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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534468/effect-of-wearing-a-telemetry-jacket-on-behavioral-and-physiologic-parameters-of-dogs-in-the-open%C3%A2-field-test
#1
Richard E Fish, Melanie L Foster, Margaret E Gruen, Barbara L Sherman, David C Dorman
Safety pharmacology studies in dogs often integrate behavioral assessments made using video recording with physiologicmeasurements collected by telemetry. However, whether merely wearing the telemetry vest affects canine behavior and otherparameters has not been evaluated. This pilot study assessed the effect of a telemetry vest on behavioral and physiologic responses to an environmental stressor, the sounds of a thunderstorm, in Labrador retrievers. Dogs were assigned to one of 2 experimental groups (Vest and No-Vest, n = 8 dogs per group) by using a matched pairs design, with a previously determined,sound-associated anxiety score as the blocking variable...
May 22, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507167/early-activation-of-deleterious-molecular-pathways-in-the-kidney-in-experimental-heart-failure-with-atrial-remodeling
#2
Tomoko Ichiki, Brenda K Huntley, Gail J Harty, S Jeson Sangaralingham, John C Burnett
Heart failure (HF) is a major health problem with worsening outcomes when renal impairment is present. Therapeutics for early phase HF may be effective for cardiorenal protection, however the detailed characteristics of the kidney in early-stage HF (ES-HF), and therefore treatment for potential renal protection, are poorly defined. We sought to determine the gene and protein expression profiles of specific maladaptive pathways of ES-HF in the kidney and heart. Experimental canine ES-HF, characterized by de-novo HF with atrial remodeling but not ventricular fibrosis, was induced by right ventricular pacing for 10 days...
May 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506910/omecamtiv-mecarbil-activates-ryanodine-receptors-from-canine-cardiac-but-not-skeletal-muscle
#3
Péter Nánási, Marta Gaburjakova, Jana Gaburjakova, János Almássy
Due to the limited results achieved in the clinical treatment of heart failure, a new inotropic strategy of myosin motor activation has been developed. The lead molecule of myosin activator agents is omecamtiv mecarbil, which binds directly to the heavy chain of the cardiac β-myosin and enhances cardiac contractility by lengthening the lifetime of the acto-myosin complex and increasing the number of the active force-generating cross-bridges. In the absence of relevant data, the effect of omecamtiv mecarbil on canine cardiac ryanodine receptors (RyR 2) has been investigated in the present study by measuring the electrical activity of single RyR 2 channels incorporated into planar lipid bilayer...
May 12, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502873/synchronization-as-a-mechanism-for-low-energy-anti-fibrillation-pacing-leap
#4
Yanyan Claire Ji, Ilija Uzelac, Niels Otani, Stefan Luther, Robert F Gilmour, Elizabeth M Cherry, Flavio H Fenton
BACKGROUND: Low-energy anti-fibrillation pacing (LEAP) has been suggested as an alternative treatment to symptomatic fibrillation patients. It significantly lowers the energy required compared with standard one-shock defibrillation. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we investigated the mechanism of arrhythmia termination by LEAP and systematically analyzed the influence of shock period and timing on the success rate of LEAP. METHODS: We induced atrial and ventricular fibrillation in isolated canine hearts and applied LEAP and standard one-shock defibrillation to terminate the arrhythmia...
May 11, 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501556/behavioral-and-physiological-reactions-in-dogs-to-a-veterinary-examination-owner-dog-interactions-improve-canine-well-being
#5
Erika Csoltova, Michaël Martineau, Alain Boissy, Caroline Gilbert
In order to improve well-being of dogs during veterinary visits, we aimed to investigate the effect of human social interactions on behavior and physiology during routine examination. Firstly, we assessed the impact of a standardized veterinary examination on behavioral and physiological indicators of stress in dogs. Secondly, we examined whether the owner's tactile and verbal interactions with the dog influenced behavioral and physiological stress-associated parameters. A randomized within-subjects crossover design was used to examine behavior (n=33), rectal temperature (n=33), heart rate (HR) (n=18), maximal ocular surface temperature (max OST) (n=13) and salivary cortisol concentrations (n=10) in healthy privately owned pet dogs...
