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Genetic psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666432/genetic-validation-of-bipolar-disorder-identified-by-automated-phenotyping-using-electronic-health-records
#1
Chia-Yen Chen, Phil H Lee, Victor M Castro, Jessica Minnier, Alexander W Charney, Eli A Stahl, Douglas M Ruderfer, Shawn N Murphy, Vivian Gainer, Tianxi Cai, Ian Jones, Carlos N Pato, Michele T Pato, Mikael Landén, Pamela Sklar, Roy H Perlis, Jordan W Smoller
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a heritable mood disorder characterized by episodes of mania and depression. Although genomewide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified genetic loci contributing to BD risk, sample size has become a rate-limiting obstacle to genetic discovery. Electronic health records (EHRs) represent a vast but relatively untapped resource for high-throughput phenotyping. As part of the International Cohort Collection for Bipolar Disorder (ICCBD), we previously validated automated EHR-based phenotyping algorithms for BD against in-person diagnostic interviews (Castro et al...
April 18, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626337/network-neuroscience-a-framework-for-developing-biomarkers-in-psychiatry
#2
David M Lydon-Staley, Danielle S Bassett
Psychiatric disorders are disturbances of cognitive and behavioral processes mediated by the brain. Emerging evidence suggests that accurate biomarkers for psychiatric disorders might benefit from incorporating information regarding multiple brain regions and their interactions with one another, rather than considering local perturbations in brain structure and function alone. Recent advances in the field of applied mathematics generally - and network science specifically - provide a language to capture the complexity of interacting brain regions, and the application of this language to fundamental questions in neuroscience forms the emerging field of network neuroscience...
April 7, 2018: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614851/the-make-biomarker-discovery-for-enhancing-antidepressant-treatment-effect-and-response-study-design-and-methodology
#3
Hee-Ju Kang, Ju-Wan Kim, Seon-Young Kim, Sung-Wan Kim, Hee-Young Shin, Myung-Geun Shin, Jae-Min Kim
Objective: Depression is associated with a major disease burden, and many individuals suffer from depressive symptoms due to an insufficient response to ostensibly adequate antidepressant treatment. Therefore, it is important to identify reliable treatment response predictors for use in developing personalized treatment strategies. Methods: The MAKE Biomarker discovery for Enhancing anTidepressant Treatment Effect and Response (MAKE BETTER) study was performed to identify predictors of antidepressant response using a 2-year naturalistic prospective design...
April 5, 2018: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606317/behavioral-disorders-the-blind-spot-of-neurology-and-psychiatry
#4
REVIEW
C Azuar, R Levy
Behavioral disorders occupy the crossroads between neurology and psychiatry, and emerging disorders, such as frontotemporal lobar degeneration of genetic origin and autoimmune encephalitis, can present with both neurological and psychiatric signs. Thus, the primary aim of this introductory article is to review frequently encountered behavioral clinical features, such as apathy and agitation, and their related syndromes, including frontal and anterior temporal syndromes. These behavioral states and their underlying etiologies are also here illustrated with clinical case reports...
March 29, 2018: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29604314/zebrafish-models-relevant-to-studying-central-opioid-and-endocannabinoid-systems
#5
REVIEW
Konstantin A Demin, Darya A Meshalkina, Elana V Kysil, Kristina A Antonova, Andrey D Volgin, Oleg A Yakovlev, Polina A Alekseeva, Maria M Firuleva, Anton M Lakstygal, Murilo S de Abreu, Leonardo J G Barcellos, Wandong Bao, Ashton J Friend, Tamara G Amstislavskaya, Denis B Rosemberg, Pavel E Musienko, Cai Song, Allan V Kalueff
The endocannabinoid and opioid systems are two interplaying neurotransmitter systems that modulate drug abuse, anxiety, pain, cognition, neurogenesis and immune activity. Although they are involved in such critical functions, our understanding of endocannabinoid and opioid physiology remains limited, necessitating further studies, novel models and new model organisms. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is rapidly emerging as one of the most effective translational models in neuroscience and biological psychiatry. Due to their high physiological and genetic homology to humans, zebrafish may be effectively used to study the endocannabinoid and opioid systems...
March 28, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600406/-selective-mutism
#6
J Rogoll, M Petzold, A Ströhle
Selective mutism was first described in the medical literature 140 years ago. The diagnosis came into the focus of adult psychiatry with the appearance of DSM-5. Henceforth, selective mutism during infancy, adolescence and also adulthood is specified as an independent anxiety disorder. It often begins in early childhood with a kind of speechlessness in certain situations. A diagnostic clarification often only takes place after school enrolment. Very often comorbid anxiety disorders, especially social phobia and depression also occur...
