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Nandkishor R Kotagale, Mir Touseef Ali, Chandrabhan T Chopde, Milind J Umekar, Brijesh G Taksande
Nicotine abstinence following chronic exposure is associated with impairments in memory and variety of cognitive functions. Daily nicotine (2 mg/kg, sc, four times daily) administration for 14 days and its abrupt withdrawal significantly impaired avoidance learning in inhibitory avoidance task as indicated by a significant decrease in the step through latency. Animals injected with agmatine (10-40 μg/rat, icv) from day 7 to 14 before the first daily dose of nicotine (2 mg/kg, sc) showed increased step through latencies during retrieval test...
March 10, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
Rebecca S Hesterberg, John L Cleveland, Pearlie K Epling-Burnette
The immune system is remarkably responsive to a myriad of invading microorganisms and provides continuous surveillance against tissue damage and developing tumor cells. To achieve these diverse functions, multiple soluble and cellular components must react in an orchestrated cascade of events to control the specificity, magnitude and persistence of the immune response. Numerous catabolic and anabolic processes are involved in this process, and prominent roles for l-arginine and l-glutamine catabolism have been described, as these amino acids serve as precursors of nitric oxide, creatine, agmatine, tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, nucleotides and other amino acids, as well as for ornithine, which is used to synthesize putrescine and the polyamines spermidine and spermine...
March 8, 2018: Medical Sciences: Open Access Journal
S Tommasi, D J Elliot, M Da Boit, S R Gray, B C Lewis, A A Mangoni
The inhibition of arginase, resulting in higher arginine (ARG) availability for nitric oxide synthesis, may account for the putative protective effect of homoarginine (HOMOARG) against atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. However, uncertainty exists regarding the significance of HOMOARG-induced arginase inhibition in vivo. A novel UPLC-MS method, measuring the conversion of ARG to ornithine (ORN), was developed to determine arginase 1 and arginase 2 inhibition by HOMOARG, lysine (LYS), proline (PRO), agmatine (AG), asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), and NG-Monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA)...
February 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ran Liu, Xiaohui Lin, Zuojing Li, Qing Li, Kaishun Bi
As an important biomarker for cancer, polyamine levels in body fluid could be employed for monitoring the colorectal cancer (CRC), however the role of polyamines in the development and therapeutics phases of CRC remains uncertain. In this paper, the relationship between polyamines and CRC development and therapeutics had been investigated by the study of changes in plasma polyamine levels during the precancerous, developmental and treatment phases of CRC. After inducing CRC in Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine, the animals were given a traditional Chinese medicine, Aidi injections...
January 12, 2018: Oncotarget
Flávia Beatriz Custódio, Milton C Vasconcelos-Neto, Karine H Theodoro, Renan Campos Chisté, Maria Beatriz A Gloria
Pork loin and leg were evaluated 24h after slaughter and during refrigerated (5°C) and frozen storage for microbial counts, pH, total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and bioactive amines. Spermine was the prevalent amine in fresh pork loin and leg, followed by spermidine and agmatine. During refrigerated storage, pH, TVB-N, mesophilic and psychrotrophic counts increased and no changes (p<0.05) were observed on polyamines; however putrescine, cadaverine and histamine were produced and accumulated throughout storage...
January 10, 2018: Meat Science
Yasser Y Lenis, Gregory A Johnson, Xiaoqiu Wang, Wendy W Tang, Kathrin A Dunlap, M Carey Satterfield, Guoyao Wu, Thomas R Hansen, Fuller W Bazer
Background: Polyamines stimulate DNA transcription and mRNA translation for protein synthesis in trophectoderm cells, as well as proliferation and migration of cells; therefore, they are essential for development and survival of conceptuses (embryo/fetus and placenta). The ovine conceptus produces polyamines via classical and non-classical pathways. In the classical pathway, arginine (Arg) is transformed into ornithine, which is then decarboxylated by ornithine decarboxylase (ODC1) to produce putrescine which is the substrate for the production of spermidine and spermine...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
Basak Donertas, Cigdem Cengelli Unel, Sule Aydin, Emel Ulupinar, Orhan Ozatik, Bilgin Kaygisiz, Engin Yildirim, Kevser Erol
Cisplatin is a widely-used antineoplastic agent in the treatment of various cancers. Peripheral neuropathy is a well-known side effect of cisplatin and has potential to result in limiting and/or reducing the dose, decreasing the quality of life. Thus, effective treatments are needed. Agmatine is an endogenous neuromodulator has been shown to exert antiallodynic effects in various animal studies. The first aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro effects of agmatine on cisplatin-induced neurotoxicity...
