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Genetic psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714607/new-insights-into-how-serotonin-selective-reuptake-inhibitors-shape-the-developing-brain
#1
REVIEW
Jay A Gingrich, Heli Malm, Mark S Ansorge, Alan Brown, Andre Sourander, Deepika Suri, Cátia M Teixeira, Martha K Caffrey Cagliostro, Darshini Mahadevia, Myrna M Weissman
Development passes through sensitive periods, during which plasticity allows for genetic and environmental factors to exert indelible influence on the maturation of the organism. In the context of central nervous system (CNS) development, such sensitive periods shape the formation of neuro-circuits that mediate, regulate, and control behavior. This general mechanism allows for development to be guided by both the genetic blueprint, as well as the environmental context. While allowing for adaptation, such sensitive periods are also windows of vulnerability during which external and internal factors can confer risk to brain disorders by derailing adaptive developmental programs...
July 17, 2017: Birth defects research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703264/-simple-is-not-always-easy-genetics-in-general-psychiatry
#2
W M A Verhoeven, J I M Egger, T Kleefstra, N de Leeuw
Many of the patients who attend the outpatient mental health clinics already have a long history of psychiatric problems. Their symptoms seem easy to classify, but the misdiagnosis of the patients' underlying problems can lead to a long series of costly referrals as inpatients or to an ineffective treatment outcome. In this article we focus on three patients whose history and background circumstances had been analysed in detail and who had also been subjected to a genetic analysis. The analyses pointed to an etiology-based diagnosis which had important implications for their future treatment and its outcome...
2017: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699102/-the-concept-of-schizoidia-in-psychiatry-from-schizoidia-to-schizotypy-and-cluster%C3%A2-a-personality-disorders
#3
REVIEW
Hans-Peter Kapfhammer
From a perspective of conceptual evolution schizoidia was initially considered to describe features both of the premorbid personality of schizophrenic patients and of the personalities of non-psychotic family members (Bleuler, Kahlbaum, Kraepelin). On a psychopatholocial level a close link to the complex basic symptom of autism was stressed. From the very beginnings of modern psychiatry schizoidia was discussed within a conceptual frame of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (Kretschmer, Hoch, Polatin). Approaches to operationalize these conceptual works laid the basis for the cluster A personalities in DSM-III...
July 11, 2017: Neuropsychiatrie: Klinik, Diagnostik, Therapie und Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696435/a-direct-test-of-the-diathesis-stress-model-for-depression
#4
L Colodro-Conde, B Couvy-Duchesne, G Zhu, W L Coventry, E M Byrne, S Gordon, M J Wright, G W Montgomery, P A F Madden, S Ripke, L J Eaves, A C Heath, N R Wray, S E Medland, N G Martin
The diathesis-stress theory for depression states that the effects of stress on the depression risk are dependent on the diathesis or vulnerability, implying multiplicative interactive effects on the liability scale. We used polygenic risk scores for major depressive disorder (MDD) calculated from the results of the most recent analysis from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium as a direct measure of the vulnerability for depression in a sample of 5221 individuals from 3083 families. In the same we also had measures of stressful life events and social support and a depression symptom score, as well as DSM-IV MDD diagnoses for most individuals...
July 11, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696432/cross-disorder-risk-gene-cacna1c-differentially-modulates-susceptibility-to-psychiatric-disorders-during-development-and-adulthood
#5
N Dedic, M L Pöhlmann, J S Richter, D Mehta, D Czamara, M W Metzger, J Dine, B T Bedenk, J Hartmann, K V Wagner, A Jurik, L M Almli, A Lori, S Moosmang, F Hofmann, C T Wotjak, G Rammes, M Eder, A Chen, K J Ressler, W Wurst, M V Schmidt, E B Binder, J M Deussing
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in CACNA1C, the α1C subunit of the voltage-gated L-type calcium channel Cav1.2, rank among the most consistent and replicable genetics findings in psychiatry and have been associated with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depression. However, genetic variants of complex diseases often only confer a marginal increase in disease risk, which is additionally influenced by the environment. Here we show that embryonic deletion of Cacna1c in forebrain glutamatergic neurons promotes the manifestation of endophenotypes related to psychiatric disorders including cognitive decline, impaired synaptic plasticity, reduced sociability, hyperactivity and increased anxiety...
