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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764270/drunk-decisions-alcohol-shifts-choice-from-habitual-towards-goal-directed-control-in-adolescent-intermediate-risk-drinkers
#1
Elisabeth Obst, Daniel J Schad, Quentin Jm Huys, Miriam Sebold, Stephan Nebe, Christian Sommer, Michael N Smolka, Ulrich S Zimmermann
BACKGROUND: Studies in humans and animals suggest a shift from goal-directed to habitual decision-making in addiction. We therefore tested whether acute alcohol administration reduces goal-directed and promotes habitual decision-making, and whether these effects are moderated by self-reported drinking problems. METHODS: Fifty-three socially drinking males completed the two-step task in a randomised crossover design while receiving an intravenous infusion of ethanol (blood alcohol level=80 mg%), or placebo...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723142/use-of-a-novel-foam-dressing-with-negative-pressure-wound-therapy-and-instillation-recommendations-and-clinical-experience
#2
Paul J Kim, Andrew Applewhite, Anthony N Dardano, Luis Fernandez, Kimberly Hall, Elizabeth McElroy, Susan Mendez-Eastman, Marie Anne Obst, Casey Thomas, Lindsey Waddell, Garrett Wirth, Luc Téot
A new reticulated open-cell foam dressing with through holes (ROCF-CC) has been introduced to assist with wound cleansing by removing thick wound exudate and infectious materials during neg- ative pressure wound therapy with instillation. Due to the limited published evidence supporting use of ROCF-CC dressings with negative pressure wound therapy with instillation and dwell time (NPWTi-d), clinicians have been relying on practical application experience to gain pro ciency with the dressing and NPWTi-d. To help provide general guidelines for safe and e cient use of ROCF-CC dressings with NPWTi-d, a multidisciplinary expert panel of clinicians was convened from September 28 to 29, 2017...
March 2018: Wounds: a Compendium of Clinical Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492928/how-to-adapt-first-trimester-ultrasound-education-to-tunisian-trainees
#3
Kaouther Dimassi, Ahmed Halouani, Dalenda Chelli, Badis Chanoufi, Amel Triki, Mohamed Faouzi Gara
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of a targeted training program on the quality of NT measures performed by OBST/GYN trainees. METHODS: Prospective study. Step1: each trainee achieved 10 T1US . All were evaluated by 2 experts. Step 2: interactive training session where participants received a detailed feedback report. Step3: each candidate performed again 10 T1US. The results obtained before and after the training session were compared. RESULTS: Step1: Herman score was 4...
April 2017: La Tunisie Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457317/effects-of-alcohol-intoxication-on-self-reported-drinking-patterns-expectancies-motives-and-personality-a-randomized-controlled-experimental-study
#4
Sören Kuitunen-Paul, Elisabeth Obst, Ruth Schmidt, Christian Sommer, Paula T Kuitunen, Hans-Ulrich Wittchen, Ulrich S Zimmermann
Alcohol intoxication may affect self-reports of alcohol use and related constructs, such as impulsivity and dependence symptoms. Improved knowledge about potential systematic reporting biases induced by alcohol, e.g. through disinhibition, may be relevant for the assessment of intoxicated individuals both in clinical routine and research. We therefore randomly assigned 54 socially drinking males aged 18 to 19 without lifetime diagnosis of DSM-IV alcohol dependence to one of two experimental arms: either placebo infusion at day 1 and alcohol infusion at day 2, or vice versa...
February 19, 2018: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427657/the-evolving-dialogue-of-microglia-and-neurons-in-alzheimer-s-disease-microglia-as-necessary-transducers-of-pathology
#5
REVIEW
E Simon, J Obst, D Gomez-Nicola
The understanding of the contribution of microglial cells to the onset and/or progression chronic neurodegenerative diseases is key to identify disease-modifying therapies, given the strong neuroimmune component of these disorders. In this review, we dissect the different pathways by which microglia can affect, directly or indirectly, neuronal function and dysfunction associated with diseases like Alzheimer's. We here present the rationale for proposing a model to explain the contribution of microglia to the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease, defining microglial cells as necessary transducers of pathology and ideal targets for intervention...
