation, including vulnerability to polypharmacy, posttraumatic hydrocephalus, neuropsychiatric sequelae, sleep disturbances, and sensory deficits...
November 2017: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031339/balance-problems-and-fall-risks-in-the-elderly
#3
REVIEW
Ramon Cuevas-Trisan
Falls in the elderly are an increasing problem causing a high degree of morbidity, mortality, and use of health care services. Identification of risk factors through medical assessment supports the provision of appropriate interventions that reduce rates of falling. Evaluation and intervention strategies are generally challenging because of the complex and multifactorial nature of falls. The clinician should consider screening for falls an important part of the functional evaluation in older adults. Several potential interventions have proven helpful as preventive strategies...
November 2017: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031336/psychosocial-issues-in-geriatric-rehabilitation
#4
REVIEW
Ricardo M Rodriguez
Geriatric patients present multiple age-related challenges and needs that must be taken into account during the rehabilitation process to achieve expected goals. This article examines the importance of identifying and managing psychosocial issues commonly observed in older adults and presents strategies to optimize their rehabilitation process. Depression, anxiety, fear of falling, adjustment issues, neurocognitive disorders, and caregiver support are discussed as a selection of factors that are relevant for geriatric patients undergoing rehabilitation...
November 2017: Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029240/a-greater-extent-of-insomnia-symptoms-and-physician-recommended-sleep-medication-use-predict-fall-risk-in-community-dwelling-older-adults
#5
Tuo-Yu Chen, Soomi Lee, Orfeu M Buxton
Study Objectives: Cross-sectional studies suggest that insomnia symptoms are associated with falls in later life. This longitudinal study examines the independent and interactive effects of the extent of insomnia symptoms (i.e., multiple co-existing insomnia symptoms) and sleep medications on fall risk over a 2-year follow-up among community-dwelling older adults. Methods: Using data from the Health and Retirement Study (2006-2014, N = 6882, Mage = 74.5 years ± 6...
October 3, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029214/sleepless-night-and-day-the-plight-of-progressive-supranuclear-palsy
#6
Christine M Walsh, Leslie Ruoff, Kathleen Walker, Alaisa Emery, Jonathan Varbel, Elissaios Karageorgiou, Phi N Luong, Irida Mance, Hilary W Heuer, Adam L Boxer, Lea T Grinberg, Joel H Kramer, Bruce L Miller, Thomas C Neylan
Objectives: To elucidate the unique sleep and waking characteristics in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), a neurodegenerative disease associated with motor deficits and dementia that largely affects the brainstem and thalamic regions. Methods: 20 PSP and 16 healthy older adult controls participated in this study. Participants underwent an overnight polysomnography and multiple sleep latency test (MSLT) the following day. Prior to the MSLT last trial, participants were asked to complete the Stanford Sleepiness Scale...
October 5, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023317/effects-of-physical-exercise-in-older-adults-with-reduced-physical-capacity-meta-analysis-of-resistance-exercise-and-multimodal-exercise
#7
Chiung-Ju Liu, Wen-Pin Chang, Islene Araujo de Carvalho, Katie E L Savage, Lori W Radford, Jotheeswaran Amuthavalli Thiyagarajan
Older adults with reduced physical capacity are at greater risk of progression to care dependency. Progressive resistance strength exercise and multimodal exercise have been studied to restore reduced physical capacity. To summarize the best evidence of the two exercise regimes, this meta-analysis study appraised randomized-controlled trials from published systematic reviews. Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Review and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Clinical Trials were searched for relevant systematic reviews...
