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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137481/effects-of-pioglitazone-on-ventricular-myocyte-shortening-and-ca-2-transport-in-the-goto-kakizaki-type-2-diabetic-rat
#1
K A Salem, V Sydorenko, M Qureshi, M Oz, F C Howarth
Pioglitazone (PIO) is a thiazolidindione antidiabetic agent which improves insulin sensitivity and reduces blood glucose in experimental animals and treated patients. At the cellular level the actions of PIO in diabetic heart are poorly understood. A previous study has demonstrated shortened action potential duration and inhibition of a variety of transmembrane currents including L-type Ca(2+) current in normal canine ventricular myocytes. The effects of PIO on shortening and calcium transport in ventricular myocytes from the Goto-Kakizaki (GK) type 2 diabetic rat have been investigated...
November 10, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124558/development-of-a-simple-device-enabling-percutaneous-flow-regulation-for-a-small-vascular-graft-for-a-blalock-taussig-shunt-capable-of-flow-regulation-complete-translation-of-a-review-article-originally-published-in-pediatric-cardiology-and-cardiac-surgery
#2
Yoshikazu Motohashi, Ryo Shimada, Tomoyasu Sasaki, Takahiro Katsumata, Kazunori Dan, Yasuhiro Tsutsui, Shintaro Nemoto
OBJECTIVES: The Blalock-Taussig shunt (BTS) operation is a cornerstone as initial palliative surgery for congenital heart disease with severely reduced pulmonary blood flow (PBF). The ideal PBF provided by BTS is crucial for an uneventful postoperative course, since excess PBF results in acute distress of the systemic circulation and insufficient PBF requires another BTS surgery. Therefore, the goal of this study was to develop a simple device to control the shunt graft flow percutaneously using a constrictor balloon connected to a subcutaneous port...
November 9, 2017: General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101507/novel-synthesized-radical-containing-nanoparticles-limit-infarct-size-following-ischemia-and-reperfusion-in-canine-hearts
#3
Hiroshi Asanuma, Shoji Sanada, Toru Yoshitomi, Hideyuki Sasaki, Hiroyuki Takahama, Madoka Ihara, Hiroko Takahama, Yoshiro Shinozaki, Hidezo Mori, Masanori Asakura, Atsushi Nakano, Masaru Sugimachi, Yoshihiro Asano, Tetsuo Minamino, Seiji Takashima, Yukio Nagasaki, Masafumi Kitakaze
PURPOSE: Although nitroxyl radicals such as 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO) scavenge free radicals, their short half-life and considerable side effects such as systemic hypotension and bradycardia have limited their clinical application. Since a radical-containing nanoparticle (RNP) delivers nitroxyl radicals with a prolonged half-life specific to ischemic hearts, we investigated whether RNPs reduce infarct size without the occurrence of substantial side effects and whether nitric oxide (NO) contributes to the cardioprotective effects of RNPs...
November 3, 2017: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094471/antifibrillatory-effects-of-renal-denervation-on-ventricular-fibrillation-in-a-canine-model-of-pacing-induced-heart-failure
#4
Qingzhi Luo, Qi Jin, Ning Zhang, Shangwei Huang, Yanxin Han, Changjian Lin, Tianyou Ling, Kang Chen, Wenqi Pan, Liqun Wu
This study investigated the effects of renal denervation (RDN) on vulnerability to ventricular fibrillation (VF) and ventricular electrical properties in a canine model of pacing-induced heart failure (HF). Eighteen beagles were divided into the following three groups: control (n = 6), HF (n = 6) and HF+RDN (n = 6). HF was induced by rapid right ventricular pacing. RDN was performed simultaneously with the pacemaker implantation in the HF+RDN group. A 64-unipolar basket catheter was used to perform global endocardial mapping of the left ventricle...
November 2, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074428/identification-and-function-analysis-of-canine-stimulator-of-interferon-gene-sting
#5
Yuxiang Zhang, Mengyan Zhu, Gairu Li, Jie Liu, Xiaofeng Zhai, Ruyi Wang, Junyan Zhang, Gang Xing, Jinyan Gu, Liping Yan, Jing Lei, Haifeng Sun, Zhiyu Shi, Fei Liu, Boli Hu, Shuo Su, Jiyong Zhou
Stimulator of interferon gene (STING) plays an important role in the cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS)-mediated activation of type I IFN responses. In this study, we identified and cloned canine STING gene. Full-length STING encodes a 375 amino acid product that shares the highest similarity with feline STING. Highest levels of mRNA of canine STING were detected in the spleen and lungs while the lowest levels in the heart and muscle. Analysis of its cellular localization showed that STING is localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum...