February 8, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351050/hidden-medical-devices-in-the-school-setting-what-the-school-nurse-needs-to-know-about-the-safe-use-of-baclofen-pumps
#6
Barbara Obst, Megan Roesler
One of the "hidden" medical devices in the school setting is the baclofen pump, which is used for the treatment of spasticity. The goals of spasticity treatment are to decrease muscle tone, deformity, and pain in order to maximize function and ease of care for both child and caregiver. The use of an intrathecal baclofen pump, often for children with cerebral palsy, spinal cord injury, brain injury, or stroke, has been effective in spasticity treatment. It is important for school nurses to be aware of the safety implications associated with this type of device...
March 2018: NASN School Nurse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277852/comparative-effectiveness-of-implementation-strategies-for-blood-pressure-control-in-hypertensive-patients-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#7
Katherine T Mills, Katherine M Obst, Wei Shen, Sandra Molina, Hui-Jie Zhang, Hua He, Lisa A Cooper, Jiang He
Background: The prevalence of hypertension is high and is increasing worldwide, whereas the proportion of controlled hypertension is low. Purpose: To assess the comparative effectiveness of 8 implementation strategies for blood pressure (BP) control in adults with hypertension. Data Sources: Systematic searches of MEDLINE and Embase from inception to September 2017 with no language restrictions, supplemented with manual reference searches...
January 16, 2018: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239805/australian-heterosexual-women-s-experiences-of-healthcare-provision-following-a-pregnancy-loss
#8
Clemence Due, Kate Obst, Damien W Riggs, Catherine Collins
BACKGROUND: Despite increased awareness of the psychological impact of pregnancy loss, a lack of recognition continues with regards to women's experiences. Healthcare professionals have an important role to play in supporting women following a pregnancy loss, yet to date only a relatively small body of research has examined women's experiences with healthcare providers. AIM: This paper seeks to contribute to the literature on women's engagement with healthcare professionals by exploring the experiences of an Australian sample...
November 24, 2017: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205610/three-dimensional-morphology-and-volume-of-the-free-achilles-tendon-at-rest-and-under-load-in-people-with-unilateral-mid-portion-achilles-tendinopathy
#9
Leila Nuri, Steven J Obst, Richard Newsham-West, Rod S Barrett
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? The aim was to determine the effect of mid-portion Achilles tendinopathy (MAT) on free Achilles tendon three-dimensional morphology and volume at rest and under load in people with unilateral MAT. What is the main finding and its importance? Tendinopathic tendon had a larger resting tendon cross-sectional area and anteroposterior diameter relative to healthy tendon. When loaded, tendinopathic tendon experienced a reduction in transverse morphology (i...
March 1, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082573/annual-report-of-the-women-s-health-care-committee-japan-society-of-obstetrics-and-gynecology-2017
#10
Kiyoshi Takamatsu, Jo Kitawaki
To improve women's quality of life, the activity of the Women's Health Care Committee over a year up to July 2017 focused upon: (i) breast management; (ii) the influence of gynecological disease therapy on physical condition; (iii) non-surgical management of pelvic organ prolapse; (iv) survey of infectious diseases in obstetrics and gynecology in Japan; (v) health care for female athletes; (vi) a training program for women's health care advisors; (vii) revising the Japanese guidelines on hormone replacement therapy; and (viii) revising the 2016 Japanese guidelines for the proper use of emergency contraceptives...
January 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057875/organic-coating-on-biochar-explains-its-nutrient-retention-and-stimulation-of-soil-fertility
#11
Nikolas Hagemann, Stephen Joseph, Hans-Peter Schmidt, Claudia I Kammann, Johannes Harter, Thomas Borch, Robert B Young, Krisztina Varga, Sarasadat Taherymoosavi, K Wade Elliott, Amy McKenna, Mihaela Albu, Claudia Mayrhofer, Martin Obst, Pellegrino Conte, Alba Dieguez-Alonso, Silvia Orsetti, Edisson Subdiaga, Sebastian Behrens, Andreas Kappler
Amending soil with biochar (pyrolized biomass) is suggested as a globally applicable approach to address climate change and soil degradation by carbon sequestration, reducing soil-borne greenhouse-gas emissions and increasing soil nutrient retention. Biochar was shown to promote plant growth, especially when combined with nutrient-rich organic matter, e.g., co-composted biochar. Plant growth promotion was explained by slow release of nutrients, although a mechanistic understanding of nutrient storage in biochar is missing...