July 11, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696430/neuropathology-of-suicide-recent-findings-and-future-directions
#6
P-E Lutz, N Mechawar, G Turecki
Suicide is a major public health concern and a leading cause of death in most societies. Suicidal behaviour is complex and heterogeneous, likely resulting from several causes. It associates with multiple factors, including psychopathology, personality traits, early-life adversity and stressful life events, among others. Over the past decades, studies in fields ranging from neuroanatomy, genetics and molecular psychiatry have led to a model whereby behavioural dysregulation, including suicidal behaviour (SB), develops as a function of biological adaptations in key brain systems...
July 11, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686564/asperger-syndrome-and-schizophrenia-%C3%AE-eurodevelopmental-continuum-or-separated-clinical-entities
#7
Chr Anomitri, H Lazaratou
This article is an overview of the literature on Asperger's syndrome and schizophrenia and aim to discuss their similarities and differences. Eugen Bleuler who associated the terms "schizophrenia" and "autism" a century ago, viewed autism as a form of solitude of schizophrenic patients representing withdrawal from reality. Ever since, there has been confusion as to the boundaries between these conditions. Nowadays recent research, from a variety of perspectives-genomics, neurodevelopment, psychiatry, etc. has given new information on these conditions...
April 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686557/the-biopsychosocial-model-40-years-of-application-in-psychiatry
#8
G Papadimitriou
In 1977, the American pathologist and psychiatrist George Engel (1913-1999) published in the Journal Science his paper "TheIn 1977, the American pathologist and psychiatrist George Engel (1913-1999) published in the Journal Science his paper "Theneed for a new medical model: A challenge for biomedicine", introducing the term Biopsychosocial Model. This model basedon the results of Engel's studies in ulcerative colitis, depression and psychogenic pain, constituted a challenge for biomedicineand the biomedical model...
April 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646744/systematic-biobanking-novel-imaging-techniques-and-advanced-molecular-analysis-for-precise-tumor-diagnosis-and-therapy-the-polish-mobit-project
#9
Jacek Niklinski, Adam Kretowski, Marcin Moniuszko, Joanna Reszec, Anna Michalska-Falkowska, Magdalena Niemira, Michal Ciborowski, Radoslaw Charkiewicz, Dorota Jurgilewicz, Miroslaw Kozlowski, Rodryg Ramlau, Cezary Piwkowski, Miroslaw Kwasniewski, Monika Kaczmarek, Andrzej Ciereszko, Tomasz Wasniewski, Robert Mroz, Wojciech Naumnik, Ewa Sierko, Magdalena Paczkowska, Joanna Kisluk, Anetta Sulewska, Adam Cybulski, Zenon Mariak, Boguslaw Kedra, Jacek Szamatowicz, Paweł Kurzawa, Lukasz Minarowski, Angelika Edyta Charkiewicz, Barbara Mroczko, Jolanta Malyszko, Christian Manegold, Lothar Pilz, Heike Allgayer, Mohammed L Abba, Hartmut Juhl, Frauke Koch
Personalized and precision medicine is gaining recognition due to the limitations by standard diagnosis and treatment; many areas of medicine, from cancer to psychiatry, are moving towards tailored and individualized treatment for patients based on their clinical characteristics and genetic signatures as well as novel imaging techniques. Advances in whole genome sequencing have led to identification of genes involved in a variety of diseases. Moreover, biomarkers indicating severity of disease or susceptibility to treatment are increasingly being characterized...
