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Mauren K Tavares, Suellen Dos Reis, Nicolle Platt, Isabella A Heinrich, Ingrid A V Wolin, Rodrigo B Leal, Manuella P Kaster, Ana Lúcia S Rodrigues, Andiara E Freitas
Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is one of the most robust neurobiological findings in the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD) over the last 40 years. The persistent increase in glucocorticoids levels induces morphological and anatomical changes in the brain, especially in the hippocampus. Ketamine represents a major advance for the treatment of MDD, however the psychotomimetic effects of this compound limit its widespread use. Agmatine is a neuromodulator that has been shown to be a putative novel and well-tolerated antidepressant/augmenter drug...
May 12, 2018: Neurochemistry International
Jinbo Li, Kaixuan Zhang, Yu Meng, Jianping Hu, Mengqi Ding, Jiahui Bian, Mingli Yan, Jianming Han, Meiliang Zhou
Hydroxycinnamic acid amides (HCAAs) are a class of antimicrobial metabolites involved in plant defense against necrotrophic pathogens, including Alternaria brassicicola and Botrytis cinerea. The agmatine coumaroyl transferase (AtACT) is the key enzyme to catalyze the last reaction in the biosynthesis of HCAAs, including p-coumaroylagmatine (CouAgm) and feruloylagmatine in Arabidopsis thaliana. However, it is currently unknown about the regulatory mechanism of the AtACT gene expression. Yeast one-hybrid screening using the AtACT promoter as bait isolated the key positive regulator ORA59 that is involved in jasmonic acid/ethylene (JA/ET) mediated plant defense responses...
May 11, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Natesh Singh, Gerhard F Ecker
The large neutral amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1, or SLC7A5) is a sodium- and pH-independent transporter, which supplies essential amino acids (e.g., leucine, phenylalanine) to cells. It plays an important role at the Blood⁻Brain Barrier (BBB) where it facilitates the transport of thyroid hormones, pharmaceuticals (e.g., l-DOPA, gabapentin), and metabolites into the brain. Moreover, its expression is highly upregulated in various types of human cancer that are characterized by an intense demand for amino acids for growth and proliferation...
April 24, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Mahdieh Raeeszadeh, Javad Beheshtipour
In order to calculated-measure the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), the Friedewald formula is used. LDL can be calculated by Friedewald formula in this way: total cholesterol (TC) minus high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol minus triglycerides (TG)/5 in milligrams per deciliter. In the article entitled "Agmatine protects rat liver from nicotine-induced hepatic damage via antioxidative, antiapoptotic, and antifibrotic pathways" published in the same journal (Vol, 389, pp. 1341-1351), LDL-C has been calculated in this way: LDL-C = TC - [HDL-C - (TG/5)] which is not in accordance with the Friedewald formula and thus the result is false...
April 21, 2018: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
Shruti Shukla, Jong Suk Lee, Vivek K Bajpai, Shivraj Hariram Nile, Yun Suk Huh, Young-Kyu Han, Myunghee Kim
Meju, a cooked and fermented soy bean based food product, is used as a major ingredient in Korean traditional fermented foods such as Doenjang. We developed a novel type of Meju using single and combined extracts of Allium sativum (garlic clove), Nelumbo nucifera (lotus leaves), and Ginkgo biloba (ginkgo leaves) at 1% and 10% concentrations to improve the safety of Meju-based fermented products. Biogenic amines (BAs) in protein-rich fermented food products pose considerable toxical risks. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of adding selected plant extracts in Meju samples during fermentation...
April 10, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Karl A Wilson, Anna Tan-Wilson
Legume species differ in whether or not the 7S globulins stored in seeds undergo proteolytic processing during seed development, while preserving the bicupin structure and trimeric assembly necessary for accumulation and packing into protein storage vacuoles. Two such cleavage sites have been documented for the vicilins in pea cotyledons: one in the linker region between the two cupin domains, and another in an exposed loop in the C-terminal cupin. In this report, we explain the occurrence of vicilin cleavage in developing pea by showing that the storage vacuoles are already acidified before germination, in contrast to soybean and peanut where acidification occurs only after germination...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Samyr Machado Querobino, César Augusto João Ribeiro, Carlos Alberto-Silva
Bradykinin-potentiating peptides (BPPs - 5a, 7a, 9a, 10c, 11e, and 12b) of Bothrops jararaca (Bj) were described as argininosuccinate synthase (AsS) activators, improving L-arginine availability. Agmatine and polyamines, which are L-arginine metabolism products, have neuroprotective properties. Here, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of low molecular mass fraction from Bj venom (LMMF) and two synthetic BPPs (BPP-10c, <ENWPHPQIPP; BPP-12b, <EWGRPPGPPIPP) in the SH-SY5Y cell line against H2 O2 -induced oxidative stress...