October 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053387/facebook-false-self-presentation-behaviors-and-negative-mental-health
#12
Elizabeth J Wright, Katherine M White, Patricia L Obst
As research examining what constitutes Facebook false self-presentation is lacking, the aim of this study was to develop a preliminary inventory of Facebook false self-presentation behaviors, as well as identify predictors and possible outcomes. Participants (N = 211) completed questions regarding frequency of engagement in Facebook false self-presentation behaviors, as well as self-esteem, social influences, motivation strategies, well-being, depression, anxiety, and stress. Results indicated the presence of two distinct false self-presentation behaviors: lying (e...
January 2018: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031641/recovery-of-human-achilles-tendon-three-dimensional-deformation-following-conditioning
#13
Leila Nuri, Steven J Obst, Richard Newsham-West, Rod S Barrett
OBJECTIVES: The tendon conditioning effect is transient, but the time course of recovery from conditioning is not known. This study examined the time-course recovery of three-dimensional (3D) Achilles tendon (AT) deformation immediately following a standardised AT conditioning protocol. DESIGN: Randomised crossover. METHODS: Ten healthy male adults (age: 24±5 years; height: 175.8±4.1cm; body mass: 78.4±6.3kg) attended the laboratory on 6 occasions...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031331/comparing-subjective-and-objective-evaluation-of-show-jumping-competition-and-warm-up-arena-surfaces
#14
COMPARATIVE STUDY
E Hernlund, A Egenvall, S J Hobbs, M L Peterson, A J Northrop, A Bergh, J H Martin, L Roepstorff
The development of safety and quality standards for equestrian surfaces needs to be based on objective, repeatable measurements which allow comparisons between surfaces. These measurements should incorporate the assessment of surface performance by riders. This study provides data from objective and subjective assessment of functional properties of high-level show jumping competition and warm-up arenas. Twenty-five arenas in nine international show jumping events were evaluated by mechanical in-situ testing with a surface tester, rider assessments using visual analogue scales (198 riders provided 749 arena evaluations), descriptions of arena constructions and by laboratory tests of surface material...
September 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967503/quantitative-3-d-ultrasound-of-the-medial-gastrocnemius-muscle-in-children-with-unilateral-spastic-cerebral-palsy
#15
Steven J Obst, Roslyn Boyd, Felicity Read, Lee Barber
Three-dimensional ultrasound (3-DUS) was used to examine the size and appearance of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle in children with unilateral cerebral palsy (CP). Twenty-six children with CP and 10 typically developing (TD) children participated. Three-dimensional US images of both limbs in children with CP and the right limb in TD children were analysed using quantitative methods to determine muscle volume, global echo intensity, global echo pattern and regional echo intensity. Significant differences in MG volume and all echo parameters were found between TD and CP children...
September 26, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898420/characterization-of-hyperbranched-core-multishell-nanocarriers-as-an-innovative-drug-delivery-system-for-the-application-at-the-oral-mucosa
#16
J Jager, K Obst, S B Lohan, J Viktorov, S Staufenbiel, H Renz, M Unbehauen, R Haag, S Hedtrich, C Teutloff, M C Meinke, K Danker, H Dommisch
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In the oral cavity, the mucosal tissues may develop a number of different pathological conditions, such as inflammatory diseases (gingivitis, periodontitis) and autoimmune disorders (eg, oral lichen planus) that require therapy. The application of topical drugs is one common therapeutic approach. However, their efficacy is limited. Dilution effects due to saliva hinder the adherence and the penetration of drug formulations. Therefore, the bioavailability of oral topical drugs is insufficient, and patients may suffer from disease over years, if not life-long...
