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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718008/the-effect-of-vitamin%C3%A2-d-and-calcium-supplementation-on-falls-in-older-adults-a%C3%A2-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
Haiting Wu, Qingjiang Pang
OBJECTIVES: A number of studies have hypothesized that vitamin D is a potential factor in the prevention of falls in the elderly; however, the effect of vitamin D is still inconsistent and not quantitative. We conducted this meta-analysis to assess the effect of vitamin D on falls among elderly individuals. METHODS: The PubMed and Cochrane Library databases were searched from the earliest possible year up to December 2016. Two authors working independently reviewed the trials, and odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using a fixed-effect or random-effect model by Review Manager 5...
July 17, 2017: Der Orthopäde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717984/falls-in-older-people-comparing-older-and-younger-fallers-in-a-developing-country
#2
R R Yogi, I Sammy, J F Paul, P Nunes, P Robertson, V Ramcharitar Maharaj
PURPOSE: While falls are common in older people, causing significant mortality and morbidity, this phenomenon has not been extensively studied in the Caribbean. This study aimed to compare falls in older and younger people in this setting. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study of older trauma patients in Trinidad, comparing older and younger patients sustaining falls. RESULTS: 1432 adult trauma patients were included (1141 aged 18-64 years and 291 aged 65 years and older)...
July 17, 2017: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717816/prospective-associations-of-low-muscle-mass-and-function-with-10-year-falls-risk-incident-fracture-and-mortality-in-community-dwelling-older-adults
#3
S Balogun, T Winzenberg, K Wills, D Scott, G Jones, D Aitken, M L Callisaya
OBJECTIVES: Purpose: To compare the performance of low muscle mass and function with falls risk, incident fracture and mortality over 10 years. METHODS: 1041 participants (50% women; mean age 63±7.5 years) were prospectively followed for 10 years. Falls risk was measured using the Physiological Profile Assessment, fractures were self-reported and mortality was ascertained from the death registry. Appendicular lean mass (ALM) was assessed using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716352/fatal-and-non-fatal-injury-outcomes-results-from-a-purposively-sampled-census-of-seven-rural-subdistricts-in-bangladesh
#4
Olakunle Alonge, Priyanka Agrawal, Abu Talab, Qazi S Rahman, Akm Fazlur Rahman, Shams El Arifeen, Adnan A Hyder
BACKGROUND: 90% of the global burden of injuries is borne by low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). However, details of the injury burden in LMICs are less clear because of the scarcity of data and population-based studies. The Saving of Lives from Drowning project, implemented in rural Bangladesh, did a census on 1·2 million people to fill this gap. This Article describes the epidemiology of fatal and non-fatal injuries from the study. METHODS: In this study, we used data from the baseline census conducted as part of the Saving of Lives from Drowning (SoLiD) project...
August 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716004/concurrent-use-of-alcohol-interactive-medications-and-alcohol-in-older-adults-a-systematic-review-of-prevalence-and-associated-adverse-outcomes
#5
Alice E Holton, Paul Gallagher, Tom Fahey, Gráinne Cousins
BACKGROUND: Older adults are susceptible to adverse effects from the concurrent use of medications and alcohol. The aim of this study was to systematically review the prevalence of concurrent use of alcohol and alcohol-interactive (AI) medicines in older adults and associated adverse outcomes. METHODS: A systematic search was performed using MEDLINE (PubMed), Embase, Scopus and Web of Science (January 1990 to June 2016), and hand searching references of retrieved articles...
July 17, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716003/eccentric-versus-traditional-resistance-exercise-for-older-adult-fallers-in-the-community-a-randomized-trial-within-a-multi-component-fall-reduction-program
#6
Paul LaStayo, Robin Marcus, Leland Dibble, Bob Wong, Ginette Pepper
BACKGROUND: Addressing muscle deficits within a multi-component exercise fall reduction program is a priority, especially for the highest risk older adults, i.e., those who have fallen previously. Eccentric resistance exercise with its high-force producing potential, at a low energetic cost, may be ideally-suited to address muscle impairments in this population. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of resistance exercise via negative, eccentrically-induced, work (RENEW) versus traditional (TRAD) resistance exercise on mobility, balance confidence, muscle power and cross sectional area, as well as the number of days high fall risk older adults survived without a fall event over a 1 year period...