October 24, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069972/angiotensin-converting-enzyme-activity-and-inhibition-in-dogs-with-cardiac-disease-and-an-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-polymorphism
#6
Kathryn M Meurs, Joshua A Stern, Clarke E Atkins, Darcy Adin, Brent Aona, Julia Condit, Teresa DeFrancesco, Yamir Reina-Doreste, Bruce W Keene, Sandy Tou, Jessica Ward, Kathleen Woodruff
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity in dogs and with and without an ACE polymorphism in the canine ACE gene, before and after treatment with an ACE inhibitor. METHODS: Thirty-one dogs (20 wild-type, 11 ACE polymorphism) with heart disease were evaluated with ACE activity measurement and systolic blood pressure before and after administration of an ACE inhibitor (enalapril). RESULTS: Median pre-treatment ACE activity was significantly lower for ACE polymorphism dogs than for dogs with the wild-type sequence ( P=0...
October 2017: Journal of the Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone System: JRAAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066415/inotropic-effect-of-ncx-inhibition-depends-on-the-relative-activity-of-the-reverse-ncx-assessed-by-a-novel-inhibitor-orm-10962-on-canine-ventricular-myocytes
#7
Kinga Oravecz, Anita Kormos, Andrea Gruber, Zoltán Márton, Zsófia Kohajda, Leila Mirzaei, Norbert Jost, Jouko Levijoki, Piero Pollesello, Tuula Koskelainen, Leena Otsomaa, András Tóth, Julius Gy Papp, Péter P Nánási, Gudrun Antoons, András Varró, Károly Acsai, Norbert Nagy
Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX) is the main Ca(2+) transporter in cardiac myocytes. Its inhibition could be expected to exert positive inotropic action by accumulation of cytosolic Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i). However, we have observed only a marginal positive inotropic effect upon selective inhibition of NCX, which was enhanced when forward activity was facilitated. Here we attempted to clarify the underlying mechanism of the limited inotropic action of selective NCX inhibition by a novel inhibitor ORM-10962 on canine ventricular myocytes...
October 21, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056705/review-of-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-approach-to-canine-myxomatous-mitral-valve-disease
#8
REVIEW
Giulio Menciotti, Michele Borgarelli
The most common heart disease that affects dogs is myxomatous mitral valve disease. In this article, we review the current diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to this disease, and we also present some of the latest technological advancements in this field.
September 26, 2017: Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016724/triggered-intracellular-calcium-waves-in-dog-and-human-left-atrial-myocytes-from-normal-and-failing-hearts
#9
Gary L Aistrup, Rishi Arora, Søren Grubb, Shin Yoo, Benjamin Toren, Manvinder Kumar, Aaron Kunamalla, William Marszalec, Tej Motiwala, Shannon Tai, Sean Yamakawa, Satya Yerrabolu, Francisco J Alvarado, Hector H Valdivia, Jonathan M Cordeiro, Yohannes Shiferaw, John Andrew Wasserstrom
Aims: Abnormal intracellular Ca2+ cycling contributes to triggered activity and arrhythmias in the heart. We investigated the properties and underlying mechanisms for systolic triggered Ca2+ waves in left atria from normal and failing dog hearts. Methods and results: Intracellular Ca2+ cycling was studied using confocal microscopy during rapid pacing of atrial myocytes (36 °C) isolated from normal and failing canine hearts (ventricular tachypacing model). In normal atrial myocytes (NAMs), Ca2+ waves developed during rapid pacing at rates ≥ 3...
