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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666570/role-of-caspase-8-and-fas-in-cell-death-after-spinal-cord-injury
#1
REVIEW
Daniel Sobrido-Cameán, Antón Barreiro-Iglesias
Spinal cord injury (SCI) causes the death of neurons and glial cells due to the initial mechanical forces (i.e., primary injury) and through a cascade of secondary molecular events (e.g., inflammation or excitotoxicity) that exacerbate cell death. The loss of neurons and glial cells that are not replaced after the injury is one of the main causes of disability after SCI. Evidence accumulated in last decades has shown that the activation of apoptotic mechanisms is one of the factors causing the death of intrinsic spinal cord (SC) cells following SCI...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666247/global-shifts-in-the-phenological-synchrony-of-species-interactions-over-recent-decades
#2
Heather M Kharouba, Johan Ehrlén, Andrew Gelman, Kjell Bolmgren, Jenica M Allen, Steve E Travers, Elizabeth M Wolkovich
Phenological responses to climate change (e.g., earlier leaf-out or egg hatch date) are now well documented and clearly linked to rising temperatures in recent decades. Such shifts in the phenologies of interacting species may lead to shifts in their synchrony, with cascading community and ecosystem consequences. To date, single-system studies have provided no clear picture, either finding synchrony shifts may be extremely prevalent [Mayor SJ, et al. (2017) Sci Rep 7:1902] or relatively uncommon [Iler AM, et al...
April 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665733/natural-history-predictors-of-outcome-and-effects-of-treatment-in-thoracic-spinal-cord-injury-a-multicenter-cohort-study-from-the-north-american-clinical-trials-network
#3
Jefferson R Wilson, Blessing Jaja, Brian K Kwon, James Guest, James Shields Harrop, Bizhan Aarabi, Christopher Shaffrey, Jetan Badhiwala, Elizabeth Toups, Robert Grossman, Michael G Fehlings
The course, treatment response and recovery potential following acute traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) have been shown to differ depending on the neurological level of injury. However, there are limited data focused on thoracic-level injuries. A cohort of 86 patients from the prospectively maintained North American Clinical Trials Network (NACTN) SCI registry were identified and studied to characterize the patterns of neurological recovery as well as to determine rates of acute hospital mortality and pulmonary complications...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665726/dexmedetomidine-mitigates-microglia-mediated-neuroinflammation-through-up-regulation-of-programmed-cell-death-protein-1-in-a-rat-spinal-cord-injury-model
#4
Hefan He, Yingying Zhou, Yilin Zhou, Jiayuan Zhuang, Xu He, Siyuan Wang, Wenping Lin
Excessive neuroinflammation aggravates neurological damage after spinal cord injury (SCI). Controlling neuroinflammation might favor neuroregeneration and tissue repair. Dexmedetomidine is reported to inhibit post-SCI neuroinflammation in previous research. In the current study, to determine the mechanisms by which dexmedetomidine inhibits neuroinflammation, we tested the effect of dexmedetomidine hydrochloride on microglia in vitro and in a rat SCI model. We found that dexmedetomidine hydrochloride up-regulated programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), an immunoregulatory molecule, in activated microglia but not in resting microglia...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663869/the-effect-of-self-assessed-fatigue-and-subjective-cognitive-impairment-on-work-capacity-the-case-of-multiple-sclerosis
#5
Gisela Kobelt, Dawn Langdon, Linus Jönsson
OBJECTIVES: The impact of physical disability in multiple sclerosis on employment is well documented but the effect of neurological symptoms has been less well studied. We investigated the independent effect of self-reported fatigue and cognitive difficulties on work. METHODS: In a large European cost of illness survey, self-reported fatigue, subjective cognitive impairment (SCI), and productivity at work were assessed with visual analogue scales (VAS 0-10). The analysis controlled for country, age, age at diagnosis, gender, education, and physical disability...
