Read by QxMD icon Read

Biological basis of depression

Roy H Perlis
Effectiveness studies and analyses of naturalistic cohorts demonstrate that many patients with major depressive disorder do not experience symptomatic remission with antidepressant treatments. In an effort to better match patients with effective treatments, numerous investigations of predictors or moderators of treatment response have been reported over the past five decades, including clinical features as well as biological measures. However, none of these have entered routine clinical practice; instead, clinicians typically personalize treatment on the basis of patient preferences as well as their own...
October 2016: World Psychiatry: Official Journal of the World Psychiatric Association (WPA)
Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
There is a growing realisation that the gut-brain axis and its regulation by the microbiota may play a key role in the biological and physiological basis of neurodevelopmental, age-related and neurodegenerative disorders. The routes of communication between the microbiota and brain are being unravelled and include the vagus nerve, gut hormone signalling, the immune system, tryptophan metabolism or by way of microbial metabolites such as short chain fatty acids. The importance of early life gut microbiota in shaping future health outcomes is also emerging...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Jianjun Gao, Lea K Davis, Amy B Hart, Sandra Sanchez-Roige, Lide Han, John T Cacioppo, Abraham A Palmer
Loneliness is a complex biological trait that has been associated with numerous negative health outcomes. The measurement and environmental determinants of loneliness are well understood, but its genetic basis is not. Previous studies have estimated the heritability of loneliness between 37 and 55% using twins and family-based approaches, and have explored the role of specific candidate genes. We used genotypic and phenotypic data from 10 760 individuals aged ⩾50 years that were collected by the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) to perform the first genome-wide association study of loneliness...
October 12, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Marco Atzori, Roberto Cuevas-Olguin, Eric Esquivel-Rendon, Francisco Garcia-Oscos, Roberto C Salgado-Delgado, Nadia Saderi, Marcela Miranda-Morales, Mario Treviño, Juan C Pineda, Humberto Salgado
Norepinephrine (NE) is synthesized in the Locus Coeruleus (LC) of the brainstem, from where it is released by axonal varicosities throughout the brain via volume transmission. A wealth of data from clinics and from animal models indicates that this catecholamine coordinates the activity of the central nervous system (CNS) and of the whole organism by modulating cell function in a vast number of brain areas in a coordinated manner. The ubiquity of NE receptors, the daunting number of cerebral areas regulated by the catecholamine, as well as the variety of cellular effects and of their timescales have contributed so far to defeat the attempts to integrate central adrenergic function into a unitary and coherent framework...
2016: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
Lucia Carboni, Thanh-Phuong Nguyen, Laura Caberlotto
PURPOSE: The pathophysiological basis of major depression is incompletely understood. Recently, numerous proteomic studies have been performed in rodent models of depression to investigate the molecular underpinnings of depressive-like behaviours with an unbiased approach. The objective of the study is to integrate the results of these proteomic studies in depression models to shed light on the most relevant molecular pathways involved in the disease. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Network analysis is performed integrating preexisting proteomic data from rodent models of depression...
September 10, 2016: Proteomics. Clinical Applications
T A Korshunova, D D Vorontsov, V E Dyakonova
One of the most commonly accepted benefits of enhanced physical activity is the improvement in the symptoms of depression, including the facilitation of decision-making. Up until now, these effects have been shown in rodents and humans only. Little is known about their evolutionary origin or biological basis, and the underlying cellular mechanisms also remain relatively elusive. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that preceding motor activity accelerates decision-making in an invertebrate, the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
Charisse Somers, Hanne Struyfs, Joery Goossens, Ellis Niemantsverdriet, Jill Luyckx, Naomi De Roeck, Ellen De Roeck, Bart De Vil, Patrick Cras, Jean-Jacques Martin, Peter-Paul De Deyn, Maria Bjerke, Sebastiaan Engelborghs
During the past ten years, over 5,000 cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were analyzed at the Reference Center for Biological Markers of Dementia (BIODEM), UAntwerp, for core Alzheimer's disease (AD) CSF biomarkers: amyloid-β peptide of 42 amino acids (Aβ1-42), total tau protein (T-tau), and tau phosphorylated at threonine 181 (P-tau181P). CSF biomarker analyses were performed using single-analyte ELISA kits. In-house validated cutoff values were applied: Aβ1-42 <638.5 pg/mL, T-tau >296.5 pg/mL, P-tau181P >56...