February 2018: Journal of Periodontal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860614/efficient-laser-driven-proton-acceleration-from-cylindrical-and-planar-cryogenic-hydrogen-jets
#17
Lieselotte Obst, Sebastian Göde, Martin Rehwald, Florian-Emanuel Brack, João Branco, Stefan Bock, Michael Bussmann, Thomas E Cowan, Chandra B Curry, Frederico Fiuza, Maxence Gauthier, René Gebhardt, Uwe Helbig, Axel Huebl, Uwe Hübner, Arie Irman, Lev Kazak, Jongjin B Kim, Thomas Kluge, Stephan Kraft, Markus Loeser, Josefine Metzkes, Rohini Mishra, Christian Rödel, Hans-Peter Schlenvoigt, Mathias Siebold, Josef Tiggesbäumker, Steffen Wolter, Tim Ziegler, Ulrich Schramm, Siegfried H Glenzer, Karl Zeil
We report on recent experimental results deploying a continuous cryogenic hydrogen jet as a debris-free, renewable laser-driven source of pure proton beams generated at the 150 TW ultrashort pulse laser Draco. Efficient proton acceleration reaching cut-off energies of up to 20 MeV with particle numbers exceeding 10(9) particles per MeV per steradian is demonstrated, showing for the first time that the acceleration performance is comparable to solid foil targets with thicknesses in the micrometer range. Two different target geometries are presented and their proton beam deliverance characterized: cylindrical (∅ 5 μm) and planar (20 μm × 2 μm)...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813168/examining-women-s-alcohol-consumption-the-theory-of-planned-behavior-and-self-identity
#18
Helen M Haydon, Patricia L Obst, Ioni Lewis
BACKGROUND: Changing trends demonstrate that women, in several economically developed countries, are drinking at higher levels than ever before. OBJECTIVE: This study applied an extended Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), including self-identity, to examine women's intentions to consume alcohol. METHODS: Women (N = 1069) aged 18-87 years, completed a questionnaire measuring their intentions to engage in binge drinking and frequent drinking...
January 2, 2018: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766908/building-essential-biodiversity-variables-ebvs-of-species-distribution-and-abundance-at-a-global-scale
#19
W Daniel Kissling, Jorge A Ahumada, Anne Bowser, Miguel Fernandez, Néstor Fernández, Enrique Alonso García, Robert P Guralnick, Nick J B Isaac, Steve Kelling, Wouter Los, Louise McRae, Jean-Baptiste Mihoub, Matthias Obst, Monica Santamaria, Andrew K Skidmore, Kristen J Williams, Donat Agosti, Daniel Amariles, Christos Arvanitidis, Lucy Bastin, Francesca De Leo, Willi Egloff, Jane Elith, Donald Hobern, David Martin, Henrique M Pereira, Graziano Pesole, Johannes Peterseil, Hannu Saarenmaa, Dmitry Schigel, Dirk S Schmeller, Nicola Segata, Eren Turak, Paul F Uhlir, Brian Wee, Alex R Hardisty
Much biodiversity data is collected worldwide, but it remains challenging to assemble the scattered knowledge for assessing biodiversity status and trends. The concept of Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBVs) was introduced to structure biodiversity monitoring globally, and to harmonize and standardize biodiversity data from disparate sources to capture a minimum set of critical variables required to study, report and manage biodiversity change. Here, we assess the challenges of a 'Big Data' approach to building global EBV data products across taxa and spatiotemporal scales, focusing on species distribution and abundance...
February 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751749/soil-natural-capital-in-europe-a-framework-for-state-and-change-assessment
#20
David A Robinson, Panos Panagos, Pasquale Borrelli, Arwyn Jones, Luca Montanarella, Andrew Tye, Carl G Obst
Soils underpin our existence through food production and represent the largest terrestrial carbon store. Understanding soil state-and-change in response to climate and land use change is a major challenge. Our aim is to bridge the science-policy interface by developing a natural capital accounting structure for soil, for example, attempting a mass balance between soil erosion and production, which indicates that barren land, and woody crop areas are most vulnerable to potential soil loss. We test out our approach using earth observation, modelling and ground based sample data from the European Union's Land Use/Cover Area frame statistical Survey (LUCAS) soil monitoring program...
July 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
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