April 1, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663285/exosomes-in-acquired-neurological-disorders-new-insights-into-pathophysiology-and-treatment
#6
REVIEW
Nicole Osier, Vida Motamedi, Katie Edwards, Ava Puccio, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Kimbra Kenney, Jessica Gill
Exosomes are endogenous nanovesicles that play critical roles in intercellular signaling by conveying functional genetic information and proteins between cells. Exosomes readily cross the blood-brain barrier and have promise as therapeutic delivery vehicles that have the potential to specifically deliver molecules to the central nervous system (CNS). This unique feature also makes exosomes attractive as biomarkers in diagnostics, prognostics, and therapeutics in the context of multiple significant public health conditions, including acquired neurological disorders...
April 16, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661988/the-effect-of-axon-resealing-on-retrograde-neuronal-death-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-lamprey
#7
Guixin Zhang, William Rodemer, Taemin Lee, Jianli Hu, Michael E Selzer
Failure of axon regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS) of mammals is due to both extrinsic inhibitory factors and to neuron-intrinsic factors. The importance of intrinsic factors is illustrated in the sea lamprey by the 18 pairs of large, individually identified reticulospinal (RS) neurons, whose axons are located in the same spinal cord tracts but vary greatly in their ability to regenerate after spinal cord transection (TX). The neurons that are bad regenerators also undergo very delayed apoptosis, signaled early by activation of caspases...
April 14, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659188/dissecting-through-barriers-a-follow-up-study-on-the-long-term-effects-of-interprofessional-education-in-a-dissection-course-with-healthcare-professional-students
#8
Yu Hang Eric Zheng, Andrew Palombella, Jenn Salfi, Bruce Wainman
Several studies have shown significant improvements in the attitudes and perceptions of healthcare professional students toward interprofessional education (IPE) immediately following intervention with IPE courses. However, there remains little evidence on the lasting effects of IPE courses and the long-term influences of these IPE experiences are poorly documented. The purpose of this study is to assess the long-term effects of an intensive, ten-week interprofessional gross anatomy dissection course at McMaster University...
April 16, 2018: Anatomical Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659165/improving-academic-performance-of-sport-and-exercise-science-undergraduate-students-in-gross-anatomy-using-a-near-peer-teaching-program
#9
Ricardo Borges Viana, Mário Hebling Campos, Douglas de Assis Teles Santos, Isabela Cristina Maioni Xavier, Rodrigo Luiz Vancini, Marília Santos Andrade, Claudio Andre Barbosa de Lira
Peer and near-peer teaching programs are common in medical undergraduate courses. However, there are no studies that have investigated the effectiveness of a near-peer teaching program on the academic performance of undergraduate students pursuing sport and exercise science coursework. This study was conducted to analyze the effectiveness of such a program for students who participated in a course on the functional anatomy of the locomotor apparatus. A total of 39 student participants were divided into two groups: students in one group voluntarily attended at least one session of a near-peer teaching program, and students in the other group attended no sessions...
April 16, 2018: Anatomical Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659155/breaking-with-tradition-a-scoping-meta-analysis-analyzing-the-effects-of-student-centered-learning-and-computer-aided-instruction-on-student-performance-in-anatomy
#10
Adam B Wilson, Kirsten M Brown, Jonathan Misch, Corinne H Miller, Barbie A Klein, Melissa A Taylor, Michael Goodwin, Eve K Boyle, Chantal Hoppe, Michelle D Lazarus
While prior meta-analyses in anatomy education have explored the effects of laboratory pedagogies and histology media on learner performance, the effects of student-centered learning (SCL) and computer-aided instruction (CAI) have not been broadly evaluated. This research sought to answer the question, "How effective are student-centered pedagogies and CAI at increasing student knowledge gains in anatomy compared to traditional didactic approaches?" Relevant studies published within the past 51 years were searched using five databases...