June 21, 2017: Advances in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640150/evaluation-of-research-topic-evolution-in-psychiatry-using-co-word-analysis
#10
Ying Wu, Xing Jin, Yunzhen Xue
With the rapid increase in the incidence of mental disorders and mental issues, psychiatry has become one of the fastest growing clinical medical disciplines. Development priorities and research foci in this field have evolved over different periods.All the articles in 10 psychiatric journals with the highest impact factors were selected from the Science Citation Index (SCI) in Web of Science from 2001 to 2015. The information visualization software Sci was used to conduct co-word and clustering analyses on these articles...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636576/vitamin-d-levels-and-vitamin-d-receptor-gene-polymorphism-in-major-depression
#11
Merve Şahin Can, Hayriye Baykan, Özgür Baykan, Nevin Erensoy, Tunay Karlıdere
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to evaluate vitamin D levels and rs2228570 (FokI) polymorphism of vitamin D in patients with established diagnosis of major depressive disorder in order to investigate the impact of vitamin D levels and genetic polymorphisms on etiology and/or severity of the disease. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study included 86 patients who were diagnosed with major depressive disorder in Hospital of Balıkesir University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, and 89 healthy volunteers with similar age, sex, education level and BMI...
June 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630456/rare-disruptive-variants-in-the-disc1-interactome-and-regulome-association-with-cognitive-ability-and-schizophrenia
#12
S Teng, P A Thomson, S McCarthy, M Kramer, S Muller, J Lihm, S Morris, D C Soares, W Hennah, S Harris, L M Camargo, V Malkov, A M McIntosh, J K Millar, D H Blackwood, K L Evans, I J Deary, D J Porteous, W R McCombie
Schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar disorder (BD) and recurrent major depressive disorder (rMDD) are common psychiatric illnesses. All have been associated with lower cognitive ability, and show evidence of genetic overlap and substantial evidence of pleiotropy with cognitive function and neuroticism. Disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) protein directly interacts with a large set of proteins (DISC1 Interactome) that are involved in brain development and signaling. Modulation of DISC1 expression alters the expression of a circumscribed set of genes (DISC1 Regulome) that are also implicated in brain biology and disorder...
June 20, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630452/remote-memories-are-enhanced-by-comt-activity-through-dysregulation-of-the-endocannabinoid-system-in-the-prefrontal-cortex
#13
D Scheggia, E Zamberletti, N Realini, M Mereu, G Contarini, V Ferretti, F Managò, G Margiani, R Brunoro, T Rubino, M A De Luca, D Piomelli, D Parolaro, F Papaleo
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is a crucial hub for the flexible modulation of recent memories (executive functions) as well as for the stable organization of remote memories. Dopamine in the PFC is implicated in both these processes and genetic variants affecting its neurotransmission might control the unique balance between cognitive stability and flexibility present in each individual. Functional genetic variants in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene result in a different catabolism of dopamine in the PFC...
June 20, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608853/genetic-tests-in-major-psychiatric-disorders-integrating-molecular-medicine-with-clinical-psychiatry-why-is-it-so-difficult
#14
REVIEW
U Demkow, T Wolańczyk
With the advent of post-genomic era, new technologies create extraordinary possibilities for diagnostics and personalized therapy, transforming todays' medicine. Rooted in both medical genetics and clinical psychiatry, the paper is designed as an integrated source of information of the current and potential future application of emerging genomic technologies as diagnostic tools in psychiatry, moving beyond the classical concept of patient approach. Selected approaches are presented, starting from currently used technologies (next-generation sequencing (NGS) and microarrays), followed by newer options (reverse phenotyping)...