March 29, 2018: Peptides
Sattar Ostadhadi, Abbas Norouzi-Javidan, Vahid Nikoui, Samira Zolfaghari, Abouzar Moradi, Ahmad Reza Dehpour
Lithium is still the main agent in the management of mood disorders such as depression. Likewise, agmatine protects the central nervous system (CNS) against depression. The aim of the present study was to examine the possible additive antidepressant-like effect of agmatine and lithium in mice forced swim test (FST) as well as exploration of the probable involvement of nitric oxide (NO) pathway in this response. Results showed that pretreatment with a subeffective dose of agmatine (0.01 mg/kg) augmented the antidepressant-like effect of lithium subeffective dose (3 mg/kg) (P < 0...
March 15, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Andrej Ščavničar, Irena Rogelj, Drago Kočar, Sevim Kӧse, Matevž Pompe
A new method for determination of underivatized biogenic amines in cheese based on ion exchange chromatographycoupled with tandem mass spectrometric detection was proposed. The method was applied to the analysis of 10 biogenic amines (trimethylamine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, 2-phenylethylamine, spermine, spermidine, tryptamine, agmatine, and tyramine) in different types of cheese. The amines were extracted only with water without any additional derivatization step or sample cleanup. This is a great advantage in terms of simplicity of sample pretreatment procedure compared with other currently existing methods in the literature...
March 23, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
Hüseyin Ilgü, Jean-Marc Jeckelmann, Claire Colas, Zöhre Ucurum, Avner Schlessinger, Dimitrios Fotiadis
The l-arginine/agmatine transporter AdiC is a prokaryotic member of the SLC7 family, which enables pathogenic enterobacteria to survive the extremely acidic gastric environment. Wild-type AdiC from Escherichia coli, as well as its previously reported point mutants N22A and S26A, were overexpressed homologously and purified to homogeneity. A size-exclusion chromatography-based thermostability assay was used to determine the melting temperatures ( T m s) of the purified AdiC variants in the absence and presence of the selected ligands l-arginine (Arg), agmatine, l-arginine methyl ester, and l-arginine amide...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Nandkishor R Kotagale, Mir Touseef Ali, Chandrabhan T Chopde, Milind J Umekar, Brijesh G Taksande
Nicotine abstinence following chronic exposure is associated with impairments in memory and variety of cognitive functions. Daily nicotine (2 mg/kg, sc, four times daily) administration for 14 days and its abrupt withdrawal significantly impaired avoidance learning in inhibitory avoidance task as indicated by a significant decrease in the step through latency. Animals injected with agmatine (10-40 μg/rat, icv) from day 7 to 14 before the first daily dose of nicotine (2 mg/kg, sc) showed increased step through latencies during retrieval test...
April 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Rebecca S Hesterberg, John L Cleveland, Pearlie K Epling-Burnette
The immune system is remarkably responsive to a myriad of invading microorganisms and provides continuous surveillance against tissue damage and developing tumor cells. To achieve these diverse functions, multiple soluble and cellular components must react in an orchestrated cascade of events to control the specificity, magnitude and persistence of the immune response. Numerous catabolic and anabolic processes are involved in this process, and prominent roles for l-arginine and l-glutamine catabolism have been described, as these amino acids serve as precursors of nitric oxide, creatine, agmatine, tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, nucleotides and other amino acids, as well as for ornithine, which is used to synthesize putrescine and the polyamines spermidine and spermine...
March 8, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
S Tommasi, D J Elliot, M Da Boit, S R Gray, B C Lewis, A A Mangoni
The inhibition of arginase, resulting in higher arginine (ARG) availability for nitric oxide synthesis, may account for the putative protective effect of homoarginine (HOMOARG) against atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. However, uncertainty exists regarding the significance of HOMOARG-induced arginase inhibition in vivo. A novel UPLC-MS method, measuring the conversion of ARG to ornithine (ORN), was developed to determine arginase 1 and arginase 2 inhibition by HOMOARG, lysine (LYS), proline (PRO), agmatine (AG), asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), and NG-Monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA)...