July 17, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715566/injurious-falls-and-syncope-in-older-community-dwelling-adults-meeting-inclusion-criteria-for-sprint
#7
Donal J Sexton, Mark Canney, Matthew D L O'Connell, Patrick Moore, Mark A Little, Conall M O'Seaghdha, Rose-Anne Kenny
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 17, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714802/binocular-vision-disorders-and-visual-attention-associations-with-balance-and-mobility-in-older-adults
#8
Mohammed M Althomali, Susan J Leat
Understanding which aspects of vision are related to falls is important. We examine the associations between tests of balance, mobility, fear of falling (FES-1) and aspects of vision in 72 adults aged 70+. Balance and mobility were examined using the One Legged Stance test (OLST), the Sit to Stand test (STST) and the 5 Meter Walking test (5MWT). Visual measures included visual acuity (VA), contrast sensitivity, stereoacuity, binocular vision (BV) measurements, Useful field of View (UFV) and Attended Field of View (AFOV)...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Aging and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714755/foot-and-ankle-kinematics-during-descent-from-varying-step-heights
#9
Emily E Gerstle, Kristian O'Connor, Kevin G Keenan, Stephen C Cobb
In the general population, one-third of incidences during step negotiation occur during the transition to level walking. Furthermore, falls during curb negotiation are a common cause injury in older adults. Distal foot kinematics may be an important factor in determining injury risk associated with transition step negotiation. The purpose of this study was to identify foot and ankle kinematics of uninjured individuals during descent from varying step heights. A seven-segment foot model was used to quantify kinematics as participants walked on a level walkway, stepped down a single step (heights: 5 cm, 15 cm, 25 cm) and continued walking...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714709/asian-americans-respond-less-favorably-to-excitement-vs-calm-focused-physicians-compared-to-european-americans
#10
Tamara Sims, Birgit Koopmann-Holm, Henry R Young, Da Jiang, Helene Fung, Jeanne L Tsai
OBJECTIVES: Despite being considered a "model minority," Asian Americans report worse health care encounters than do European Americans. This may be due to affective mismatches between Asian American patients and their European American physicians. We predicted that because Asian Americans value excitement (vs. calm) less than European Americans, they will respond less favorably to excitement-focused (vs. calm) physicians. METHOD: In Study 1, 198 European American, Chinese American, and Hong Kong Chinese community adults read a medical scenario and indicated their preference for an excitement-focused versus calm-focused physician...
July 17, 2017: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713255/the-impact-of-aerobic-exercise-on-fronto-parietal-network-connectivity-and-its-relation-to-mobility-an-exploratory-analysis-of-a-6-month-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Chun L Hsu, John R Best, Shirley Wang, Michelle W Voss, Robin G Y Hsiung, Michelle Munkacsy, Winnie Cheung, Todd C Handy, Teresa Liu-Ambrose
Impaired mobility is a major concern for older adults and has significant consequences. While the widely accepted belief is that improved physical function underlies the effectiveness of targeted exercise training in improving mobility and reducing falls, recent evidence suggests cognitive and neural benefits gained through exercise may also play an important role in promoting mobility. However, the underlying neural mechanisms of this relationship are currently unclear. Thus, we hypothesize that 6 months of progressive aerobic exercise training would alter frontoparietal network (FPN) connectivity during a motor task among older adults with mild subcortical ischemic vascular cognitive impairment (SIVCI)-and exercise-induced changes in FPN connectivity would correlate with changes in mobility...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704008/-can-mobilization-preserve-the-elderly-hospitalized-from-functional-decline
#12
Marie Méan, Christophe Bula, Gérard Waeber
Up to 65% of older adults who walk independently will lose this capacity during a hospital stay. In older adults, loss of walking independence increases the length of hospital stay, the need for rehabilitation services and for institutionalization, as well as the risk of falls (during hospital stay and after discharge) and the risk of death. Bed rest or limited walking during a hospital stay causes deconditioning and is one of the primary risk factors for loss of independence and adverse outcome in hospitalized older adults...
January 25, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700633/effects-of-the-lateral-amplitude-and-regularity-of-upper-body-fluctuation-on-step-time-variability-evaluated-using-return-map-analysis
#13
Kazuhiro Chidori, Yuji Yamamoto
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the lateral amplitude and regularity of upper body fluctuation on step time variability. Return map analysis was used to clarify the relationship between step time variability and a history of falling. Eleven healthy, community-dwelling older adults and twelve younger adults participated in the study. All of the subjects walked 25 m at a comfortable speed. Trunk acceleration was measured using triaxial accelerometers attached to the third lumbar vertebrae (L3) and the seventh cervical vertebrae (C7)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700591/trends-in-traumatic-brain-injury-mortality-in-china-2006-2013-a-population-based-longitudinal-study
#14
Peixia Cheng, Peng Yin, Peishan Ning, Lijun Wang, Xunjie Cheng, Yunning Liu, David C Schwebel, Jiangmei Liu, Jinlei Qi, Guoqing Hu, Maigeng Zhou
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant global public health problem, but has received minimal attention from researchers and policy-makers in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Epidemiological evidence of TBI morbidity and mortality is absent at the national level for most LMICs, including China. Using data from China's Disease Surveillance Points (DSPs) system, we conducted a population-based longitudinal analysis to examine TBI mortality, and mortality differences by sex, age group, location (urban/rural), and external cause of injury, from 1 January 2006 to 31 December 2013 in China...