June 13, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584286/genome-wide-meta-analysis-of-cognitive-empathy-heritability-and-correlates-with-sex-neuropsychiatric-conditions-and-cognition
#15
V Warrier, K L Grasby, F Uzefovsky, R Toro, P Smith, B Chakrabarti, J Khadake, E Mawbey-Adamson, N Litterman, J-J Hottenga, G Lubke, D I Boomsma, N G Martin, P K Hatemi, S E Medland, D A Hinds, T Bourgeron, S Baron-Cohen
We conducted a genome-wide meta-analysis of cognitive empathy using the 'Reading the Mind in the Eyes' Test (Eyes Test) in 88,056 research volunteers of European Ancestry (44,574 females and 43,482 males) from 23andMe Inc., and an additional 1497 research volunteers of European Ancestry (891 females and 606 males) from the Brisbane Longitudinal Twin Study. We confirmed a female advantage on the Eyes Test (Cohen's d=0.21, P<2.2 × 10(-16)), and identified a locus in 3p26.1 that is associated with scores on the Eyes Test in females (rs7641347, Pmeta=1...
June 6, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581531/genetics-and-pharmacogenetics-of-mood-disorders
#16
REVIEW
Alessandro Serretti
Genetic research in Psychiatry is viewed by clinicians with both hope and curiosity sometimes mixed with disillusionment. Indeed, in the last 30 years many results have not been confirmed and clinical applications are still missing. However recent findings suggest that we are at the beginning of a new era. A set of variants within neuroplasticity and inflammation genes have been identified as a valid basis for both bipolar disorder and major depression. Similarly, a set of genes has been identified as a liability factor for response and tolerability to antidepressants and the first clinical applications are already in the market...
April 30, 2017: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574009/potential-biomarkers-for-bipolar-disorder-where-do-we-stand
#17
REVIEW
Rajesh Sagar, Raman Deep Pattanayak
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe, recurrent mood disorder, associated with a significant morbidity and mortality, with high rates of suicides and medical comorbidities. There is a high risk of mood disorders among the first-degree relatives of patients with BD. In the current clinical practice, the diagnosis of BD is made by history taking, interview and behavioural observations, thereby lacking an objective, biological validation. This approach may result in underdiagnosis, misdiagnosis and eventually poorer outcomes...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571776/neurodevelopmental-theory-of-depression
#18
REVIEW
Piotr Gałecki, Monika Talarowska
The aim of research studies in the field of psychiatry conducted in recent years is to formulate a consistent theory that would exhaustively explain the aetiology of depression. So far, biochemical, genetic, anatomical and environmental factors, which may play a role in the occurrence of the first symptoms of depressive disorders, have been sought. The authors of this paper present a theory that combines the previously mentioned elements into one whole and links them to one another. We have called our theory "neurodevelopmental" to underline the importance and impact of earlier stages of human life, including the prenatal period, on the occurrence of depressive disorders...
May 29, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557243/the-use-of-electronic-health-records-for-psychiatric-phenotyping-and-genomics
#19
REVIEW
Jordan W Smoller
The widespread adoption of electronic health record (EHRs) in healthcare systems has created a vast and continuously growing resource of clinical data and provides new opportunities for population-based research. In particular, the linking of EHRs to biospecimens and genomic data in biobanks may help address what has become a rate-limiting study for genetic research: the need for large sample sizes. The principal roadblock to capitalizing on these resources is the need to establish the validity of phenotypes extracted from the EHR...
May 30, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555076/comparative-genomic-evidence-for-the-involvement-of-schizophrenia-risk-genes-in-antipsychotic-effects
#20
Y Kim, P Giusti-Rodriguez, J J Crowley, J Bryois, R J Nonneman, A K Ryan, C R Quackenbush, M D Iglesias-Ussel, P H Lee, W Sun, F P-M de Villena, P F Sullivan
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for schizophrenia have identified over 100 loci encoding >500 genes. It is unclear whether any of these genes, other than dopamine receptor D2, are immediately relevant to antipsychotic effects or represent novel antipsychotic targets. We applied an in vivo molecular approach to this question by performing RNA sequencing of brain tissue from mice chronically treated with the antipsychotic haloperidol or vehicle. We observed significant enrichments of haloperidol-regulated genes in schizophrenia GWAS loci and in schizophrenia-associated biological pathways...
May 30, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
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