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Canine heart

Wen Dun, Peter Danilo, Peter J Mohler, Penelope A Boyden
Cardiac Na+ channel remodeling provides a critical substrate for generation of reentrant arrhythmias in border zones of the infarcted canine heart. Recent studies show that Nav1.5 cytoskeletal- and endosomal-based membrane trafficking and function are linked to tubulin, microtubular (MT) networks, and Eps15 homology domain containing proteins like EHD4. AIM: Our objective is to understand the relation of tubulin and EHD4 to Nav 1.5 channel protein remodeling observed in border zone cells (IZs) when arrhythmias are known to occur; that is, 3-h, 48-h and 5-day post coronary occlusion...
March 10, 2018: Life Sciences
Petra Bilić, Nicolas Guillemin, Alan Kovačević, Blanka Beer Ljubić, Ines Jović, Asier Galan, Peter David Eckersall, Richard Burchmore, Vladimir Mrljak
Idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (iDCM) is a primary myocardial disorder with an unknown aetiology, characterized by reduced contractility and ventricular dilation of the left or both ventricles. Naturally occurring canine iDCM was used herein to identify serum proteomic signature of the disease compared to the healthy state, providing an insight into underlying mechanisms and revealing proteins with biomarker potential. To achieve this, we used high-throughput label-based quantitative LC-MS/MS proteomics approach and bioinformatics analysis of the in silico inferred interactome protein network created from the initial list of differential proteins...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Peter P Rainer, Peihong Dong, Matteo Sorge, Justyna Fert-Bober, Ronald J Holewinski, Yuchuan Wang, Catherine Foss, Steven S An, Alessandra Baracca, Giancarlo Solaini, Charles Glabe, Martin G Pomper, Jennifer E Van Eyk, Gordon F Tomaselli, Nazareno Paolocci, Giulio Agnetti
<u>Rationale:</u> Disrupted proteostasis is one major pathological trait that heart failure (HF) shares with other organ proteinopathies, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. Yet, differently from the latter, whether and how cardiac preamyloid oligomers (PAOs) develop in acquired forms of HF is unclear. <u>Objective:</u> We previously reported a rise in mono-phosphorylated, aggregate-prone desmin in canine and human HF. We now tested if mono-phosphorylated desmin acts as the seed nucleating PAOs formation and determined if positron emission tomography (PET) is able to detect myocardial PAOs in non-genetic HF...
February 26, 2018: Circulation Research
J A Cartwright, A G Gow, E Milne, D Drummond, S Smith, I Handel, R J Mellanby
BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence linking low blood vitamin D concentration to numerous diseases in people and in dogs. Vitamin D influences cellular function by signaling through the vitamin D receptor (VDR). Little is known about which non-skeletal tissues express the VDR or how inflammation influences its expression in the dog. OBJECTIVES: To define which non-skeletal canine tissues express the VDR and to investigate expression in inflamed small intestine...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
James K Chambers, Atigan Thongtharb, Takanori Shiga, Daigo Azakami, Miyoko Saito, Masumi Sato, Motoji Morozumi, Hiroyuki Nakayama, Kazuyuki Uchida
Canine Lafora disease (LD) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder causing nonfatal structural epilepsy, mainly affecting miniature wirehaired dachshunds. Repeat expansion in the EPM2B gene causes a functional impairment of the ubiquitin ligase malin which regulates glycogen metabolism. Abnormally structured glycogen accumulates and develop polyglucosan bodies predominantly in the central nervous system. The authors performed a comprehensive clinical, genetic, and pathological study of 4 LD cases affecting miniature wirehaired dachshund dogs with EPM2B repeat expansions, with systemic distribution of polyglucosan bodies and accumulation of laforin and other functionally associated proteins in the polyglucosan bodies...
January 1, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
Joana Bicker, Gilberto Alves, Ana Fortuna, Patrício Soares-da-Silva, Amílcar Falcão
Inhibition of the biosynthesis of noradrenaline is a currently explored strategy for the treatment of hypertension, congestive heart failure and pulmonary arterial hypertension. While some dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH) inhibitors cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and cause central as well as peripheral effects (nepicastat), others have limited access to the brain (etamicastat, zamicastat). In this context, peripheral selectivity is clinically advantageous, in order to prevent alterations of noradrenaline levels in the CNS and the occurrence of adverse central effects...
February 8, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
K M Meurs, S G Friedenberg, B Williams, B W Keene, C E Atkins, D Adin, B Aona, T DeFrancesco, S Tou, T Mackay
Myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) is the most common heart disease in the dog. It is believed to be heritable in Cavalier King Charles spaniels (CKCS) and Dachshunds. Myxomatous mitral valve disease is a familial disease in human beings as well and genetic mutations have been associated with its development. We hypothesized that a genetic mutation associated with the development of the human form of MMVD was associated with the development of canine MMVD. DNA was isolated from blood samples from 10 CKCS and 10 Dachshunds diagnosed with MMVD, and whole genome sequences from each animal were obtained...