October 11, 2017: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research. Revue Internationale de Recherches de Réadaptation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020106/can-tai-chi-training-impact-fractal-stride-time-dynamics-an-index-of-gait-health-in-older-adults-cross-sectional-and-randomized-trial-studies
#8
Brian J Gow, Jeffrey M Hausdorff, Brad Manor, Lewis A Lipsitz, Eric A Macklin, Paolo Bonato, Vera Novak, Chung-Kang Peng, Andrew C Ahn, Peter M Wayne
PURPOSE: To determine if Tai Chi (TC) has an impact on long-range correlations and fractal-like scaling in gait stride time dynamics, previously shown to be associated with aging, neurodegenerative disease, and fall risk. METHODS: Using Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA), this study evaluated the impact of TC mind-body exercise training on stride time dynamics assessed during 10 minute bouts of overground walking. A hybrid study design investigated long-term effects of TC via a cross-sectional comparison of 27 TC experts (24...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019274/effects-of-whole-body-vibration-on-balance-and-mobility-in-institutionalized-older-adults-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Freddy Mh Lam, Philip Fl Chan, L R Liao, Jean Woo, Elsie Hui, Charles Wk Lai, Timothy Cy Kwok, Marco Yc Pang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether a comprehensive exercise program was effective in improving physical function among institutionalized older adults and whether adding whole-body vibration to the program conferred additional therapeutic benefits. DESIGN: A single-blinded randomized controlled trial was conducted. SETTING: This study was carried out in residential care units. PARTICIPANTS: In total, 73 older adults (40 women, mean age: 82...
October 1, 2017: Clinical Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018904/kyphosis-and-incident-falls-among-community-dwelling-older-adults
#10
C McDaniels-Davidson, A Davis, D Wing, C Macera, S P Lindsay, J T Schousboe, J F Nichols, D M Kado
Hyperkyphosis commonly affects older persons and is associated with morbidity and mortality. Many have hypothesized that hyperkyphosis increases fall risk. Within this prospective study of older adults, kyphosis was significantly associated with incident falls over 1 year. Measures of hyperkyphosis could enhance falls risk assessments during primary care office visits. INTRODUCTION: To determine the association between four measures of kyphosis and incident and injurious falls in older persons...
October 10, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018817/balance-performance-is-task-specific-in-older-adults
#11
Ayelet Dunsky, Aviva Zeev, Yael Netz
Balance ability among the elderly is a key component in the activities of daily living and is divided into two types: static and dynamic. For clinicians who wish to assess the risk of falling among their elderly patients, it is unclear if more than one type of balance test can be used to measure their balance impairment. In this study, we examined the association between static balance measures and two dynamic balance field tests. One hundred and twelve community-dwelling older adults (mean age 74.6) participated in the study...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017107/vitamin-d-and-parathyroid-hormone-are-associated-with-gait-instability-and-poor-balance-performance-in-mid-age-to-older-aged-women
#12
Marie-Louise Bird, Natalie El Haber, Frances Batchelor, Keith Hill, John D Wark
CONTEXT: Vitamin D status and parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels influence the risk of accidental falls in older people, but the mechanisms underlying this effect remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: Investigate the relationship between circulating PTH and 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) levels and clinical tests of gait stability and balance as physical fall risk factors. We hypothesized that high levels of PTH and low 25-OHD levels would be significantly associated with gait stability and decreased balance performance...
September 28, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016420/prevention-strategies-in-post-tbi-depression-in-older-adults-a-case-study
#13
Esther Bay, Anne Marie Garbinski, Susan E Maycock
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to describe a theoretically focused intervention aimed toward chronic stress and depressive symptom management that is coordinated by a case manager and delivered within a home environment by the caregiver. PRIMARY PRACTICE SETTING: Home care, community setting. METHODS: A case study of an older adult with traumatic brain injury (TBI) secondary to a fall who had significant allostatic load at the time of his injury...
November 2017: Professional Case Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991026/frailty-is-strongly-associated-with-increased-risk-of-recurrent-falls-among-older-hiv-infected-adults
#14
Katherine Tassiopoulos, Mona Abdo, Kunling Wu, Susan L Koletar, Frank J Palella, Robert Kalayjian, Babafemi Taiwo, Kristine M Erlandson
OBJECTIVE: Both frailty and falls occur at earlier-than-expected ages among HIV-infected individuals, but the contribution of frailty-to-fall risk in this population is not well understood. We examined this association among participants enrolled in AIDS Clinical Trials Group (ACTG) A5322. DESIGN: A prospective, multicenter cohort study of HIV-infected men and women aged at least 40 years. METHODS: Frailty assessment included a 4-m walk, grip strength, and self-reported weight loss, exhaustion, and low physical activity...