March 29, 2018: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559097/leveraging-the-power-of-genetics-to-bring-precision-medicine-to-psychiatry-too-little-of-a-good-thing
#7
Daniel Moreno-De-Luca, Michael E Ross, David A Ross
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 15, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557314/-hans-heinze-and-the-research-programme-of-the-german-association-of-child-psychiatry-and-therapeutic-education-1942-1945
#8
Klaus Schepker, Thomas Beddies
Hans Heinze and the Research Programme of the German Association of Child Psychiatry and Therapeutic Education 1942-1945 Upon its foundation in 1940, Paul Schröder, full professor for psychiatry in Leipzig, was the first president of the German Society for Child Psychiatry and Therapeutic Education (DGKH). Following his death in 1941, his student Hans Heinze (Brandenburg/H.) succeeded him, prevailing over Werner Villinger (Breslau). The principal task of the DGKH was considered to be the exploration of the genetic origins of intellectual disabilities and behavioural disorders among children and adolescents...
September 2017: Praxis der Kinderpsychologie und Kinderpsychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530109/the-nature-of-nurture-using-a-virtual-parent-design-to-test-parenting-effects-on-children-s-educational-attainment-in-genotyped-families
#9
Timothy C Bates, Brion S Maher, Sarah E Medland, Kerrie McAloney, Margaret J Wright, Narelle K Hansell, Kenneth S Kendler, Nicholas G Martin, Nathan A Gillespie
Research on environmental and genetic pathways to complex traits such as educational attainment (EA) is confounded by uncertainty over whether correlations reflect effects of transmitted parental genes, causal family environments, or some, possibly interactive, mixture of both. Thus, an aggregate of thousands of alleles associated with EA (a polygenic risk score; PRS) may tap parental behaviors and home environments promoting EA in the offspring. New methods for unpicking and determining these causal pathways are required...
March 13, 2018: Twin Research and Human Genetics: the Official Journal of the International Society for Twin Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527298/response-heterogeneity-challenges-for-personalised-medicine-and-big-data-approaches-in-psychiatry-and-chronic-pain
#10
Agnes Norbury, Ben Seymour
Response rates to available treatments for psychological and chronic pain disorders are poor, and there is a considerable burden of suffering and disability for patients, who often cycle through several rounds of ineffective treatment. As individuals presenting to the clinic with symptoms of these disorders are likely to be heterogeneous, there is considerable interest in the possibility that different constellations of signs could be used to identify subgroups of patients that might preferentially benefit from particular kinds of treatment...
2018: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523295/molecular-hypotheses-to-explain-the-shared-pathways-and-underlying-pathobiological-causes-in-catatonia-and-in-catatonic-presentations-in-neuropsychiatric-disorders
#11
E M Peter-Ross
The pathobiological causes, the shared cellular and molecular pathways in catatonia and in catatonic presentation in neuropsychiatric disorders are yet to be determined. The hypotheses in this paper have been deduced from the latest scientific research findings and clinical observations of patients with genetic disorders, behavioral phenotypes and other family members suffering mental disorders. The first hypothesis postulates that catatonia and the heterogeneity of catatonic signs and symptoms involve nucleolar dysfunction arising from abnormalities of the brain-specific, non-coding micro-RNA, SNORD115 genes (either duplications or deletions) which result in pathobiological dysfunction of various combinations in the downstream pathways (possibly along with other genes in these shared pathways)...
April 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514775/scope-breadth-and-differences-in-online-physician-ratings-related-to-geography-specialty-and-year-observational-retrospective-study
#12
Jessica Janine Liu, John Justin Matelski, Chaim M Bell
BACKGROUND: Physician ratings websites have emerged as a novel forum for consumers to comment on their health care experiences. Little is known about such ratings in Canada. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the scope and trends for specialty, geographic region, and time for online physician ratings in Canada using a national data source from the country's leading physician-rating website. METHODS: This observational retrospective study used online ratings data from Canadian physicians (January 2005-September 2013; N=640,603)...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506557/attitudes-of-stakeholders-in-psychiatry-towards-the-inclusion-of-children-in-genomic-research
#13
Anna Sundby, Merete Watt Boolsen, Kristoffer Sølvsten Burgdorf, Henrik Ullum, Thomas Folkmann Hansen, Ole Mors
BACKGROUND: Genomic sequencing of children in research raises complex ethical issues. This study aims to gain more knowledge on the attitudes towards the inclusion of children as research subjects in genomic research and towards the disclosure of pertinent and incidental findings to the parents and the child. METHODS: Qualitative data were collected from interviews with a wide range of informants: experts engaged in genomic research, clinical geneticists, persons with mental disorders, relatives, and blood donors...
