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Genetic psychiatry

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646744/systematic-biobanking-novel-imaging-techniques-and-advanced-molecular-analysis-for-precise-tumor-diagnosis-and-therapy-the-polish-mobit-project
#1
Jacek Niklinski, Adam Kretowski, Marcin Moniuszko, Joanna Reszec, Anna Michalska-Falkowska, Magdalena Niemira, Michal Ciborowski, Radoslaw Charkiewicz, Dorota Jurgilewicz, Miroslaw Kozlowski, Rodryg Ramlau, Cezary Piwkowski, Miroslaw Kwasniewski, Monika Kaczmarek, Andrzej Ciereszko, Tomasz Wasniewski, Robert Mroz, Wojciech Naumnik, Ewa Sierko, Magdalena Paczkowska, Joanna Kisluk, Anetta Sulewska, Adam Cybulski, Zenon Mariak, Boguslaw Kedra, Jacek Szamatowicz, Paweł Kurzawa, Lukasz Minarowski, Angelika Edyta Charkiewicz, Barbara Mroczko, Jolanta Malyszko, Christian Manegold, Lothar Pilz, Heike Allgayer, Mohammed L Abba, Hartmut Juhl, Frauke Koch
Personalized and precision medicine is gaining recognition due to the limitations by standard diagnosis and treatment; many areas of medicine, from cancer to psychiatry, are moving towards tailored and individualized treatment for patients based on their clinical characteristics and genetic signatures as well as novel imaging techniques. Advances in whole genome sequencing have led to identification of genes involved in a variety of diseases. Moreover, biomarkers indicating severity of disease or susceptibility to treatment are increasingly being characterized...
June 21, 2017: Advances in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640150/evaluation-of-research-topic-evolution-in-psychiatry-using-co-word-analysis
#2
Ying Wu, Xing Jin, Yunzhen Xue
With the rapid increase in the incidence of mental disorders and mental issues, psychiatry has become one of the fastest growing clinical medical disciplines. Development priorities and research foci in this field have evolved over different periods.All the articles in 10 psychiatric journals with the highest impact factors were selected from the Science Citation Index (SCI) in Web of Science from 2001 to 2015. The information visualization software Sci was used to conduct co-word and clustering analyses on these articles...
June 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636576/vitamin-d-levels-and-vitamin-d-receptor-gene-polymorphism-in-major-depression
#3
Merve Şahin Can, Hayriye Baykan, Özgür Baykan, Nevin Erensoy, Tunay Karlıdere
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to evaluate vitamin D levels and rs2228570 (FokI) polymorphism of vitamin D in patients with established diagnosis of major depressive disorder in order to investigate the impact of vitamin D levels and genetic polymorphisms on etiology and/or severity of the disease. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The study included 86 patients who were diagnosed with major depressive disorder in Hospital of Balıkesir University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Psychiatry, and 89 healthy volunteers with similar age, sex, education level and BMI...
June 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630456/rare-disruptive-variants-in-the-disc1-interactome-and-regulome-association-with-cognitive-ability-and-schizophrenia
#4
S Teng, P A Thomson, S McCarthy, M Kramer, S Muller, J Lihm, S Morris, D C Soares, W Hennah, S Harris, L M Camargo, V Malkov, A M McIntosh, J K Millar, D H Blackwood, K L Evans, I J Deary, D J Porteous, W R McCombie
Schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar disorder (BD) and recurrent major depressive disorder (rMDD) are common psychiatric illnesses. All have been associated with lower cognitive ability, and show evidence of genetic overlap and substantial evidence of pleiotropy with cognitive function and neuroticism. Disrupted in schizophrenia 1 (DISC1) protein directly interacts with a large set of proteins (DISC1 Interactome) that are involved in brain development and signaling. Modulation of DISC1 expression alters the expression of a circumscribed set of genes (DISC1 Regulome) that are also implicated in brain biology and disorder...
June 20, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630452/remote-memories-are-enhanced-by-comt-activity-through-dysregulation-of-the-endocannabinoid-system-in-the-prefrontal-cortex
#5
D Scheggia, E Zamberletti, N Realini, M Mereu, G Contarini, V Ferretti, F Managò, G Margiani, R Brunoro, T Rubino, M A De Luca, D Piomelli, D Parolaro, F Papaleo
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is a crucial hub for the flexible modulation of recent memories (executive functions) as well as for the stable organization of remote memories. Dopamine in the PFC is implicated in both these processes and genetic variants affecting its neurotransmission might control the unique balance between cognitive stability and flexibility present in each individual. Functional genetic variants in the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) gene result in a different catabolism of dopamine in the PFC...
June 20, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608853/genetic-tests-in-major-psychiatric-disorders-integrating-molecular-medicine-with-clinical-psychiatry-why-is-it-so-difficult
#6
REVIEW
U Demkow, T Wolańczyk
With the advent of post-genomic era, new technologies create extraordinary possibilities for diagnostics and personalized therapy, transforming todays' medicine. Rooted in both medical genetics and clinical psychiatry, the paper is designed as an integrated source of information of the current and potential future application of emerging genomic technologies as diagnostic tools in psychiatry, moving beyond the classical concept of patient approach. Selected approaches are presented, starting from currently used technologies (next-generation sequencing (NGS) and microarrays), followed by newer options (reverse phenotyping)...