November 1, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958795/heart-rate-turbulence-after-ventricular-premature-beats-in-healthy-doberman-pinschers-and-those-with-dilated-cardiomyopathy
#10
J D Harris, C J L Little, J M Dennis, M W Patteson
OBJECTIVES: To describe the measurement of heart rate turbulence (HRT) after ventricular premature beats and compare HRT in healthy Doberman pinschers and those with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), with and without congestive heart failure (CHF). ANIMALS: Sixty-five client-owned Dobermans: 20 healthy (NORMAL), 31 with preclinical DCM and 14 with DCM and CHF (DCM + CHF). METHODS: A retrospective study of data retrieved from clinical records and ambulatory ECG (Holter) archives, including data collected previously for a large-scale prospective study of Dobermans with preclinical DCM...
October 2017: Journal of Veterinary Cardiology: the Official Journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941985/stimulation-of-ganglionated-plexus-attenuates-cardiac-neural-remodeling-and-heart-failure-progression-in-a-canine-model-of-acute-heart-failure-post-myocardial-infarction
#11
Da Luo, Huihui Hu, Zhiliang Qin, Shan Liu, Xiaomei Yu, Ruisong Ma, Wenbo He, Jing Xie, Zhibing Lu, Bo He, Hong Jiang
BACKGROUND: Heart failure (HF) is associated with autonomic dysfunction. Vagus nerve stimulation has been shown to improve cardiac function both in HF patients and animal models of HF. The purpose of this present study is to investigate the effects of ganglionated plexus stimulation (GPS) on HF progression and autonomic remodeling in a canine model of acute HF post-myocardial infarction. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eighteen adult mongrel male dogs were randomized into the control (n=8) and GPS (n=10) groups...
September 18, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940010/frequency-dependent-effects-of-omecamtiv-mecarbil-on-cell-shortening-of-isolated-canine-ventricular-cardiomyocytes
#12
Balázs Horváth, Norbert Szentandrássy, Roland Veress, János Almássy, János Magyar, Tamás Bányász, Attila Tóth, Zoltán Papp, Péter P Nánási
Omecamtiv mecarbil (OM) is a myosin activator agent developed for the treatment of heart failure. OM was reported to increase left ventricular ejection fraction and systolic ejection time, but little is known about the effect of heart rate on the action of OM. The present study, therefore, was designed to investigate the effects of OM on unloaded cell shortening and intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) transients as a function of the pacing frequency. Isolated cardiomyocytes were stimulated at various frequencies under steady-state conditions...
December 2017: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919363/thoracic-spinal-cord-and-cervical-vagosympathetic-neuromodulation-obtund-nodose-sensory-transduction-of-myocardial-ischemia
#13
Siamak Salavatian, Eric Beaumont, David Gibbons, Matthew Hammer, Donald B Hoover, J Andrew Armour, Jeffrey L Ardell
BACKGROUND: Autonomic regulation therapy involving either vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) or spinal cord stimulation (SCS) represents emerging bioelectronic therapies for heart disease. The objective of this study was to determine if VNS and/or SCS modulate primary cardiac afferent sensory transduction of the ischemic myocardium. METHODS: Using extracellular recordings in 19 anesthetized canines, of 88 neurons evaluated, 36 ventricular-related nodose ganglia sensory neurons were identified by their functional activity responses to epicardial touch, chemical activation of their sensory neurites (epicardial veratridine) and great vessel (descending aorta or inferior vena cava) occlusion...
August 18, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862330/defining-the-neural-fulcrum-for-chronic-vagus-nerve-stimulation-implications-for-integrated-cardiac-control
#14
Jeffrey L Ardell, Heath Nier, Matthew Hammer, E Marie Southerland, Christopher L Ardell, Eric Beaumont, Bruce H KenKnight, J Andrew Armour
KEY POINTS: The evoked cardiac response to bipolar cervical vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) reflects a dynamic interaction between afferent mediated decreases in central parasympathetic drive and suppressive effects evoked by direct stimulation of parasympathetic efferent axons to the heart. The neural fulcrum is defined as the operating point, based on frequency-amplitude-pulse width, where a null heart rate response is reproducibly evoked during the on-phase of VNS. Cardiac control, based on the principal of the neural fulcrum, can be elicited from either vagus...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851517/an-integrative-appraisal-of-mechano-electric-feedback-mechanisms-in-the-heart
#15
Viviane Timmermann, Lars A Dejgaard, Kristina H Haugaa, Andrew G Edwards, Joakim Sundnes, Andrew D McCulloch, Samuel T Wall
Mechanically-induced alterations in cardiac electrophysiology are referred to as mechano-electric feedback (MEF), and play an important role in electrical regulation of cardiac performance. The influence of mechanical stress and strain on electrophysiology has been investigated at all levels, however the role of MEF in arrhythmia remains poorly understood. During the normal contraction of the heart, mechano-sensitive processes are an implicit component of cardiac activity. Under abnormal mechanical events, stretch-activated mechanisms may contribute to local or global changes in electrophysiology (EP)...
