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Agmatine

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302750/decreased-plasma-agmatine-levels-in-autistic-subjects
#1
Erman Esnafoglu, İlhan İrende
Agmatine is a polyamine endogenously synthesized from arginine and is considered to be a new neurotransmitter. Agmatine has been implicated in the pathophysiology of several diseases such as anxiety disorder, depression, and schizophrenia. Agmatine also possesses anticonvulsant, neuroprotective, antiapoptotic, antioxidant, anxiolytic, and antidepressant effects. Furthermore, agmatine inhibits the nitric oxide synthase enzyme and exerts antagonist effects on NMDA, alpha-2, and imidazoline receptors. Considering these characteristics, the present study investigated whether agmatine plays a role in the pathogenesis of autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs)...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302205/endogenous-agmatine-induced-by-ischemic-preconditioning-regulates-ischemic-tolerance-following-cerebral-ischemia
#2
Jae Hwan Kim, Jae Young Kim, Jin Young Jung, Yong Woo Lee, Won Taek Lee, Seung Kon Huh, Jong Eun Lee
Ischemic preconditioning (IP) is one of the most important endogenous mechanisms that protect the cells against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, the exact molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we showed that changes in the level of agmatine were correlated with ischemic tolerance. Changes in brain edema, infarct volume, level of agmatine, and expression of arginine decarboxylase (ADC) and nitric oxide synthases (NOS; inducible NOS [iNOS] and neural NOS [nNOS]) were analyzed during I/R injury with or without IP in the rat brain...
December 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225512/development-of-the-multiple-gene-knockout-system-with-one-step-pcr-in-thermoacidophilic-crenarchaeon-sulfolobus-acidocaldarius
#3
Shoji Suzuki, Norio Kurosawa
Multiple gene knockout systems developed in the thermoacidophilic crenarchaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius are powerful genetic tools. However, plasmid construction typically requires several steps. Alternatively, PCR tailing for high-throughput gene disruption was also developed in S. acidocaldarius, but repeated gene knockout based on PCR tailing has been limited due to lack of a genetic marker system. In this study, we demonstrated efficient homologous recombination frequency (2.8 × 104 ± 6.9 × 103 colonies/μg DNA) by optimizing the transformation conditions...
2017: Archaea: An International Microbiological Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196820/functional-roles-of-agmatinase-during-the-peri-implantation-period-of-pregnancy-in-sheep
#4
Yasser Y Lenis, Mohammed A Elmetwally, Wanjin Tang, Carey Satterfield, Kathrin Dunlap, Guoyao Wu, Fuller W Bazer
This study investigated the effect of agmatine (Agm) in proliferation of ovine trophecdoderm cells (oTr1) as well as the importance of the arginine decarboxylase (ADC) and agmatinase (AGMAT) alternative pathway for synthesis of polyamines in ovine conceptuses during the peri-implantation period of pregnancy. Morpholino antisense oligonucleotides (MAOs) were used to inhibit translation of mRNAs for ODC1 alone, AGMAT alone, and their combination. Rambouillet ewes (N = 50) were assigned randomly to the following treatments on Day 8 of pregnancy: MAO control (n = 10); MAO-ODC1 (n = 8); MAO-ADC (n = 6); MAO-ODC1:MAO-ADC (n = 9); or MAO-ODC1:MAO-AGMAT (n = 9)...
December 2, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195160/modulation-of-the-anticonvulsant-effect-of-swim-stress-by-agmatine
#5
Taraneh Bahremand, Pooya Payandemehr, Kiarash Riazi, Ali Reza Noorian, Borna Payandemehr, Mohammad Sharifzadeh, Ahmad Reza Dehpour
Agmatine is an endogenous l-arginine metabolite with neuroprotective effects in the stress-response system. It exerts anticonvulsant effects against several seizure paradigms. Swim stress induces an anticonvulsant effect by activation of endogenous antiseizure mechanisms. In this study, we investigated the interaction of agmatine with the anticonvulsant effect of swim stress in mice on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizure threshold. Then we studied the involvement of nitric oxide (NO) pathway and endogenous opioid system in that interaction...