May 10, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500172/induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-cardiomyocytes-provide-in-vivo-biological-pacemaker-function
#6
Samuel Chauveau, Evgeny P Anyukhovsky, Meital Ben-Ari, Shulamit Naor, Ya-Ping Jiang, Peter Danilo, Tania Rahim, Stephanie Burke, Xiaoliang Qiu, Irina A Potapova, Sergey V Doronin, Peter R Brink, Ofer Binah, Ira S Cohen, Michael R Rosen
BACKGROUND: Although multiple approaches have been used to create biological pacemakers in animal models, induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs) have not been investigated for this purpose. We now report pacemaker function of iPSC-CMs in a canine model. METHODS AND RESULTS: Embryoid bodies were derived from human keratinocytes, their action potential characteristics determined, and their gene expression profiles and markers of differentiation identified...
May 2017: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478943/feasibility-safety-and-tolerance-of-subcutaneous-synthetic-canine-b-type-natriuretic-peptide-syncbnp-in-healthy-dogs-and-dogs-with-stage-b1-mitral-valve-disease
#7
M A Oyama, P F Solter, C L Thorn, J A Stern
INTRODUCTION: An important aspect of heart failure is the progressive ineffectiveness of the salutary natriuretic peptide system and its secondary messenger, 3',5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). In humans with acute heart failure, administration of exogenous natriuretic peptide is associated with improvement in clinical signs and reduction of cardiac filling pressures. This study aimed to determine the feasibility, tolerance, and safety of subcutaneous (SC) synthetic canine B-type natriuretic peptide (syncBNP) administration in dogs...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Cardiology: the Official Journal of the European Society of Veterinary Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467647/prediction-of-optimal-cardiac-resynchronization-by-vectors-extracted-from-electrograms-in-dyssynchronous-canine-hearts
#8
Elien B Engels, Marc Strik, Lars B van Middendorp, Marion Kuiper, Kevin Vernooy, Frits W Prinzen
INTRODUCTION: Proper optimization of atrioventricular (AV) and interventricular (VV) intervals can improve the response to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). It has been demonstrated that the area of the QRS complex (QRSarea) extracted from the vectorcardiogram can be used as a predictor of optimal CRT-device settings. We explored the possibility of extracting vectors from the electrograms (EGMs) obtained from pacing electrodes and of using these EGM-based vectors (EGMVs) to individually optimize acute haemodynamic CRT response...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464037/pressure-overload-induced-angiotensin-mediated-early-remodeling-in-mouse-heart
#9
Jeremy H Kim, Ya-Ping Jiang, Ira S Cohen, Richard Z Lin, Richard T Mathias
Our previous work on angiotensin II-mediated electrical-remodeling in canine left ventricle, in connection with a long history of other studies, suggested the hypothesis: increases in mechanical load induce autocrine secretion of angiotensin II (A2), which coherently regulates a coterie of membrane ion transporters in a manner that increases contractility. However, the relation between load and A2 secretion was correlative. We subsequently showed a similar or identical system was present in murine heart. To investigate whether the relation between mechanical load and A2-mediated electrical remodeling was causal, we employed transverse aortic constriction in mice to subject the left ventricle to pressure overload for short-term (1 to 2 days) or long-term (1 to 2 weeks) periods...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461132/a-non-contrast-cmr-index-for-assessing-myocardial-fibrosis
#10
Qian Yin, Dana Abendschein, David Muccigrosso, Robert O'Connor, Thomas Goldstein, Jie Zheng
PURPOSE: Safe, sensitive, and non-invasive imaging methods to assess the presence, extent, and turnover of myocardial fibrosis are needed for early stratification of risk in patients who might develop heart failure after myocardial infarction. We describe a non-contrast cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) approach for sensitive detection of myocardial fibrosis using a canine model of myocardial infarction and reperfusion. METHODS: Seven dogs had coronary thrombotic occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary arteries followed by fibrinolytic reperfusion...