August 10, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Maxim Volgushev, Jen-Yung Chen, Vladimir Ilin, Roman Goz, Marina Chistiakova, Maxim Bazhenov
UNLABELLED: Hebbian-type learning rules, which underlie learning and refinement of neuronal connectivity, postulate input specificity of synaptic changes. However, theoretical analyses have long appreciated that additional mechanisms, not restricted to activated synapses, are needed to counteract positive feedback imposed by Hebbian-type rules on synaptic weight changes and to achieve stable operation of learning systems. The biological basis of such mechanisms has remained elusive. Here we show that, in layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons from slices of visual cortex of rats, synaptic changes induced at individual synapses by spike timing-dependent plasticity do not strictly follow the input specificity rule...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Robert Vianello, Carmen Domene, Janez Mavri
HIGHLIGHTS Computational techniques provide accurate descriptions of the structure and dynamics of biological systems, contributing to their understanding at an atomic level.Classical MD simulations are a precious computational tool for the processes where no chemical reactions take place.QM calculations provide valuable information about the enzyme activity, being able to distinguish among several mechanistic pathways, provided a carefully selected cluster model of the enzyme is considered.Multiscale QM/MM simulation is the method of choice for the computational treatment of enzyme reactions offering quantitative agreement with experimentally determined reaction parameters...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Rosie May Walker, Jessika Elizabeth Sussmann, Heather Clare Whalley, Niamh Margaret Ryan, David John Porteous, Andrew Mark McIntosh, Kathryn Louise Evans
OBJECTIVES: Accumulating evidence implicates altered DNA methylation in psychiatric disorders, including bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD). It is not clear, however, whether these changes are causative or result from illness progression or treatment. To disentangle these possibilities we profiled genome-wide DNA methylation in well, unrelated individuals at high familial risk of mood disorder. DNA methylation was compared between individuals who subsequently developed BD or MDD [ill later (IL)] and those who remained well [well later (WL)]...
August 2016: Bipolar Disorders
Xianbao Shi, Gang Zhang, Brianna Mackie, Shuman Yang, Jian Wang, Lina Shan
Psoralidin has shown a variety of biological and pharmacological activities such as anti-tumor anti-oxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-depressant and anti-inflammatory activities. Herein, we reported the metabolism of psoralidin among different species and its inhibitory effect against UGTs and CYP450s. Liquid chromatography was used to investigate the inhibitory activity of psoralidin against ten different UGTs and eight distinct CYP450 isoforms. In addition, we characterized the CYP450 isoforms involved in the psoralidin metabolism on the basis of chemical inhibition studies and screening assays with recombinant human cytochrome P450s...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Agnieszka Pałucha-Poniewiera, Andrzej Pilc
INTRODUCTION: Classic antidepressants that modulate monoaminergic systems are not sufficiently effective and require long systematic application. Recent studies suggest that substances that modulate glutamatergic system may produce an antidepressant effect which is not only faster but also more sustained. AREAS COVERED: In this paper, the authors summarize the results of studies on antidepressant action of ketamine in patients with severe refractory depression, which have demonstrated high efficacy in a very short time after a single dose...
September 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
Jacob D Meyer, Laura D Ellingson, Kelli F Koltyn, Aaron J Stegner, Jee-Seon Kim, Dane B Cook
: Exercise acutely improves mood in major depressive disorder (MDD). However, it is unknown whether benefits differ depending on whether exercise intensity is self-selected or prescribed. PURPOSE: To compare psychological and biological responses to preferred and prescribed steady-state exercise intensities to a patient-selected preferred intensity. METHOD: Female adults (n = 24, age = 38.6 ± 14.0) diagnosed with MDD completed four, 30-minute session of cycling exercise at three prescribed intensities (rating of perceived exertion [RPE] of 11, 13, 15), and one session with a self-selected intensity (preferred)...