January 29, 2018: Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology
T M Nelson, J C Borgogna, R D Michalek, D W Roberts, J M Rath, E D Glover, J Ravel, M D Shardell, C J Yeoman, R M Brotman
Cigarette smoking has been associated with both the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis (BV) and a vaginal microbiota lacking protective Lactobacillus spp. As the mechanism linking smoking with vaginal microbiota and BV is unclear, we sought to compare the vaginal metabolomes of smokers and non-smokers (17 smokers/19 non-smokers). Metabolomic profiles were determined by gas and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry in a cross-sectional study. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene populations revealed samples clustered into three community state types (CSTs) ---- CST-I (L...
January 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yesim Ozogul, Mustafa Durmus, Esmeray Kuley Boga, Yılmaz Uçar, Fatih Ozogul
The impacts of emulsions based on commercial oils on the biogenic amine formation and their indices of vacuumed packed sea bass fillets were investigated. The results showed that among biogenic amines, cadaverine, putrescine, spermidine, spermine, serotonin, dopamine, and agmatine were predominant amines in sea bass fillets stored under vacuum packaging. Significant differences (P < 0.05) in biogenic amines concentrations of vacuumed packed sea bass treated with emulsions were observed. All groups contained histamine lower than 5...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Erman Esnafoglu, İlhan İrende
Agmatine is a polyamine endogenously synthesized from arginine and is considered to be a new neurotransmitter. Agmatine has been implicated in the pathophysiology of several diseases such as anxiety disorder, depression, and schizophrenia. Agmatine also possesses anticonvulsant, neuroprotective, antiapoptotic, antioxidant, anxiolytic, and antidepressant effects. Furthermore, agmatine inhibits the nitric oxide synthase enzyme and exerts antagonist effects on NMDA, alpha-2, and imidazoline receptors. Considering these characteristics, the present study investigated whether agmatine plays a role in the pathogenesis of autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs)...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Jae Hwan Kim, Jae Young Kim, Jin Young Jung, Yong Woo Lee, Won Taek Lee, Seung Kon Huh, Jong Eun Lee
Ischemic preconditioning (IP) is one of the most important endogenous mechanisms that protect the cells against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. However, the exact molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we showed that changes in the level of agmatine were correlated with ischemic tolerance. Changes in brain edema, infarct volume, level of agmatine, and expression of arginine decarboxylase (ADC) and nitric oxide synthases (NOS; inducible NOS [iNOS] and neural NOS [nNOS]) were analyzed during I/R injury with or without IP in the rat brain...
December 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
Shoji Suzuki, Norio Kurosawa
Multiple gene knockout systems developed in the thermoacidophilic crenarchaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius are powerful genetic tools. However, plasmid construction typically requires several steps. Alternatively, PCR tailing for high-throughput gene disruption was also developed in S. acidocaldarius , but repeated gene knockout based on PCR tailing has been limited due to lack of a genetic marker system. In this study, we demonstrated efficient homologous recombination frequency (2.8 × 104  ± 6.9 × 103 colonies/ μ g DNA) by optimizing the transformation conditions...
2017: Archaea: An International Microbiological Journal
Yasser Y Lenis, Mohammed A Elmetwally, Wanjin Tang, Carey Satterfield, Kathrin Dunlap, Guoyao Wu, Fuller W Bazer
This study investigated the effect of agmatine (Agm) in proliferation of ovine trophecdoderm cells (oTr1) as well as the importance of the arginine decarboxylase (ADC) and agmatinase (AGMAT) alternative pathway for synthesis of polyamines in ovine conceptuses during the peri-implantation period of pregnancy. Morpholino antisense oligonucleotides (MAOs) were used to inhibit translation of mRNAs for ODC1 alone, AGMAT alone, and their combination. Rambouillet ewes (N = 50) were assigned randomly to the following treatments on Day 8 of pregnancy: MAO control (n = 10); MAO-ODC1 (n = 8); MAO-ADC (n = 6); MAO-ODC1:MAO-ADC (n = 9); or MAO-ODC1:MAO-AGMAT (n = 9)...