November 28, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190068/structural-and-functional-basis-for-targeting-campylobacter-jejuni-agmatine-deiminase-to-overcome-antibiotic-resistance
#6
Roger Shek, Devon A Dattmore, Devin P Stives, Ashley L Jackson, Christa H Chatfield, Katherine A Hicks, Jarrod B French
Campylobacter jejuni is the most common bacterial cause of gastroenteritis and a major contributor to infant mortality in the developing world. The increasing incidence of antibiotic-resistant C. jejuni only adds to the urgency to develop effective therapies. Because of the essential role that polyamines play, particularly in protection from oxidative stress, enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of these metabolites are emerging as promising antibiotic targets. The recent description of an alternative pathway for polyamine synthesis, distinct from that in human cells, in C...
November 30, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163401/the-relationship-among-tyrosine-decarboxylase-and-agmatine-deiminase-pathways-in-enterococcus-faecalis
#7
Marta Perez, Victor Ladero, Beatriz Del Rio, Begoña Redruello, Anne de Jong, Oscar Kuipers, Jan Kok, M Cruz Martin, Maria Fernandez, Miguel A Alvarez
Enterococci are considered mainly responsible for the undesirable accumulation of the biogenic amines tyramine and putrescine in cheeses. The biosynthesis of tyramine and putrescine has been described as a species trait in Enterococcus faecalis. Tyramine is formed by the decarboxylation of the amino acid tyrosine, by the tyrosine decarboxylase (TDC) route encoded in the tdc cluster. Putrescine is formed from agmatine by the agmatine deiminase (AGDI) pathway encoded in the agdi cluster. These biosynthesis routes have been independently studied, tyrosine and agmatine transcriptionally regulate the tdc and agdi clusters...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162499/metabolic-strategies-for-the-degradation-of-the-neuromodulator-agmatine-in-mammals
#8
REVIEW
José Benítez, David García, Nicol Romero, Arlette González, José Martinez, Maximiliano Figueroa, Mónica Salas, Vasthi López, Peter R Dodd, Gerhard Schenk, Nelson Carvajal, Elena Uribe
Agmatine (1-amino-4-guanidinobutane), a precursor for polyamine biosynthesis, has been identified as an important neuromodulator with anticonvulsant, antineurotoxic and antidepressant actions in the brain. In this context it has emerged as an important mediator of addiction/satiety pathways associated with alcohol misuse. Consequently, the regulation of the activity of key enzymes in agmatine metabolism is an attractive strategy to combat alcoholism and related addiction disorders. Agmatine results from the decarboxylation of L-arginine in a reaction catalyzed by arginine decarboxylase (ADC), and can be converted to either guanidine butyraldehyde by diamine oxidase (DAO) or putrescine and urea by the enzyme agmatinase (AGM) or the more recently identified AGM-like protein (ALP)...
November 18, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093636/agmatine-modulates-the-phenotype-of-macrophage-acute-phase-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-rats
#9
Jae Hwan Kim, Jae Young Kim, Chin Hee Mun, Minah Suh, Jong Eun Lee
Agmatine is a decarboxylated arginine by arginine decarboxylase. Agmatine is known to be a neuroprotective agent. It has been reported that agmatine works as a NMDA receptor blocker or a competitive nitric oxide synthase inhibitor in CNS injuries. In spinal cord injury, agmatine showed reduction of neuropathic pain, improvement of locomotor function, and neuroprotection. Macrophage is a key cellular component in neuroinflammation, a major cause of impairment after spinal cord injury. Macrophage has subtypes, M1 and M2 macrophages...