July 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698926/diagnosis-of-dementia-by-machine-learning-methods-in-epidemiological-studies-a-pilot-exploratory-study-from-south-india
#15
Sheshadri Iyengar Raghavan Bhagyashree, Kiran Nagaraj, Martin Prince, Caroline H D Fall, Murali Krishna
BACKGROUND: There are limited data on the use of artificial intelligence methods for the diagnosis of dementia in epidemiological studies in low- and middle-income country (LMIC) settings. A culture and education fair battery of cognitive tests was developed and validated for population based studies in low- and middle-income countries including India by the 10/66 Dementia Research Group. AIMS: We explored the machine learning methods based on the 10/66 battery of cognitive tests for the diagnosis of dementia based in a birth cohort study in South India...
July 11, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697791/blood-transfusion-in-elderly-patients-with-chronic-anemia-a-qualitative-analysis-of-the-general-practitioners-attitudes
#16
Sylvain Le Calvé, Dominique Somme, Joaquim Prud'homm, Aline Corvol
BACKGROUND: Blood transfusion in chronic anemia is not covered by guidelines specific to older adults. When they consider that this treatment is necessary in elderly patients, French general practitioners (GPs) contact a hospital specialist to plan a transfusion. METHODS: Twenty French GPs were questioned individually regarding their approach to blood transfusion using semi-structured interviews. Each interview was recorded, typed up verbatim and then coded using an inductive procedure by theme, in a cross-over design (two researchers) in two phases: analysis and summary, followed by grouping of the recorded comments...
July 11, 2017: BMC Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693751/cost-effectiveness-of-13-valent-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-pcv13-in-older-australians
#17
S Dirmesropian, J G Wood, C R MacIntyre, P Beutels, P McIntyre, R Menzies, J F Reyes, C Chen, A T Newall
BACKGROUND: The 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) has been funded under the Australia National Immunisation Program (NIP) since January 2005 for those aged >65years and other risk groups. In 2016, PCV13 was accepted by the Pharmaceutical Benefits Advisory Committee (PBAC) as a replacement for a single dose of PPV23 in older Australian adults. METHODS: A single-cohort deterministic multi-compartment (Markov) model was developed describing the transition of the population between different invasive and non-invasive pneumococcal disease related health states...
July 7, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692616/development-of-a-falls-registry-a-pilot-study
#18
Gina M Berg, Tara Carlson, Joanne Fairchild, Courtney Edwards, Ryan Sorell
Each year approximately 1 in 4 healthy older adults aged 65+ years and 1 in 2 aged 80+ years living in the community will fall. Fall-related injuries are the leading cause of death and disability and cost the United States approximately $31 billion annually. Currently, no repository of scene data exists that informs prevention programs regarding circumstances that contribute to older adult falls. This was a multicenter (4 sites: Kansas, Maryland, Oregon, and Texas) pilot study consisting of interviews of older (55+ years) patients who had been admitted to a trauma center with fall-related injuries...
July 2017: Journal of Trauma Nursing: the Official Journal of the Society of Trauma Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692451/the-value-of-musculoskeletal-ultrasound-in-geriatric-care-and-rehabilitation
#19
Büşra Can, Murat Kara, Özgür Kara, Zekeriya Ülger, Walter Frontera, Levent Özçakar
The WHO reports that one of the major chronic conditions affecting the elderly worldwide is musculoskeletal disorders that are associated with long-term pain and disability. Considering the healthcare needs of the elderly (i.e. comprehensive, accessible, efficient) and the advantages of ultrasound (US) use (patient-friendly, convenient, cost-effective, and does not require exposure to radiation or magnetic fields), there seems to be a 'gap' in the actual clinical practice. In this paper, we aimed to highlight the potential value of US imaging in the management of the elderly with a wide spectrum of musculoskeletal conditions (degenerative/rheumatic joint diseases, falls/trauma, nursing care, peripheral nerve problems, sarcopenia, and interventions)...
July 7, 2017: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research. Revue Internationale de Recherches de Réadaptation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690826/demographics-reproduction-growth-and-abundance-of-jollyville-plateau-salamanders-eurycea-tonkawae
#20
Nathan F Bendik
Insights into the ecology and natural history of the neotenic salamander, Eurycea tonkawae, are provided from eight years of capture-recapture data from 10,041 captures of 7,315 individuals at 16 sites. Eurycea tonkawae exhibits seasonal reproduction, with peak gravidity occurring in the fall and winter. Size frequency data indicated recruitment occurred in the spring and summer. Open-population capture-recapture models revealed a similar seasonal pattern at two of three sites, while recruitment was dependent on flow at the third site...
July 2017: Ecology and Evolution
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