April 28, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458273/long-term-effects-of-cilostazol-in-a-dog-with-sick-sinus-syndrome
#11
Nobuyuki Kanno, Tomohiro Suzuki
Sick sinus syndrome (SSS) is a type of bradyarrhythmia that can lead to syncope. Cilostazol has been reported to be an effective treatment for human patients with SSS and other bradyarrhythmias. This report describes the successful long-term treatment with cilostazol in a dog with SSS. A nine-year old intact male Miniature Schnauzer presented with a history of syncopal episodes and unsteady gait. After cilostazol treatment, the total heart rate (HR), mean HR, and frequency of premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) increased, while the maximum HR and maximum pause time decreased...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451593/temporal-dilation-of-animal-cardiac-recordings-registered-to-human-torso-geometries
#12
Karli Gillette, Jess Tate, Brianna Kindall, Wilson Good, Jeff Wilkinson, Narendra Simha, Rob MacLeod
Recordings of cardiac surface potentials from animal hearts can be mapped into human torso and used as source potentials for torso simulation. However, geometric registration of the heart can introduce changes in the effective conduction velocity due to change in relative positions of the recording sites. We developed a time dilation technique to ensure that adjusted cardiac potential recordings had physiological timing similar to human recordings after registration and corrected for conduction velocity. Temporal dilation was performed both linearly and nonlinearly using two scaling techniques that reflect either global or local deformations...
September 2016: Computing in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449044/vernakalant-does-not-alter-early-repolarization-or-contractility-in-normal-and-electrically-remodelled-atria
#13
Arne van Hunnik, Hussein Nasrallah, Dennis H Lau, Marion Kuiper, Sander Verheule, Ulrich Schotten
Aims: Besides the inhibition of the sodium inward current, vernakalant also inhibits the ultra rapid rectifier (IKur) and transient outward current (Ito). Inhibition of these currents increases contractility in canine atrial myocytes and goat atria. We investigated the effect of vernakalant on early repolarization and contractility in normal and electrically remodelled atria. Methods and results: Goats were implanted a pressure catheter, piezoelectric crystals, and electrodes to obtain atrial contractility and effective refractory period (ERP)...
April 25, 2017: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408040/myxomatous-degeneration-of-the-canine-mitral-valve-from-gross-changes-to-molecular-events
#14
REVIEW
G Markby, K M Summers, V E MacRae, J Del-Pozo, B M Corcoran
Myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) is the single most common acquired heart disease of the dog, but is also of emerging importance in human medicine, with some features of the disease shared between both species. There has been increased understanding of this disease in recent years, with most research aiming to elucidate the cellular and molecular events of disease pathogenesis. For gross and histological changes, much of our understanding is based on historical studies and there has been no comprehensive reappraisal of the pathology of MMVD...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407744/global-bi-ventricular-endocardial-distribution-of-activation-rate-during-long-duration-ventricular-fibrillation-in-normal-and-heart-failure-canines
#15
Qingzhi Luo, Qi Jin, Ning Zhang, Yanxin Han, Yilong Wang, Shangwei Huang, Changjian Lin, Tianyou Ling, Kang Chen, Wenqi Pan, Liqun Wu
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to detect differences in the distribution of the left and right ventricle (LV & RV) activation rate (AR) during short-duration ventricular fibrillation (SDVF, <1 min) and long-duration ventricular fibrillation VF (LDVF, >1 min) in normal and heart failure (HF) canine hearts. METHODS: Ventricular fibrillation (VF) was electrically induced in six healthy dogs (control group) and six dogs with right ventricular pacing-induced congestive HF (HF group)...
