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Biological basis of depression

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107202/defining-the-phenotype-of-young-adults-with-family-histories-of-alcohol-and-other-substance-use-disorders-studies-from-the-family-health-patterns-project
#1
Ashley Acheson, Andrea S Vincent, Andrew J Cohoon, William R Lovallo
Individuals with a family history of alcohol and other drug use disorders (FH+) are at increased risk for developing substance use disorders themselves relative to those with no such histories (FH-). Here we sought to identify key characteristics associated with FH+ status and alcohol and other drug use disorder status in a large cohort of FH+ and FH- young adults. We conducted principal component analyses on demographic, temperament, and cognitive measures differentiating 506 FH+ and 528 FH- young adults. Three principal components were identified, and these component scores were then used to predict the odds of being FH+ and the odds of having an alcohol or other drug use disorder...
October 20, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100972/neural-and-neuroendocrine-predictors-of-pharmacological-treatment-response-in-adolescents-with-depression-a-preliminary-study
#2
Bonnie Klimes-Dougan, Melinda Westlund Schreiner, Michelle Thai, Meredith Gunlicks-Stoessel, Kristina Reigstad, Kathryn R Cullen
OBJECTIVE: Typically, about 30 to 50% of adolescents with depression fail to respond to evidence-based treatments, including antidepressant medications such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Efforts for identifying predictors and moderators of treatment response are needed to begin to address critical questions relevant to personalized care in adolescent depression. In this pilot study, we aim to identify biological predictors of response to antidepressant treatment...
February 2, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072182/social-challenges-of-contemporary-psychiatry
#3
N Bouras
Psychiatry and society are interrelated and the biopsychosocial model continues to dominate the clinical psychiatric practice. Some doubts have been expressed in recent years about the value and the wide acceptance of the biopsychosocial model. Ghaemi (2009)1 considers it to be anti-humanistic and advocates the use of less eclectic, less generic, and less vague alternatives. The fundamental changes that have been witnessed in our times across the spectrum of biology, psychology and sociology have made necessary that a conceptual clarity should prevail...
July 2017: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071344/genetic-risk-variants-associated-with-comorbid-alcohol-dependence-and-major-depression
#4
Hang Zhou, Renato Polimanti, Bao-Zhu Yang, Qian Wang, Shizhong Han, Richard Sherva, Yaira Z Nuñez, Hongyu Zhao, Lindsay A Farrer, Henry R Kranzler, Joel Gelernter
Importance: Alcohol dependence (AD) and major depression (MD) are leading causes of disability that often co-occur. Genetic epidemiologic data have shown that AD and MD share a common possible genetic cause. The molecular nature of this shared genetic basis is poorly understood. Objectives: To detect genetic risk variants for comorbid AD and MD and to determine whether polygenic risk alleles are shared with neuropsychiatric traits or subcortical brain volumes. Design, Setting, and Participants: This genome-wide association study analyzed criterion counts of comorbid AD and MD in African American and European American data sets collected as part of the Yale-Penn study of the genetics of drug and alcohol dependence from February 14, 1999, to January 13, 2015...
October 25, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973551/region-specific-association-of-subjective-cognitive-decline-with-tauopathy-independent-of-global-%C3%AE-amyloid-burden
#5
Rachel F Buckley, Bernard Hanseeuw, Aaron P Schultz, Patrizia Vannini, Sarah L Aghjayan, Michael J Properzi, Jonathan D Jackson, Elizabeth C Mormino, Dorene M Rentz, Reisa A Sperling, Keith A Johnson, Rebecca E Amariglio
Importance: The ability to explore associations between reports of subjective cognitive decline (SCD) and biomarkers of early Alzheimer disease (AD) pathophysiologic processes (accumulation of neocortical β-amyloid [Aβ] and tau) provides an important opportunity to understand the basis of SCD and AD risk. Objective: To examine associations between SCD and global Aβ and tau burdens in regions of interest in clinically healthy older adults. Design, Setting, and Participants: This imaging substudy of the Harvard Aging Brain Study included 133 clinically healthy older participants (Clinical Dementia Rating Scale global scores of 0) participating in the Harvard Aging Brain Study who underwent cross-sectional flortaucipir F 18 (previously known as AV 1451, T807) positron emission tomography (FTP-PET) imaging for tau and Pittsburgh compound B carbon 11-labeled PET (PiB-PET) imaging for Aβ...
October 2, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969440/exercise-and-the-prevention-of-depression-results-of-the-hunt-cohort-study
#6
Samuel B Harvey, Simon Øverland, Stephani L Hatch, Simon Wessely, Arnstein Mykletun, Matthew Hotopf
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to address 1) whether exercise provides protection against new-onset depression and anxiety and 2) if so, the intensity and amount of exercise required to gain protection and, lastly, 3) the mechanisms that underlie any association. METHOD: A "healthy" cohort of 33,908 adults, selected on the basis of having no symptoms of common mental disorder or limiting physical health conditions, was prospectively followed for 11 years...