February 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ran Liu, Xiaohui Lin, Zuojing Li, Qing Li, Kaishun Bi
As an important biomarker for cancer, polyamine levels in body fluid could be employed for monitoring the colorectal cancer (CRC), however the role of polyamines in the development and therapeutics phases of CRC remains uncertain. In this paper, the relationship between polyamines and CRC development and therapeutics had been investigated by the study of changes in plasma polyamine levels during the precancerous, developmental and treatment phases of CRC. After inducing CRC in Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine, the animals were given a traditional Chinese medicine, Aidi injections...
January 12, 2018: Oncotarget
Flávia Beatriz Custódio, Milton C Vasconcelos-Neto, Karine H Theodoro, Renan Campos Chisté, Maria Beatriz A Gloria
Pork loin and leg were evaluated 24h after slaughter and during refrigerated (5°C) and frozen storage for microbial counts, pH, total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and bioactive amines. Spermine was the prevalent amine in fresh pork loin and leg, followed by spermidine and agmatine. During refrigerated storage, pH, TVB-N, mesophilic and psychrotrophic counts increased and no changes (p<0.05) were observed on polyamines; however putrescine, cadaverine and histamine were produced and accumulated throughout storage...
May 2018: Meat Science
Yasser Y Lenis, Gregory A Johnson, Xiaoqiu Wang, Wendy W Tang, Kathrin A Dunlap, M Carey Satterfield, Guoyao Wu, Thomas R Hansen, Fuller W Bazer
Background: Polyamines stimulate DNA transcription and mRNA translation for protein synthesis in trophectoderm cells, as well as proliferation and migration of cells; therefore, they are essential for development and survival of conceptuses (embryo/fetus and placenta). The ovine conceptus produces polyamines via classical and non-classical pathways. In the classical pathway, arginine (Arg) is transformed into ornithine, which is then decarboxylated by ornithine decarboxylase (ODC1) to produce putrescine which is the substrate for the production of spermidine and spermine...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Basak Donertas, Cigdem Cengelli Unel, Sule Aydin, Emel Ulupinar, Orhan Ozatik, Bilgin Kaygisiz, Engin Yildirim, Kevser Erol
Cisplatin is a widely used antineoplastic agent in the treatment of various cancers. Peripheral neuropathy is a well-known side effect of cisplatin and has potential to result in limiting and/or reducing the dose, decreasing the quality of life. Thus, effective treatments are needed. Agmatine is an endogenous neuromodulator that has been shown to exert antiallodynic effects in various animal studies. The first aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro effects of agmatine on cisplatin-induced neurotoxicity...
January 29, 2018: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
T M Nelson, J C Borgogna, R D Michalek, D W Roberts, J M Rath, E D Glover, J Ravel, M D Shardell, C J Yeoman, R M Brotman
Cigarette smoking has been associated with both the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis (BV) and a vaginal microbiota lacking protective Lactobacillus spp. As the mechanism linking smoking with vaginal microbiota and BV is unclear, we sought to compare the vaginal metabolomes of smokers and non-smokers (17 smokers/19 non-smokers). Metabolomic profiles were determined by gas and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry in a cross-sectional study. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene populations revealed samples clustered into three community state types (CSTs) ---- CST-I (L...
January 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yesim Ozogul, Mustafa Durmus, Esmeray Kuley Boga, Yılmaz Uçar, Fatih Ozogul
The impacts of emulsions based on commercial oils on the biogenic amine formation and their indices of vacuumed packed sea bass fillets were investigated. The results showed that among biogenic amines, cadaverine, putrescine, spermidine, spermine, serotonin, dopamine, and agmatine were predominant amines in sea bass fillets stored under vacuum packaging. Significant differences (P < 0.05) in biogenic amines concentrations of vacuumed packed sea bass treated with emulsions were observed. All groups contained histamine lower than 5...
February 2018: Journal of Food Science
Erman Esnafoglu, İlhan İrende
Agmatine is a polyamine endogenously synthesized from arginine and is considered to be a new neurotransmitter. Agmatine has been implicated in the pathophysiology of several diseases such as anxiety disorder, depression, and schizophrenia. Agmatine also possesses anticonvulsant, neuroprotective, antiapoptotic, antioxidant, anxiolytic, and antidepressant effects. Furthermore, agmatine inhibits the nitric oxide synthase enzyme and exerts antagonist effects on NMDA, alpha-2, and imidazoline receptors. Considering these characteristics, the present study investigated whether agmatine plays a role in the pathogenesis of autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs)...
April 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
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