October 23, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987765/impaired-perceived-timing-of-falls-in-the-elderly
#15
Julian Lupo, Michael Barnett-Cowan
Falls are the leading cause of injury-related deaths and hospitalizations, with older adults at an increased risk. As humans age, physical changes and health conditions make falls more likely. While we know how the body reflexively responds to prevent injury during a fall, we know little about how people perceive the fall itself. We previously found that young adults required a fall to precede a comparison sound stimulus by approximately 44ms to perceive the two events as simultaneous. This may relate to common anecdotal reports suggesting that humans often describe distortions in their perception of time - time seems to slow down during a fall - with very little recollection of how and when the fall began...
September 28, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987715/mitigating-fall-risk-a-community-fall-reduction-program
#16
Humberto Reinoso, Ruth G McCaffrey, David W M Taylor
One fourth of all American's over 65 years of age fall each year. Falls are a common and often devastating event that can pose a serious health risk for older adults. Healthcare providers are often unable to spend the time required to assist older adults with fall risk issues. Without a team approach to fall prevention the system remains focused on fragmented levels of health promotion and risk prevention. The specific aim of this project was to engage older adults from the community in a fall risk assessment program, using the Stopping Elderly Accidents, Deaths & Injuries (STEADI) program, and provide feedback on individual participants' risks that participants could share with their primary care physician...
October 5, 2017: Geriatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987612/a-vibrotactile-wristband-to-help-older-pedestrians-make-safer-street-crossing-decisions
#17
Stéphanie Cœugnet, Aurélie Dommes, Sabrina Panëels, Aline Chevalier, Fabrice Vienne, Nguyen-Thong Dang, Margarita Anastassova
INTRODUCTION: Older pedestrians are overrepresented in fatal accidents. Studies consistently show gap-acceptance difficulties, especially in complex traffic situations such as two-way streets and when vehicles approached rapidly. In this context, the present research was aimed at assessing the effectiveness of a vibrotactile device and study older pedestrian's behavior when wearing the wristband designed to help them make safer street-crossing decisions. METHOD: Twenty younger-old participants (age 60-69), 20 older-old participants (age 70-80) and 17 younger adults (age 20-45) carried out a street-crossing task in a simulated two-way traffic environment with and without a vibrotactile wristband delivering warning messages...
October 4, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982069/evaluation-of-brivaracetam-efficacy-as-monotherapy-in-adult-patients-with-focal-seizures
#18
Rik Schoemaker, Janet R Wade, Joseph D'Souza, Armel Stockis
Brivaracetam is a selective, high-affinity ligand for synaptic vesicle protein 2A, recently approved as adjunctive therapy in the treatment of focal (partial-onset) seizures in patients 16 years of age and older with epilepsy. The goal of the present analysis was to determine if the dose-response of brivaracetam as monotherapy would fall within the range associated with brivaracetam efficacy as adjunctive therapy. An existing brivaracetam population pharmacokinetic model consisting of first-order absorption, single compartment distribution, and first-order elimination components was extended by estimating the clearance changes due to co-administration of 12 widely prescribed AEDs...
September 20, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981494/characteristics-of-older-adults-hospitalised-following-trauma-in-the-midland-region-of-new-zealand
#19
Katrina O'Leary, Bridget Kool, Grant Christey
AIM: To describe the epidemiology of injuries sustained by older adult trauma patients admitted to hospitals in the Midland region (population 886,000) of New Zealand. METHODS: A review of older adult (≥65 years) trauma cases from the Midland Trauma Registry for the three-year period January 2012 to December 2014 was conducted. Demographics, mechanism of injury, severity of injuries, processes of care and outcomes were analysed. RESULTS: Older adults accounted for 14% (2,278/15,700) of all injury cases captured by the registry during the study period (average annualised incidence 585/100,000 population)...
October 6, 2017: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980220/feasibility-of-a-machine-vs-free-weight-strength-training-program-and-its-effects-on-physical-performance-in-nursing-home-residents-a-pilot-study
#20
Bettina Johnen, Nadja Schott
BACKGROUND: Resistance training holds promise for nursing home residents to prevent further disabilities, falls, and fractures. Free weight as well as machine training may offer an efficient option to improve physical performance, but the feasibility of these training regimes among elderly who require continuous institutional care is still open. AIMS: (1) To examine the feasibility of a 3-month machine vs. free weight strength training program in institutionalized older adults, and (2) to determine the effects on physical performance...
October 4, 2017: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
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