October 3, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928667/thirty-five-day-fluoxetine-treatment-limits-sensory-motor-deficit-and-biochemical-disorders-in-a-rat-model-of-decompression-sickness
#7
Caroline Cosnard, Sébastien De Maistre, Jacques H Abraini, Laurent Chazalviel, Jean-Eric Blatteau, Jean-Jacques Risso, Nicolas Vallée
According to the OECD statistical base for 2014, anti-depressants will, on average, be distributed at a rate of 62 daily doses per 1,000 inhabitants for the 25 countries surveyed (Health at a glance: Europe 2014; OECD Health Statistics; World Health Organization and OECD Health Statistics, 2014). Divers must be concerned. On another hand, divers are potentially exposed to decompression sickness including coagulation inflammation and ischemia, which can result in neurological lesions or even death. The purpose of this study is to assess whether chronic treatment with anti-depressants may represent a contraindication to the practice of an at-risk activity, such as, scuba diving, or even presents a benefit by attenuating the severity of the symptoms...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750154/skin-hydration-microrelief-and-greasiness-of-normal-skin-in-antarctica
#8
N Tsankov, D Mateev, R Darlenski
BACKGROUND: The skin is the primary defence of the human body against external factors from physical, chemical, mechanical and biologic origin. Climatic factors together with low temperature and sun radiation affect the skin. The effect of climatic conditions in Antarctica on healthy skin has not been previously addressed. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate the changes in the skin hydration, greasiness and microrelief due to the extreme climatic environmental factors during the stay of the members of the Bulgarian Antarctic expedition...
July 27, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704129/electromagnetic-information-transfer-through-aqueous-system
#9
Alberto Foletti, Mario Ledda, Maria Grazia Lolli, Settimio Grimaldi, Antonella Lisi
Several beneficial effects of the electromagnetic information transfer through aqueous system (EMITTAS) procedure have previously been reported in vitro. The clinical potential of this procedure has also started to be evaluated. Information flow in biological systems can be investigated through chemical and molecular approaches or by a biophysical approach focused on endogenous electrodynamic activities. Electromagnetic signals are endogenously generated at different levels of the biological organization and, likely, play an active role in synchronizing internal cell function or local/systemic adaptive response...
July 13, 2017: Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615661/increased-levels-of-ascorbic-acid-in-the-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-cognitively-intact-elderly-patients-with-major-depression-a-preliminary-study
#10
Kenji Hashimoto, Tamaki Ishima, Yasunori Sato, Davide Bruno, Jay Nierenberg, Charles R Marmar, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow, Nunzio Pomara
Major depressive disorder (MDD) in the elderly is a risk factor for dementia, but the precise biological basis remains unknown, hampering the search for novel biomarkers and treatments. In this study, we performed metabolomics analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from cognitively intact elderly patients (N = 28) with MDD and age- and gender-matched healthy controls (N = 18). The CSF levels of 177 substances were measured, while 288 substances were below the detection limit. Only ascorbic acid was significantly different, with higher levels in the MDD group at baseline...
June 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614491/depression-and-psychodynamic-psychotherapy
#11
Ângela Ribeiro, João P Ribeiro, Orlando von Doellinger
Depression is a complex condition, and its classical biological/psychosocial distinction is fading. Current guidelines are increasingly advocating psychotherapy as a treatment option. Psychodynamic psychotherapy models encompass a heterogeneous group of interventions derived from early psychoanalytic conceptualizations. Growing literature is raising awareness in the scientific community about the importance of these treatment options, as well as their favorable impact on post-treatment outcomes and relapse prevention...
June 12, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585435/creating-animal-models-why-not-use-the-chinese-tree-shrew-tupaia-belangeri-chinensis
#12
Yong-Gang Yao
The Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis), a squirrel-like and rat-sized mammal, has a wide distribution in Southeast Asia, South and Southwest China and has many unique characteristics that make it suitable for use as an experimental animal. There have been many studies using the tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri) aimed at increasing our understanding of fundamental biological mechanisms and for the modeling of human diseases and therapeutic responses. The recent release of a publicly available annotated genome sequence of the Chinese tree shrew and its genome database (www...