June 13, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584286/genome-wide-meta-analysis-of-cognitive-empathy-heritability-and-correlates-with-sex-neuropsychiatric-conditions-and-cognition
#7
V Warrier, K L Grasby, F Uzefovsky, R Toro, P Smith, B Chakrabarti, J Khadake, E Mawbey-Adamson, N Litterman, J-J Hottenga, G Lubke, D I Boomsma, N G Martin, P K Hatemi, S E Medland, D A Hinds, T Bourgeron, S Baron-Cohen
We conducted a genome-wide meta-analysis of cognitive empathy using the 'Reading the Mind in the Eyes' Test (Eyes Test) in 88,056 research volunteers of European Ancestry (44,574 females and 43,482 males) from 23andMe Inc., and an additional 1497 research volunteers of European Ancestry (891 females and 606 males) from the Brisbane Longitudinal Twin Study. We confirmed a female advantage on the Eyes Test (Cohen's d=0.21, P<2.2 × 10(-16)), and identified a locus in 3p26.1 that is associated with scores on the Eyes Test in females (rs7641347, Pmeta=1...
June 6, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28581531/genetics-and-pharmacogenetics-of-mood-disorders
#8
REVIEW
Alessandro Serretti
Genetic research in Psychiatry is viewed by clinicians with both hope and curiosity sometimes mixed with disillusionment. Indeed, in the last 30 years many results have not been confirmed and clinical applications are still missing. However recent findings suggest that we are at the beginning of a new era. A set of variants within neuroplasticity and inflammation genes have been identified as a valid basis for both bipolar disorder and major depression. Similarly, a set of genes has been identified as a liability factor for response and tolerability to antidepressants and the first clinical applications are already in the market...
April 30, 2017: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574009/potential-biomarkers-for-bipolar-disorder-where-do-we-stand
#9
REVIEW
Rajesh Sagar, Raman Deep Pattanayak
Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe, recurrent mood disorder, associated with a significant morbidity and mortality, with high rates of suicides and medical comorbidities. There is a high risk of mood disorders among the first-degree relatives of patients with BD. In the current clinical practice, the diagnosis of BD is made by history taking, interview and behavioural observations, thereby lacking an objective, biological validation. This approach may result in underdiagnosis, misdiagnosis and eventually poorer outcomes...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571776/neurodevelopmental-theory-of-depression
#10
REVIEW
Piotr Gałecki, Monika Talarowska
The aim of research studies in the field of psychiatry conducted in recent years is to formulate a consistent theory that would exhaustively explain the aetiology of depression. So far, biochemical, genetic, anatomical and environmental factors, which may play a role in the occurrence of the first symptoms of depressive disorders, have been sought. The authors of this paper present a theory that combines the previously mentioned elements into one whole and links them to one another. We have called our theory "neurodevelopmental" to underline the importance and impact of earlier stages of human life, including the prenatal period, on the occurrence of depressive disorders...
May 29, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557243/the-use-of-electronic-health-records-for-psychiatric-phenotyping-and-genomics
#11
REVIEW
Jordan W Smoller
The widespread adoption of electronic health record (EHRs) in healthcare systems has created a vast and continuously growing resource of clinical data and provides new opportunities for population-based research. In particular, the linking of EHRs to biospecimens and genomic data in biobanks may help address what has become a rate-limiting study for genetic research: the need for large sample sizes. The principal roadblock to capitalizing on these resources is the need to establish the validity of phenotypes extracted from the EHR...
May 30, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555076/comparative-genomic-evidence-for-the-involvement-of-schizophrenia-risk-genes-in-antipsychotic-effects
#12
Y Kim, P Giusti-Rodriguez, J J Crowley, J Bryois, R J Nonneman, A K Ryan, C R Quackenbush, M D Iglesias-Ussel, P H Lee, W Sun, F P-M de Villena, P F Sullivan
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for schizophrenia have identified over 100 loci encoding >500 genes. It is unclear whether any of these genes, other than dopamine receptor D2, are immediately relevant to antipsychotic effects or represent novel antipsychotic targets. We applied an in vivo molecular approach to this question by performing RNA sequencing of brain tissue from mice chronically treated with the antipsychotic haloperidol or vehicle. We observed significant enrichments of haloperidol-regulated genes in schizophrenia GWAS loci and in schizophrenia-associated biological pathways...
May 30, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541234/psychiatric-specialty-training-in-greece
#13
EDITORIAL
M Margariti, V Kontaxakis, D Ploumpidis
The reform and development of psychiatric services require, in addition to financial resources, reserves in specialized human resources. The role of psychiatrists in this process, and at reducing the consequences of mental morbidity is evident. Psychiatrists are required to play a multifaceted role as clinicians, as experts in multidisciplinary team environments and as advisors in the recognition of public needs in mental health issues, as teachers and mentors for students and other health professionals, as researchers in order to enrich our knowledge in the scientific field of psychiatry, and as public health specialists in the development of the mental health services system...