July 6, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Verônica M Saia-Cereda, Juliana S Cassoli, Daniel Martins-de-Souza, Juliana M Nascimento
Approximately 25 % of the world population is affected by a mental disorder at some point in their life. Yet, only in the mid-twentieth century a biological cause has been proposed for these diseases. Since then, several studies have been conducted toward a better comprehension of those disorders, and although a strong genetic influence was revealed, the role of these genes in disease mechanism is still unclear. This led most recent studies to focus on the molecular basis of mental disorders. One line of investigation that has risen in the post-genomic era is proteomics, due to its power of revealing proteins and biochemical pathways associated with biological systems...
July 4, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Michael Q Steinman, Brian C Trainor
Women are nearly twice as likely as men to be diagnosed with major depressive disorder, yet the use of female animal models in studying the biological basis of depression lags behind that of males. The social defeat model uses social stress to generate depression-like symptoms in order to study the neurobiological mechanisms. In general, social defeat is difficult to apply in female rodents. However, male and female California mice (Peromyscus californicus) are territorial. This allows defeat to be studied in both sexes...
June 30, 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
Barbara Gellén, Katalin Völgyi, Balázs András Györffy, Boróka Balogh, Zsuzsa Darula, Hunyadi-Gulyás Éva, Péter Baracskay, András Czurkó, István Hernádi, Gábor Juhász, Árpád Dobolyi, Katalin Adrienna Kékesi
: Neonatal rodents chronically treated with the tricyclic antidepressant clomipramine show depression-like behavior, which persists throughout adulthood. Therefore, this animal model is suitable to investigate the pathomechanism of depression, which is still largely unknown at the molecular level beyond monoaminergic dysfunctions. Here, we describe protein level changes in the prefrontal cortex of neonatally clomipramine-treated adult rats correlating with behavioral abnormalities. Clomipramine was administered to rat pups twice daily between postnatal days 8-21, while controls received saline injections...
June 28, 2016: Journal of Proteomics
Fabrice Jollant, Stéphane Richard-Devantoy, Yang Ding, Gustavo Turecki, Antoine Bechara, Jamie Near
Risky decision-making is found in several mental disorders and is associated with deleterious consequences. Current research aims at understanding the biological underpinnings of this complex cognitive function and the basis of individual variability. We used 3T proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy to measure in vivo glutamate, GABA, N-acetyl-aspartate (NAA), and myo-inositol levels at rest in the right dorsal prefrontal cortex of 54 participants, comprising 24 unmedicated depressed patients and 30 healthy individuals...
August 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Katie L Druce, Yagnaseni Bhattacharya, Gareth T Jones, Gary J Macfarlane, Neil Basu
OBJECTIVES: RA-related fatigue is common and debilitating, but does not always respond to immunotherapy. In the context of anti-TNF therapy, we aimed to examine whether patients achieving disease remission experienced remission of fatigue. METHODS: Data from the British Society for Rheumatology Biologics Register for RA were used. In participants with severe baseline fatigue [36-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) vitality score ⩽12.5], we identified those in disease remission [28-joint DAS (DAS28) <2...
October 2016: Rheumatology
Michael H Smolensky, Ramon C Hermida, Alain Reinberg, Linda Sackett-Lundeen, Francesco Portaluppi
Biological processes are organized in time as innate rhythms defined by the period (τ), phase (peak [Φ] and trough time), amplitude (A, peak-trough difference) and mean level. The human time structure in its entirety is comprised of ultradian (τ < 20 h), circadian (20 h > τ < 28 h) and infradian (τ > 28 h) bioperiodicities. The circadian time structure (CTS) of human beings, which is more complicated than in lower animals, is orchestrated and staged by a brain central multioscillator system that includes a prominent pacemaker - the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus...
2016: Chronobiology International
Nicolás Ruiz-Robledillo, Ángel Romero-Martínez, Luis Moya-Albiol
Caring for offspring diagnosed with eating disorders (EDs) entails being under high chronic stress, with negative consequences for health. However, most previous research has only evaluated self-report measures of health, biological markers being poorly studied. In this regard, the evaluation of the cortisol awakening response (CAR) could add significant information about the biological basis of health disturbances in this population. The main aim of the present study was to compare CAR and self-reported health between informal caregivers (ICs) of people with EDs and non-caregivers...
September 2016: European Eating Disorders Review: the Journal of the Eating Disorders Association
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"