April 16, 2018: Anatomical Sciences Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658057/combined-effects-of-rat-schwann-cells-and-17%C3%AE-estradiol-in-a-spinal-cord-injury-model
#11
Zeinab Namjoo, Fateme Moradi, Roya Aryanpour, Abbas Piryaei, Mohammad Taghi Joghataei, Yusef Abbasi, Amir Hosseini, Sajad Hassanzadeh, Fatemeh Ranjbar Taklimie, Cordian Beyer, Adib Zendedel
Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating traumatic event which burdens the affected individuals and the health system. Schwann cell (SC) transplantation is a promising repair strategy after SCI. However, a large number of SCs do not survive following transplantation. Previous studies demonstrated that 17β-estradiol (E2) protects different cell types and reduces tissue damage in SCI experimental animal model. In the current study, we evaluated the protective potential of E2 on SCs in vitro and investigated whether the combination of hormonal and SC therapeutic strategy has a better effect on the outcome after SCI...
April 15, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658052/reduced-%C3%AE-glcnac-glycosylation-on-gastric-gland-mucin-is-a-biomarker-of-malignant-potential-for-gastric-cancer-barrett-s-adenocarcinoma-and-pancreatic-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Kazuhiro Yamanoi, Jun Nakayama
Gastric gland mucin secreted from pyloric gland cells, mucous neck cells, and cardiac gland cells of the gastric mucosa harbors unique O-glycans carrying terminal α1,4-linked N-acetylglucosamine residues (αGlcNAc), which are primarily attached to the scaffold mucin core protein MUC6. αGlcNAc acts as an antibiotic against Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), a microbe causing gastric cancer. In addition, mice deficient in A4gnt, which encodes the enzyme α1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (α4GnT) that catalyzes αGlcNAc biosynthesis, spontaneously develop gastric differentiated-type adenocarcinoma, even if not infected by H...
April 16, 2018: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658040/enhancing-radical-molecular-beams-by-skimmer-cooling
#13
Hao Wu, David Reens, Tim Langen, Yuval Shagam, Daniela Fontecha, Jun Ye
A high-intensity supersonic beam source has been a key component in studies of molecular collisions, molecule-surface interaction, chemical reactions, and precision spectroscopy. However, the molecular density available for experiments in a downstream science chamber is limited by skimmer clogging, which constrains the separation between a valve and a skimmer to at least several hundred nozzle diameters. A recent experiment (Sci. Adv., 2017, 3, e1602258) has introduced a new strategy to address this challenge: when a skimmer is cooled to a temperature below the freezing point of the carrier gas, skimmer clogging can be effectively suppressed...
April 16, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657693/the-effects-of-acceptance-and-commitment-therapy-on-man-smokers-comorbid-depression-and-anxiety-symptoms-and-smoking-cessation-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Mohammadreza Davoudi, Abdollah Omidi, Mojtaba Sehat, Zahra Sepehrmanesh
Background: Besides physical problems, cigarette smoking is associated with a high prevalence of comorbid depression and anxiety symptoms. One of the reasons behind high post-cessation smoking lapse and relapse rates is inattentiveness to these symptoms during the process of cessation. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) on male smokers' comorbid depression and anxiety symptoms and smoking cessation. Methods: This two-group pre-test-post-test randomized controlled trial was done on a random sample of seventy male smokers...
July 2017: Addiction & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656627/ossification-of-the-posterior-longitudinal-ligament-in-cervical-spine-prevalence-management-and-prognosis
#15
REVIEW
Jau-Ching Wu, Yu-Chun Chen, Wen-Cheng Huang
Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) in the cervical spine and related neurological complications are not uncommon in East Asian countries. The estimated prevalence of cervical OPLL-related hospitalization is 7.7 per 100,000 person-years in Taiwan, and higher incidence rates have been observed in elderly and male patients. Although cervical OPLL is frequently insidious, it can eventually cause myelopathy and predispose patients to spinal cord injury (SCI). There are multiple options for managing cervical OPLL, ranging from observation to many kinds of surgical procedures, including posterior laminoplasty, laminectomy with or without fusion, anterior corpectomy with or without instrumentation, and circumferential decompression and fusion...