April 13, 2017: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405805/a-rotating-cerium-anode-x-ray-system-allows-visualization-of-intramural-coronary-vessels-after-cardiac-stem-cell-therapy-for-myocardial-infarction
#16
Chiharu Tanaka, Toru Hosoda, Yoshimori Ikeya, Yoshiro Shinozaki, Kikue Todoroki, Toru Shizuma, Takashi Shiraishi, Naoto Fukuyama, Toshihiko Ueda, Hidezo Mori
Conventional angiography is insufficient for evaluating the therapeutic effect of cardiac regeneration therapy. A microangiographic X-ray system using a cerium anode was developed. Cerium has a characteristic X-ray with a peak at 34.6 keV, which allows visualization of tiny amounts of iodine. The performance of the cerium anode X-ray system was evaluated in two excised normal canine hearts and in excised ischemic canine hearts treated with c-kit-positive cardiac stem cells (5 canines) or without cells (5 control canines)...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396500/percutaneous-pericardial-resection-a-novel-potential-treatment-for-heart-failure-with-preserved-ejection-fraction
#17
Barry A Borlaug, Rickey E Carter, Vojtech Melenovsky, Christopher V DeSimone, Prakriti Gaba, Ammar Killu, Niyada Naksuk, Lilach Lerman, Samuel J Asirvatham
BACKGROUND: People with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction develop increases in left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic pressures during exercise that contribute to dyspnea. In normal open-chest animal preparations, the pericardium restrains LV filling when central blood volume increases. We hypothesized that resection of the pericardium using a minimally invasive epicardial approach would mitigate the increase in LV end-diastolic pressure that develops during volume loading in normal and diseased hearts with the chest intact...
April 2017: Circulation. Heart Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390190/systemic-scedosporium-prolificans-infection-in-an-11-month-old-border-collie-with-cobalamin-deficiency-secondary-to-selective-cobalamin-malabsorption-canine-imerslund-gr%C3%A3-sbeck-syndrome
#18
K Erles, A Mugford, D Barfield, T Leeb, P H Kook
An 11-month-old Border collie presented collapsed and continued to deteriorate rapidly despite supportive treatment. The dog had a history of failure to thrive and recurring respiratory infection. Laboratory abnormalities included neutrophilic leucocytosis, Heinz body anaemia, hyperammonaemia, hyperbilirubinaemia, proteinuria and hypocobalaminaemia. Post-mortem examination revealed multi-focal necrosis within the heart, kidneys, pancreas, liver, meninges and cerebral cortex. Fungal hyphae in lesions were identified as Scedosporium prolificans following culture...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383310/short-term-variability-of-repolarization-is-superior-to-other-repolarization-parameters-in-the-evaluation-of-diverse-antiarrhythmic-interventions-in-the-chronic-av-block-dog
#19
A Bossu, R Varkevisser, Hdm Beekman, Mjc Houtman, Mag van der Heyden, M A Vos
Short-term variability (STV), to quantify beat-to-beat variability of repolarization (BVR), is a surrogate parameter that reliably identifies proarrhythmic risk in preclinical models. Examples include not only the use in the chronic atrioventricular block (CAVB) dog model whereby it was developed, but also in vulnerable patients with heart failure or drug-induced long QT syndrome. In the CAVB dog model, STV can specifically distinguish between safe and unsafe drugs in proarrhythmic screening. Conversely, this dog model also offers the possibility to evaluate antiarrhythmic strategies in a setting of Torsades de Pointes (TdP) induction with a standard IKr inhibitor...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381466/intracellular-angiotensin-ii-interacts-with-nuclear-angiotensin-receptors-in-cardiac-fibroblasts-and-regulates-rna-synthesis-cell-proliferation-and-collagen-secretion
#20
Artavazd Tadevosyan, Jiening Xiao, Sirirat Surinkaew, Patrice Naud, Clémence Merlen, Masahide Harada, Xiaoyan Qi, David Chatenet, Alain Fournier, Bruce G Allen, Stanley Nattel
BACKGROUND: Cardiac fibroblasts play important functional and pathophysiological roles. Intracellular ("intracrine") angiotensin-II (Ang-II) signaling regulates intercellular communication, excitability, and gene expression in cardiomyocytes; however, the existence and role of intracrine Ang-II signaling in cardiac fibroblasts is unstudied. Here, we evaluated the localization of Ang-II receptors on atrial fibroblast nuclei and associated intracrine effects of potential functional significance...
April 5, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
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