February 2018: Amino Acids
Taraneh Bahremand, Pooya Payandemehr, Kiarash Riazi, Ali Reza Noorian, Borna Payandemehr, Mohammad Sharifzadeh, Ahmad Reza Dehpour
Agmatine is an endogenous l-arginine metabolite with neuroprotective effects in the stress-response system. It exerts anticonvulsant effects against several seizure paradigms. Swim stress induces an anticonvulsant effect by activation of endogenous antiseizure mechanisms. In this study, we investigated the interaction of agmatine with the anticonvulsant effect of swim stress in mice on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizure threshold. Then we studied the involvement of nitric oxide (NO) pathway and endogenous opioid system in that interaction...
January 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Roger Shek, Devon A Dattmore, Devin P Stives, Ashley L Jackson, Christa H Chatfield, Katherine A Hicks, Jarrod B French
Campylobacter jejuni is the most common bacterial cause of gastroenteritis and a major contributor to infant mortality in the developing world. The increasing incidence of antibiotic-resistant C. jejuni only adds to the urgency to develop effective therapies. Because of the essential role that polyamines play, particularly in protection from oxidative stress, enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of these metabolites are emerging as promising antibiotic targets. The recent description of an alternative pathway for polyamine synthesis, distinct from that in human cells, in C...
December 26, 2017: Biochemistry
Marta Perez, Victor Ladero, Beatriz Del Rio, Begoña Redruello, Anne de Jong, Oscar Kuipers, Jan Kok, M Cruz Martin, Maria Fernandez, Miguel A Alvarez
Enterococci are considered mainly responsible for the undesirable accumulation of the biogenic amines tyramine and putrescine in cheeses. The biosynthesis of tyramine and putrescine has been described as a species trait in Enterococcus faecalis. Tyramine is formed by the decarboxylation of the amino acid tyrosine, by the tyrosine decarboxylase (TDC) route encoded in the tdc cluster. Putrescine is formed from agmatine by the agmatine deiminase (AGDI) pathway encoded in the agdi cluster. These biosynthesis routes have been independently studied, tyrosine and agmatine transcriptionally regulate the tdc and agdi clusters...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
José Benítez, David García, Nicol Romero, Arlette González, José Martinez, Maximiliano Figueroa, Mónica Salas, Vasthi López, Peter R Dodd, Gerhard Schenk, Nelson Carvajal, Elena Uribe
Agmatine (1-amino-4-guanidinobutane), a precursor for polyamine biosynthesis, has been identified as an important neuromodulator with anticonvulsant, antineurotoxic and antidepressant actions in the brain. In this context it has emerged as an important mediator of addiction/satiety pathways associated with alcohol misuse. Consequently, the regulation of the activity of key enzymes in agmatine metabolism is an attractive strategy to combat alcoholism and related addiction disorders. Agmatine results from the decarboxylation of L-arginine in a reaction catalyzed by arginine decarboxylase (ADC), and can be converted to either guanidine butyraldehyde by diamine oxidase (DAO) or putrescine and urea by the enzyme agmatinase (AGM) or the more recently identified AGM-like protein (ALP)...
November 18, 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Jae Hwan Kim, Jae Young Kim, Chin Hee Mun, Minah Suh, Jong Eun Lee
Agmatine is a decarboxylated arginine by arginine decarboxylase. Agmatine is known to be a neuroprotective agent. It has been reported that agmatine works as a NMDA receptor blocker or a competitive nitric oxide synthase inhibitor in CNS injuries. In spinal cord injury, agmatine showed reduction of neuropathic pain, improvement of locomotor function, and neuroprotection. Macrophage is a key cellular component in neuroinflammation, a major cause of impairment after spinal cord injury. Macrophage has subtypes, M1 and M2 macrophages...
October 2017: Experimental Neurobiology
Tejaswani Saragadam, Narayan S Punekar
The enzyme 4-guanidinobutyrase (GBase) catalyzes the hydrolysis of 4-guanidinobutyric acid (GB) to 4-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and urea. Here we describe methods to estimate urea and GABA that were suitably adapted from the published literature. The urea is determined by colorimetric assay using modified Archibald's method. However, the low sensitivity of this method often renders it impractical to perform fine kinetic analysis. To overcome this limitation, a high sensitive method for detecting GABA is exploited that can even detect 1 μM of GABA in the assay mixture...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Hyejeong Kim, Moon-Moo Kim
BACKGROUND/AIM: The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism by which agmatine sulfate induces an anti-metastatic effect in human HT1080 fibrosarcoma cells, by affecting matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: For the experiments, we used a non-toxic concentration of agmatine, below 512 μM, that was determined using an MTT assay. The effect of agmatine sulfate on metastasis was gelatin zymography, western blot, immunofluorescence staining and cell invasion assay...
November 2017: Anticancer Research
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