March 2018: Neurospine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656591/amp-activated-protein-kinase-dependent-induction-of-autophagy-by-erythropoietin-protects-against-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats
#16
Peng Wang, Zhong-Dong Xie, Chang-Nan Xie, Chao-Wei Lin, Ji-Li Wang, Li-Na Xuan, Chun-Wu Zhang, Yu Wang, Zhi-Hui Huang, Hong-Lin Teng
AIMS: Autophagy has been regarded as a promising therapeutic target for spinal cord injury (SCI). Erythropoietin (EPO) has been demonstrated to exhibit neuroprotective effects in the central nervous system (CNS); however, the molecular mechanisms of its protection against SCI remain unknown. This study aims to investigate whether the neuroprotective effects of EPO on SCI are mediated by autophagy via AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathways. METHODS: Functional assessment and Nissl staining were used to investigate the effects of EPO on SCI...
April 15, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653184/estrogen-alleviates-neuropathic-pain-induced-after-spinal-cord-injury-by-inhibiting-microglia-and-astrocyte-activation
#17
Jee Youn Lee, Hae Young Choi, Bong Gun Ju, Tae Young Yune
Neuropathic pain after spinal cord injury (SCI) is developed in about 80% of SCI patients and there is no efficient therapeutic drug to alleviate SCI-induced neuropathic pain. Here we examined the effect of estrogen on SCI-induced neuropathic pain at below-level and its effect on neuroinflammation as underlying mechanisms. Neuropathic pain is developed at late phase after SCI and a single dose of 17β-estradiol (100, 300 μg/kg) were administered to rats with neuropathic pain after SCI through intravenous injection...
April 10, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652785/clinical-prediction-rule-for-heterotopic-ossification-of-the-hip-in-patients-with-spinal-cord-injury
#18
Eduardo M Suero, Mustafa Citak
STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study; clinical prediction rule. OBJECTIVE: To construct and internally validate a clinical prediction rule to identify patients at high risk of developing heterotopic ossification (HO) after spinal cord injury (SCI). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: HO after SCI can lead to loss of joint mobility, loss of function, peripheral nerve entrapment, and pressure sores. HO is usually diagnosed based on clinical symptoms, as no laboratory tests are yet available to identify patients with early HO formation...
April 12, 2018: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652252/on-the-application-of-the-expected-log-likelihood-gain-to-decision-making-in-molecular-replacement
#19
Robert D Oeffner, Pavel V Afonine, Claudia Millán, Massimo Sammito, Isabel Usón, Randy J Read, Airlie J McCoy
Molecular-replacement phasing of macromolecular crystal structures is often fast, but if a molecular-replacement solution is not immediately obtained the crystallographer must judge whether to pursue molecular replacement or to attempt experimental phasing as the quickest path to structure solution. The introduction of the expected log-likelihood gain [eLLG; McCoy et al. (2017), Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA, 114, 3637-3641] has given the crystallographer a powerful new tool to aid in making this decision. The eLLG is the log-likelihood gain on intensity [LLGI; Read & McCoy (2016), Acta Cryst...
April 1, 2018: Acta Crystallographica. Section D, Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651626/current-topics-in-the-management-of-acute-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury
#20
Christopher D Shank, Beverly C Walters, Mark N Hadley
Acute traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) affects more than 250,000 people in the USA, with approximately 17,000 new cases each year. It continues to be one of the most significant causes of trauma-related morbidity and mortality. Despite the introduction of primary injury prevention education and vehicle safety devices, such as airbags and passive restraint systems, traumatic SCI continues to have a substantial impact on the healthcare system. Over the last three decades, there have been considerable advancements in the management of patients with traumatic SCI...
April 12, 2018: Neurocritical Care
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