February 2018: Veterinary Journal
Ryuji Fukushima, Toshiki Araie, Naoaki Itou, Takae Kawaguchi, Shusaku Yamada, Aritada Yoshimura, Seijirow Goya, Kazumi Shimada, Tsuyoshi Uchide, Miori Kishimoto, Noboru Machida
A 14-year-old intact male West Highland White Terrier weighing 6.9 kg was admitted to the Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology Animal Medical Center with the complaint of syncope after showing signs of nausea during feeding. Sinus arrest induced by deglutition was confirmed using a Holter electrocardiography test. However, the clinical symptoms significantly improved after implantation of a permanent pacemaker. Seven months after implantation, the dog died from acute pancreatitis, a cause unrelated to the syncope...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Khoirun Nisa, Sue Yee Lim, Tatsuyuki Osuga, Nozomu Yokoyama, Masahiro Tamura, Noriyuki Nagata, Kazuyoshi Sasaoka, Angkhana Dermlim, Rommaneeya Leela-Arporn, Tomoya Morita, Noboru Sasaki, Keitaro Morishita, Kensuke Nakamura, Hiroshi Ohta, Mitsuyoshi Takiguchi
Quantitative contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) enables non-invasive and objective evaluation of intestinal perfusion by quantifying the intensity of enhancement on the intestine after microbubble contrast administration. During CEUS scanning, sedation is sometimes necessary to maintain animal cooperation. Nevertheless, the effect of sedative administration on the canine intestinal CEUS is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effect of sedation with a combination of butorphanol and midazolam on the duodenal CEUS-derived perfusion parameters of healthy dogs...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Wenbo He, Xiaoying Wang, Shan Liu, Xiaomei Yu, Zhibing Lu, Ruisong Ma, Da Luo, Jing Xie, Bo He, Hong Jiang
PURPOSE: Individuals predisposed to vasovagal syncope may have different autonomic nervous system control mechanisms from those without predisposition to vasovagal events. To test this hypothesis, we investigated different sympathetic responses in a canine model of vasovagal syncope. METHODS: Left thoracotomy was performed on 20 mongrel dogs. The heart was exposed and a bolus of veratridine (15 μg/kg), a neurotoxin which prevents the inactivation of sodium ion channels, was injected into the left atrium to induce a Bezold-Jarisch reflex-mediated vasovagal event, characterized by bradycardia, decreased inotropism, and hypotension...
January 24, 2018: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
Xiaoting Wang, Longxiang Su, Rongli Yang, Hongmin Zhang, Dawei Liu
Objective To perform early assessment of sepsis-induced myocardial dysfunction (SIMD) using strain/stress echocardiography. Methods A canine model of SIMD was established using intravenous injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 2 mg/kg). Thirteen dogs were included, comprising an LPS-treated SIMD group ( n = 7) and saline control group ( n = 6). SIMD was assessed at various time-points using cardiac measurements including haemodynamics and echocardiography. Results Systolic and radial ventricular wall stress and circular ventricular wall stress (WSsc) were significantly lower in the sepsis group versus the control group at all time-points...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
C Rohrer Bley, V Meier, U Schneider
While surgery is the treatment of choice for thymomas, complete excision is not possible in a significant proportion of cases. For these patients, radiotherapy can be used as neoadjunctive, post-operative adjunctive or sole therapy. During radiotherapy, rapid biological clearance of tumour cells is often observed, requiring adaptation of the treatment plan. Adaptive radiation therapy (RT) is a dynamic process, whereby the treatment plan is altered throughout the treatment course due to changes in morphologic, functional or positioning changes...
January 8, 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
Vicky K Yang, Albert K Tai, Terry P Huh, Dawn M Meola, Christine M Juhr, Nicholas A Robinson, Andrew M Hoffman
Canine myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) resembles the early stages of myxomatous pathology seen in human non-syndromic mitral valve prolapse, a common valvular heart disease in the adult human population. Canine MMVD is seen in older subjects, suggesting age-related epigenetic dysregulation leading to derangements in valvular cell populations and matrix synthesis or degradation. We hypothesized that valvular interstitial cells (VICs) undergo disease-relevant changes in miRNA expression. In primary VIC lines from diseased and control valves, miRNA expression was profiled using RT-qPCR and next generation sequencing...