October 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080167/novel-route-for-agmatine-catabolism-in-aspergillus-niger-4-guanidinobutyrase-assay
#10
Tejaswani Saragadam, Narayan S Punekar
The enzyme 4-guanidinobutyrase (GBase) catalyzes the hydrolysis of 4-guanidinobutyric acid (GB) to 4-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and urea. Here we describe methods to estimate urea and GABA that were suitably adapted from the published literature. The urea is determined by colorimetric assay using modified Archibald's method. However, the low sensitivity of this method often renders it impractical to perform fine kinetic analysis. To overcome this limitation, a high sensitive method for detecting GABA is exploited that can even detect 1 μM of GABA in the assay mixture...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061813/effect-of-agmatine-sulfate-on-modulation-of-matrix-metalloproteinases-via-pi3k-akt-1-in-ht1080-cells
#11
Hyejeong Kim, Moon-Moo Kim
BACKGROUND/AIM: The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism by which agmatine sulfate induces an anti-metastatic effect in human HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells, by affecting matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: For the experiments, we used a non-toxic concentration of agmatine, below 512 μM, that was determined using an MTT assay. The effect of agmatine sulfate on metastasis was gelatin zymography, western blot, immunofluorescence staining and cell invasion assay...
November 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044148/structural-and-mechanistic-analysis-of-drosophila-melanogaster-agmatine-n-acetyltransferase-an-enzyme-that-catalyzes-the-formation-of-n-acetylagmatine
#12
Daniel R Dempsey, Derek A Nichols, Matthew R Battistini, Orville Pemberton, Santiago Rodriguez Ospina, Xiujun Zhang, Anne-Marie Carpenter, Brian G O'Flynn, James W Leahy, Ankush Kanwar, Eric M Lewandowski, Yu Chen, David J Merkler
Agmatine N-acetyltransferase (AgmNAT) catalyzes the formation of N-acetylagmatine from acetyl-CoA and agmatine. Herein, we provide evidence that Drosophila melanogaster AgmNAT (CG15766) catalyzes the formation of N-acetylagmatine using an ordered sequential mechanism; acetyl-CoA binds prior to agmatine to generate an AgmNAT•acetyl-CoA•agmatine ternary complex prior to catalysis. Additionally, we solved a crystal structure for the apo form of AgmNAT with an atomic resolution of 2.3 Å, which points towards specific amino acids that may function in catalysis or active site formation...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031903/agmatine-inhibits-chronic-morphine-exposure-induced-impairment-of-hippocampal-neural-progenitor-proliferation-in-adult-rats
#13
Ying Liu, Guan-Yi Lu, Wen-Qiang Chen, Yun-Feng Li, Ning Wu, Jin Li
Our previous studies have shown that agmatine inhibited opioid dependence, yet the neural mechanism remains unclear. Growing evidence showed that opioids decrease neurogenesis in the adult hippocampal subgranular zone by inhibiting neural progenitor proliferation. However, whether agmatine affects chronic opioid exposure-induced impairment to hippocampal neural progenitor cell proliferation remains unknown. In the present study, we investigated the role of agmatine in hippocampal neural progenitors in morphine dependence rats...
January 5, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022602/a-novel-cuznins-quantum-dot-based-ecl-sensing-system-for-lysophosphatidic-acid-detection
#14
Xueqian Chen, Wenying Gui, Hua Liu, Qiang Ma
In this paper, a novel electrochemiluminescence (ECL) sensor for lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) detection was developed. LPA consists of a phosphate "head" group, a "linker" region illustrated by glycerol, and a fatty acyl chain as a lipophilic "tail". The water-soluble quaternary CuInZnS quantum dots (QDs) were modified with agmatine (AGM) molecules as an ECL luminophore. On the one hand, the guanidine groups on the QDs can capture the hydrophilic head of LPA with high selectivity. On the other hand, the electrochemically reduced graphene nanosheets (GNs) modified on the glassy carbon electrode (GCE) surface can bind the LPA lipophilic tail...
October 23, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988949/structure-of-the-guanidine-iii-riboswitch
#15
Lin Huang, Jia Wang, Timothy J Wilson, David M J Lilley
Riboswitches are structural elements found in mRNA molecules that couple small-molecule binding to regulation of gene expression, usually by controlling transcription or translation. We have determined high-resolution crystal structures of the ykkC guanidine III riboswitch from Thermobifida fusca. The riboswitch forms a classic H-type pseudoknot that includes a triple helix that is continuous with a central core of conserved nucleotides. These form a left-handed helical ramp of inter-nucleotide interactions, generating the guanidinium cation binding site...