August 26, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833764/ganglionated-plexi-as-neuromodulation-targets-for-atrial-fibrillation
#16
Eue-Keun Choi, Ye Zhao, Thomas H Everett, Peng-Sheng Chen
The autonomic nervous system plays an important role in the genesis of atrial fibrillation and is one of the candidate targets for atrial fibrillation therapy. This review focuses on the role of the autonomic nervous system in atrial fibrillation development and discusses the results of the ganglionated plexi catheter and surgical ablation in preclinical and clinical studies. The heart is innervated by the extrinsic and intrinsic autonomic nervous systems. The intrinsic autonomic nervous system consists of multiple ganglionated plexi and axons, which innervate the neighboring atrial myocardium and control their electrophysiological properties...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28833735/renal-denervation-decreases-susceptibility-of-the-heart-to-ventricular-fibrillation-in-a-canine-model-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#17
Xiaotie Tang, Lang Shi, Xuebin Cui, Yang Yu, Ting Qi, Cheng Chen, Xianglei Tang
What is the central question of this study? Renal denervation (RDN) has been shown to be effective and safe, resulting in better control of blood pressure and an improvement in left ventricular hypertrophy in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. Ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death are common causes of death in CKD patients, but previous studies pay almost no attention to the effects of RDN on the risk of ventricular fibrillation associated with CKD. What is the main finding and its importance? Renal denervation could decrease susceptibility of the heart to ventricular fibrillation in a canine CKD model...
August 21, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28830425/improved-yield-of-canine-islet-isolation-from-deceased-donors
#18
Stephen Harrington, S Janette Williams, Vern Otte, Sally Barchman, Cheryl Jones, Karthik Ramachandran, Lisa Stehno-Bittel
BACKGROUND: Canine diabetes is a strikingly prevalent and growing disease, and yet the standard treatment of a twice-daily insulin injection is both cumbersome to pet owners and only moderately effective. Islet transplantation has been performed with repeated success in canine research models, but has unfortunately not been made available to companion animals. Standard protocols for islet isolation, developed primarily for human islet transplantation, include beating-heart organ donation, vascular perfusion of preservation solutions, specialized equipment...
August 22, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826800/increased-inflammation-promotes-ventricular-arrhythmia-through-aggravating-left-stellate-ganglion-remodeling-in-a-canine-ischemia-model
#19
Menglong Wang, Shuyan Li, Xiaoya Zhou, Bing Huang, Liping Zhou, Xuefei Li, Guannan Meng, Shenxu Yuan, Yuhong Wang, Zhuo Wang, Songyun Wang, Lilei Yu, Hong Jiang
BACKGROUND: Increased inflammation was found in the left stellate ganglion (LSG) in patients with malignant ventricular arrhythmia (VA). However, the role of inflammation in LSG remodeling is unknown. This study aimed to investigate whether exogenous interleukin-1β (IL-1β) could aggravate VA through regulating LSG remodeling. METHODS: Twenty-four canines who received saline (Control, n=8), IL-1β injection into the LSG (n=8) or IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-Ra) pre-injection plus IL-1β injection (n=8) were included...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826266/prevalence-of-and-risk-factors-for-feline-hyperthyroidism-in-south-africa
#20
Joanne L McLean, Remo G Lobetti, Carmel T Mooney, Peter N Thompson, Johan P Schoeman
Objectives Hyperthyroidism is a disorder of older cats that may have a geographical variation in prevalence. Prevalence studies have not yet been performed in South Africa, a geographical area where hyperthyroidism in cats has recently been observed and where, reportedly, the incidence appears to be increasing. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of feline hyperthyroidism in South Africa and to identify any potential risk factors. Further information on the worldwide prevalence and possible causative factors would increase our understanding of the aetiology of this disease and help identify any preventive measures...
October 2017: Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery
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