2018: PloS One
E Abma, K Peremans, F De Vos, T Bosmans, A M Kitshoff, S Daminet, Y Ni, R Dockx, H de Rooster
Hypericin (Hyp) is a necrosis-avid compound that can be efficiently labelled with radioiodine for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Before 131 I-Hyp can be considered as a clinically useful drug in a combination therapy for canine cancer patients, evaluation of its toxicity is necessary. The aim of this study was to investigate the biodistribution and tolerance of a single dose administration of 131 I-Hyp. Three healthy dogs were included. 131 I-Hyp at a dose of 0.2 mg/kg and an activity of 185 MBq was intravenously injected...
January 4, 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Oncology
Michael Schaefer, Wolfgang Gross, Martha-Maria Gebhard
We investigated canine hearts during ischemia after aortic cross clamping (UI, n=20) and after HTK-cardioplegia (HTK, n=24) at 35°C, 25°C, 15°C, and 5°C with the aim to compare tissue changes caused by the activity of anaerobic metabolism(AAM), cell membrane destruction(CD), and gap junction uncoupling(GJU). We measured continuously the complex dielectric spectrum(DS), ATP- and lactate content, extracellular pH, and rigor contracture. To identify changes in DS caused by AAM, CD, and GJU we performed additional experiments on the gap junction-free skeletal muscle...
January 5, 2018: Physiological Measurement
Kathryn H Driesbaugh, Emanuela Branchetti, Juan B Grau, Samuel J Keeney, Kimberly Glass, Mark A Oyama, Nancy Rioux, Salma Ayoub, Michael S Sacks, John Quackenbush, Robert J Levy, Giovanni Ferrari
AIMS: Mitral valve interstitial cells (MVIC) play an important role in the pathogenesis of degenerative mitral regurgitation (MR) due to mitral valve prolapse (MVP). Numerous clinical studies have observed serotonin (5HT) dysregulation in cardiac valvulopathies; however, the impact of 5HT-mediated signaling on MVIC activation and leaflet remodeling in MVP have been investigated to a limited extent. Here we test the hypothesis that 5HT receptors (5HTRs) signaling contributes to MVP pathophysiology...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
Jingfeng Wang, Zhenning Nie, Haiyan Chen, Xianhong Shu, Zhaohua Yang, Ruiming Yao, Yangang Su, Junbo Ge
It is now well recognized that heart failure (HF) patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB) derive substantial clinical benefits from cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), and LBBB has become one of the important predictors for CRT response. The conventional tachypacing-induced HF model has several major limitations, including absence of stable LBBB and rapid reversal of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction after cessation of pacing. Hence, it is essential to establish an optimal model of chronic HF with isolated LBBB for studying CRT benefits...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Steve R Roof, Yukie Ueyama, Reza Mazhari, Robert L Hamlin, J Craig Hartman, Mark T Ziolo, John E Reardon, Carlos L Del Rio
The nitroxyl (HNO) prodrug, CXL-1020, induces vasorelaxation and improves cardiac function in canine models and patients with systolic heart failure (HF). HNO's unique mechanism of action may be applicable to a broader subset of cardiac patients. This study investigated the load-independent safety and efficacy of CXL-1020 in two rodent (rat) models of diastolic heart failure and explored potential drug interactions with common HF background therapies. In vivo left-ventricular hemodynamics/pressure-volume relationships assessed before/during a 30 min IV infusion of CXL-1020 demonstrated acute load-independent positive inotropic, lusitropic, and vasodilatory effects in normal rats...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
Kathryn M Meurs, Lisbeth H Olsen, Maria J Reimann, Bruce W Keene, Clarke E Atkins, Darcy Adin, Brent Aona, Julia Condit, Teresa DeFrancesco, Yamir Reina-Doreste, Joshua A Stern, Sandra Tou, Jessica Ward, Kathleen Woodruff
OBJECTIVES: Myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) is the most common heart disease in the dog. It is particularly common in the Cavalier King Charles Spaniel (CKCS) breed and affected dogs are frequently managed with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I). We have previously identified a canine ACE gene polymorphism associated with a decrease in angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate for the prevalence of the ACE polymorphism in CKCS with mitral valve disease and to determine whether the presence of the polymorphism is associated with alterations in ACE activity at different stages of cardiac disease...
February 2018: Pharmacogenetics and Genomics
M-A Genain, A Morlet, M Herrtage, H Muresian, F Anselme, C Latremouille, F Laborde, L Behr, N Borenstein
INTRODUCTION: The coronary arterial system has been the subject of greater investigation than its venous system due to the importance of human coronary artery disease. With the advent of new percutaneous treatments, the anatomy of the coronary venous system has increasing relevancy. We compared the organization of the coronary venous circulation in three species commonly used in research and compared these to normal humans using both macroscopic anatomic and angiographic studies. ANIMALS: The anatomy of five explanted hearts from healthy dogs, pigs, and sheep were studied macroscopically, and 10 explanted hearts per animal species and 10 clinically normal human were examined by angiography...
February 2018: Journal of Veterinary Cardiology: the Official Journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology
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