November 16, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911343/validation-study-of-maxsignal-%C3%A2-histamine-enzymatic-assay-for-the-detection-of-histamine-in-fish-seafood
#16
Swapna Gone, Nicolas Kosa, Joseph Krebs
Bioo Scientific Corp. has developed a rapid enzymatic quantitative assay for the determination of histamine inseafood. Fresh/frozen tuna, canned tuna, pouched tuna, and frozen mahi mahi samples were used for the validation study under the specific guidelines of the AOAC Research Institute Performance Tested Methods(SM) program. Recoveries ranged from 82 to 107% at concentrations ranging from 6 to 72 ppm, with RSDr values between 0.8 and 6.5% (6-72 ppm). The linearity of the assay ranged from 0 to 108 ppm, with R² values exceeding 0...
September 15, 2017: Journal of AOAC International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893640/agmatine-attenuates-intestinal-ischemia-and-reperfusion-injury-by-reducing-oxidative-stress-and-inflammatory-reaction-in-rats
#17
Inci Turan, Hale Sayan Ozacmak, V Haktan Ozacmak, Figen Barut, Mehmet Araslı
AIMS: Oxidative stress and inflammatory response are major factors causing several tissue injuries in intestinal ischemia and reperfusion (I/R). Agmatine has been reported to attenuate I/R injury of various organs. The present study aims to analyze the possible protective effects of agmatine on intestinal I/R injury in rats. MAIN METHODS: Four groups were designed: sham control, agmatine-treated control, I/R control, and agmatine-treated I/R groups. IR injury of small intestine was induced by the occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery for half an hour to be followed by a 3-hour-long reperfusion...
November 15, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28842257/antidepressant-and-pro-neurogenic-effects-of-agmatine-in-a-mouse-model-of-stress-induced-by-chronic-exposure-to-corticosterone
#18
Gislaine Olescowicz, Vivian B Neis, Daiane B Fraga, Priscila B Rosa, Dayane P Azevedo, Fernando Falkenburger Melleu, Patricia S Brocardo, Joana Gil-Mohapel, Ana Lúcia S Rodrigues
Agmatine is an endogenous neuromodulator that has been shown to have beneficial effects in the central nervous system, including antidepressant-like effects in animals. In this study, we investigated the ability of agmatine (0.1mg/kg, p.o.) and the conventional antidepressant fluoxetine (10mg/kg, p.o.) to reverse the behavioral effects and morphological alterations in the hippocampus of mice exposed to chronic corticosterone (20mg/kg, p.o.) treatment for a period of 21days as a model of stress and depressive-like behaviors...
August 24, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837867/the-inhibition-of-inducible-nitric-oxide-synthase-and-oxidative-stress-by-agmatine-attenuates-vascular-dysfunction-in-rat-acute-endotoxemic-model
#19
Mohammed S El-Awady, Manar A Nader, Maha H Sharawy
Vascular dysfunction leading to hypotension is a major complication in patients with septic shock. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) together with oxidative stress play an important role in development of vascular dysfunction in sepsis. Searching for an endogenous, safe and yet effective remedy was the chief goal for this study. The current study investigated the effect of agmatine (AGM), an endogenous metabolite of l-arginine, on sepsis-induced vascular dysfunction induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in rats...
August 16, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777310/anti-atherosclerotic-action-of-agmatine-in-apoe-knockout-mice
#20
Anna Wiśniewska, Rafał Olszanecki, Justyna Totoń-Żurańska, Katarzyna Kuś, Aneta Stachowicz, Maciej Suski, Anna Gębska, Mariusz Gajda, Jacek Jawień, Ryszard Korbut
Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease in which dysfunction of mitochondria play an important role, and disorders of lipid management intensify this process. Agmatine, an endogenous polyamine formed by decarboxylation of arginine, exerts a protective effect on mitochondria and modulates fatty acid metabolism. We investigated the effect of exogenous agmatine on the development of atherosclerosis and changes in lipid profile in apolipoprotein E knockout (apoE-/-) mice. Agmatine caused an approximate 40% decrease of atherosclerotic lesions, as estimated by en face and cross-section methods with an influence on macrophage but not on smooth muscle content in the plaques...
August 4, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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