March 5, 2018: Human Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490380/-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-in-adult-psychiatry-data-on-12-month-prevalence-risk-factors-and-comorbidity
#14
Matthias Miesch, Arno Deister
AIMS AND METHODS: To examine the 12-month prevalence, risk factors, and comorbidity of ADHD in a collective of adult psychiatric patients admitted to an open general ward in a psychiatric hospital in Schleswig-Holstein (Germany) over a period of one year (n = 166). RESULTS: The 12 months prevalence of ADHD was 59.0 % (severe symptomatology: 33.1 %), high rates of comorbid disorders (92.9 % depression, 5.1 % bipolar disorder, 28.6 % anxiety disorder, 30...
February 28, 2018: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29483338/taxonomies-of-psychological-individual-differences-biological-perspectives-on-millennia-long-challenges
#15
I Trofimova, T W Robbins, W H Sulis, J Uher
This Editorial highlights a unique focus of this theme issue on the biological perspectives in deriving psychological taxonomies coming from neurochemistry, neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, genetics, psychiatry, developmental and comparative psychology-as contrasted to more common discussions of socio-cultural concepts (personality) and methods (lexical approach). It points out the importance of the distinction between temperament and personality for studies in human and animal differential psychophysiology, psychiatry and psycho-pharmacology, sport and animal practices during the past century...
April 19, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472872/pharmacoresistant-severe-mental-health-disorders-in-children-and-adolescents-functional-abnormalities-of-cytochrome-p450-2d6
#16
Susanne Thümmler, Emmanuelle Dor, Renaud David, Graziella Leali, Michele Battista, Alexia David, Florence Askenazy, Céline Verstuyft
Background: Severe mental health disorders in children and adolescents represent a major public health problem. Despite adequate drug treatment, some patients develop pharmacoresistant disease. As a consequence, physicians are confronted with prescribing challenges, prolonged hospitalization and increased risk of adverse events, thus aggravating short-, medium-, and long-term prognosis. The majority of psychotropic treatments, particularly antipsychotics and antidepressants, are metabolized at hepatic level by cytochrome P450 (CYP), particularly by CYP3A4 and CYP2D6...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401052/psychiatric-aspects-of-extreme-sports-three-case-studies
#17
Ian R Tofler, Brandon M Hyatt, David S Tofler
Extreme sports, defined as sporting or adventure activities involving a high degree of risk, have boomed since the 1990s. These types of sports attract men and women who can experience a life-affirming transcendence or "flow" as they participate in dangerous activities. Extreme sports also may attract people with a genetic predisposition for risk, risk-seeking personality traits, or underlying psychiatric disorders in which impulsivity and risk taking are integral to the underlying problem. In this report, we attempt to illustrate through case histories the motivations that lead people to repeatedly risk their lives and explore psychiatry's role in extreme sports...
2018: Permanente Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397661/the-present-and-future-of-precision-medicine-in-psychiatry-focus-on-clinical-psychopharmacology-of-antidepressants
#18
REVIEW
Alessandro Serretti
Precision medicine is a concept which is recently gaining momentum in all branches of medicine. In particular in psychiatry it is greatly needed given the huge societal costs of psychiatric disorders and given the long time needed to observe benefit from treatments and the response variability. The future will be based on biological determinants, however until such an interesting but still futuristic aim will be reached, at present we may only rely on clinical features to guide our individualized prescription which is currently still frequently based on personal opinion and subjective previous experiences...
February 28, 2018: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397458/how-medical-technologies-shape-the-experience-of-illness
#19
Bjørn Hofmann, Fredrik Svenaeus
In this article we explore how diagnostic and therapeutic technologies shape the lived experiences of illness for patients. By analysing a wide range of examples, we identify six ways that technology can (trans)form the experience of illness (and health). First, technology may create awareness of disease by revealing asymptomatic signs or markers (imaging techniques, blood tests). Second, the technology can reveal risk factors for developing diseases (e.g., high blood pressure or genetic tests that reveal risks of falling ill in the future)...
February 3, 2018: Life Sciences, Society and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383410/-pharmacogenetics-in-psychiatry-state-of-the-art
#20
REVIEW
D J Müller, E J Brandl, F Degenhardt, K Domschke, H Grabe, O Gruber, J Hebebrand, W Maier, A Menke, M Riemenschneider, M Rietschel, D Rujescu, T G Schulze, L Tebartz van Elst, O Tüscher, J Deckert
In this article, the current literature on pharmacogenetics of antidepressants, antipsychotics and lithium are summarized by the section of Neurobiology and Genetics of the German Society of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Neurology (DGPPN). The publications of international expert groups and regulatory authorities are reviewed and discussed. In Germany, a statement on pharmacogenetics was also made by the gene diagnostics committee of the Ministry of Health. The DGPPN supports two recommendations: 1) to perform CYP2D6 genetic testing prior to prescription of tricyclic antidepressants and 2) to determine the HLA-B*1502 genotype in patients of Asian origin before using carbamazepine...
January 30, 2018: Der Nervenarzt
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