May 18, 2017: Zoological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578134/investigation-of-copy-number-variation-in-subjects-with-major-depression-based-on-whole-genome-sequencing-data
#13
Chenglong Yu, Bernhard T Baune, Ma-Li Wong, Julio Licinio
BACKGROUND: Despite recent intensive research using genome-wide association studies, the underlying biological basis of major depressive disorder (MDD) still remains unknown. In contrast to genotyping platforms which identify specific variations, whole-genome sequencing (WGS) allows us to detect all private genetic variations within an individual. So far there have been no studies investigating copy number variations (CNVs) in subjects with MDD using WGS data. METHODS: We obtained complete WGS paired-end reads data of 15 MDD patients and 10 ethnically matched healthy controls...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555108/is-the-comparison-between-exercise-and-pharmacologic-treatment-of-depression-in-the-clinical-practice-guideline-of-the-american-college-of-physicians-evidence-based
#14
Yael Netz
Major depression disorder is most commonly treated with antidepressants. However, due to their side effects clinicians seek non-pharmacologic options, and one of these is exercise. The literature on the benefits of exercise for depression is extensive. Nevertheless, two recent reviews focusing on antidepressants vs. other therapies as a basis for clinical practice guidelines recommended mainly antidepressants, excluding exercise as a viable choice for treatment of depression. The aim of this perspective is to analyze the literature exploring the reasons for this discrepancy...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545486/depression-in-patients-with-sapho-syndrome-and-its-relationship-with-brain-activity-and-connectivity
#15
Jie Lu, Yanping Duan, Zhentao Zuo, Wenrui Xu, Xuewei Zhang, Chen Li, Rong Xue, Hanzhang Lu, Weihong Zhang
BACKGROUND: Synovitis-acne-pustulosis-hyperostosis-osteitis (SAPHO) syndrome is a rare disease and there is no related literature concerning psychiatric symptoms in SAPHO patients. Thus, we believe that this will be the first paper to explore the episode and the neurobiological basis of depression symptoms in SAPHO patients using resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). Twenty-eight SAPHO patients and fifteen age- and gender- matched normal controls (NC) were consecutively submitted to psychiatric evaluation and rs-fMRI scanning...
May 25, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532165/16p11-2-microduplication-and-associated-symptoms-a-case-study
#16
Martin Knoll, Kirsten Arnett, Jeremy Hertza
The minimal amount known regarding chromosomal microduplications and microdeletions presents a fascinating new direction of research into better understanding misunderstood symptoms and overall genomic influence. Specifically, the 16p11.2 microduplication has been associated with a myriad of possible cognitive, physical, and emotional symptoms. The purpose of this study is to inform the reader of the biological basis of the 16p11.2 microduplication, review sources that suggest a link between the microduplication and clinically relevant diagnoses/sources of impairment, and to better understand the implications and development of symptoms through the illustration of a case example...
May 22, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498576/a-critique-of-the-ultra-high-risk-and-transition-paradigm
#17
Jim van Os, Sinan Guloksuz
The transdiagnostic expression of psychotic experiences in common mental disorder (anxiety/depression/substance use disorder) is associated with a poorer prognosis, and a small minority of people may indeed develop a clinical picture that meets criteria for schizophrenia. However, it appears neither useful nor valid to observe early states of multidimensional psychopathology in young people through the "schizo"-prism, and apply misleadingly simple, unnecessary and inefficient binary concepts of "risk" and "transition"...
June 2017: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449649/a-case-of-recurrent-depressive-disorder-presenting-with-alice-in-wonderland-syndrome-psychopathology-and-pre-and-post-treatment-fdg-pet-findings
#18
Tatsushi Yokoyama, Tsuyoshi Okamura, Miwako Takahashi, Toshimitsu Momose, Shinsuke Kondo
BACKGROUND: Alice in Wonderland syndrome (AIWS) is a rare neuropsychiatric syndrome that typically manifests in distortion of extrapersonal visual image, altered perception of one's body image, and a disturbed sense of the passage of distance and time. Several conditions have been reported to contribute to AIWS, although its biological basis is still unknown. Here, we present the first case demonstrating a clear concurrence of recurrent depressive disorder and AIWS. The clinical manifestations and pre- and post-treatment fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomographic (FDG-PET) images provide insights into the psychopathological and biological basis of AIWS...
April 27, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418035/chronic-social-defeat-reduces-myelination-in-the-mouse-medial-prefrontal-cortex
#19
Michael L Lehmann, Thaddeus K Weigel, Abdel G Elkahloun, Miles Herkenham
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) plays a key role in top-down control of the brain's stress axis, and its structure and function are particularly vulnerable to stress effects, which can lead to depression in humans and depressive-like states in animals. We tested whether chronic social defeat produces structural alterations in the mPFC in mice. We first performed a microarray analysis of mPFC gene expression changes induced by defeat, and biological pathway analysis revealed a dominant pattern of down-regulation of myelin-associated genes...
April 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407461/the-biological-basis-to-personality-disorders
#20
Malathi L Perugula, Puneet D Narang, Steven B Lippmann
Objective: To provide understanding into the biological basis of thinking and behavior in people with personality disorders, explain anatomic findings, and appraise therapeutic options. Data Sources: PubMed was searched with no date restrictions using the terms personality disorders DSM-5, cluster B personality disorders, biological psychiatry of personality disorders, neurobiology of personality disorders, and neurobiology of cluster B personality disorders. Study Selection/Data Extraction: We identified 2,790 English-language articles and utilized 18 in this report...
April 13, 2017: Primary Care Companion to CNS Disorders
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