January 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533516/asd-restricted-and-repetitive-behaviors-associated-at-17q21-33-genes-prioritized-by-expression-in-fetal-brains
#14
R M Cantor, L Navarro, H Won, R L Walker, J K Lowe, D H Geschwind
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a behaviorally defined condition that manifests in infancy or early childhood as deficits in communication skills and social interactions. Often, restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) accompany this disorder. ASD is polygenic and genetically complex, so we hypothesized that focusing analyses on intermediate core component phenotypes, such as RRBs, can reduce genetic heterogeneity and improve statistical power. Applying this approach, we mined Caucasian genome-wide association studies (GWAS) data from two of the largest ASD family cohorts, the Autism Genetics Resource Exchange and Autism Genome Project (AGP)...
May 23, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524462/editorial-perspective-neurodiversity-a-revolutionary-concept-for-autism-and-psychiatry
#15
EDITORIAL
Simon Baron-Cohen
Should we continue to refer to autism as a 'disease' or 'disorder', or is the framework of 'neurodiversity' a more humane and accurate lens through which to view people with autism? Evidence at the genetic, neural, behavioural and cognitive levels reveals people with autism show both differences, and signs of disability, but not disorder. Disability requires societal support, acceptance of difference and diversity, and societal "reasonable adjustment", whilst disorder is usually taken to require cure or treatment...
June 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507321/pet-imaging-of-dopamine-d2-receptor-internalization-in-schizophrenia
#16
J J Weinstein, E van de Giessen, R J Rosengard, X Xu, N Ojeil, G Brucato, R B Gil, L S Kegeles, M Laruelle, M Slifstein, A Abi-Dargham
Recent genetic, molecular and post-mortem studies suggest impaired dopamine (DA)-D2 receptor (D2R) trafficking in patients with schizophrenia (SZ). Imaging and preclinical studies have shown agonist-induced D2R internalization can be imaged with positron emission tomography (PET) using D2R radiotracers combined with psychostimulant challenge. This is feasible if radiotracer binding is measured when postchallenge DA levels have returned to baseline, following the initial competition phase between DA and radiotracer for binding to D2R...
May 16, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507316/autism-spectrum-disorders-and-autistic-traits-share-genetics-and-biology
#17
J Bralten, K J van Hulzen, M B Martens, T E Galesloot, A Arias Vasquez, L A Kiemeney, J K Buitelaar, J W Muntjewerff, B Franke, G Poelmans
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and autistic traits in the general population may share genetic susceptibility factors. In this study, we investigated such potential overlap based on common genetic variants. We developed and validated a self-report questionnaire of autistic traits in adults. We then conducted genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of six trait scores derived from the questionnaire through exploratory factor analysis in 1981 adults from the general population. Using the results from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium GWAS of ASDs, we observed genetic sharing between ASDs and the autistic traits 'childhood behavior', 'rigidity' and 'attention to detail'...
May 16, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498595/etiology-in-psychiatry-embracing-the-reality-of-poly-gene-environmental-causation-of-mental-illness
#18
Rudolf Uher, Alyson Zwicker
Intriguing findings on genetic and environmental causation suggest a need to reframe the etiology of mental disorders. Molecular genetics shows that thousands of common and rare genetic variants contribute to mental illness. Epidemiological studies have identified dozens of environmental exposures that are associated with psychopathology. The effect of environment is likely conditional on genetic factors, resulting in gene-environment interactions. The impact of environmental factors also depends on previous exposures, resulting in environment-environment interactions...
June 2017: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497736/-implication-of-human-endogenous-retroviruses-in-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder
#19
Pierre Ellul, Laurent Groc, Marion Leboyer
Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are neuropsychiatric disorders of unknown origin. It seems that these two disorders share some common etiopathogenic mechanisms including genetic, environmental and inflammatory ones. Reactivation of the human endogenous retrovirus type W (HERV-W) can be a shared element in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, linked to immuno-genetic and environment risk factors. We will present studies that have highlighted the presence of HERV-W in schizophrenic and bipolar disorder patients...
April 2017: Médecine Sciences: M/S
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496375/revisiting-the-etiological-aspects-of-dissociative-identity-disorder-a-biopsychosocial-perspective
#20
REVIEW
Vedat Şar, Martin J Dorahy, Christa Krüger
Dissociative identity disorder (DID) is a chronic post-traumatic disorder where developmentally stressful events in childhood, including abuse, emotional neglect, disturbed attachment, and boundary violations are central and typical etiological factors. Familial, societal, and cultural factors may give rise to the trauma and/or they may influence the expression of DID. Memory and the construction of self-identity are cognitive processes that appear markedly and centrally disrupted in DID and are related to its etiology...
2017: Psychology Research and Behavior Management
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