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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898420/characterization-of-hyperbranched-core-multishell-nanocarriers-as-an-innovative-drug-delivery-system-for-the-application-at-the-oral-mucosa
#1
J Jager, K Obst, S B Lohan, J Viktorov, S Staufenbiel, H Renz, M Unbehauen, R Haag, S Hedtrich, C Teutloff, M C Meinke, K Danker, H Dommisch
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In the oral cavity, the mucosal tissues may develop a number of different pathological conditions, such as inflammatory diseases (gingivitis, periodontitis) and autoimmune disorders (eg, oral lichen planus) that require therapy. The application of topical drugs is one common therapeutic approach. However, their efficacy is limited. Dilution effects due to saliva hinder the adherence and the penetration of drug formulations. Therefore, the bioavailability of oral topical drugs is insufficient, and patients may suffer from disease over years, if not life-long...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Periodontal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860614/efficient-laser-driven-proton-acceleration-from-cylindrical-and-planar-cryogenic-hydrogen-jets
#2
Lieselotte Obst, Sebastian Göde, Martin Rehwald, Florian-Emanuel Brack, João Branco, Stefan Bock, Michael Bussmann, Thomas E Cowan, Chandra B Curry, Frederico Fiuza, Maxence Gauthier, René Gebhardt, Uwe Helbig, Axel Huebl, Uwe Hübner, Arie Irman, Lev Kazak, Jongjin B Kim, Thomas Kluge, Stephan Kraft, Markus Loeser, Josefine Metzkes, Rohini Mishra, Christian Rödel, Hans-Peter Schlenvoigt, Mathias Siebold, Josef Tiggesbäumker, Steffen Wolter, Tim Ziegler, Ulrich Schramm, Siegfried H Glenzer, Karl Zeil
We report on recent experimental results deploying a continuous cryogenic hydrogen jet as a debris-free, renewable laser-driven source of pure proton beams generated at the 150 TW ultrashort pulse laser Draco. Efficient proton acceleration reaching cut-off energies of up to 20 MeV with particle numbers exceeding 10(9) particles per MeV per steradian is demonstrated, showing for the first time that the acceleration performance is comparable to solid foil targets with thicknesses in the micrometer range. Two different target geometries are presented and their proton beam deliverance characterized: cylindrical (∅ 5 μm) and planar (20 μm × 2 μm)...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813168/examining-women-s-alcohol-consumption-the-theory-of-planned-behavior-and-self-identity
#3
Helen M Haydon, Patricia L Obst, Ioni Lewis
BACKGROUND: Changing trends demonstrate that women, in several economically developed countries, are drinking at higher levels than ever before. OBJECTIVE: This study applied an extended Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB), including self-identity, to examine women's intentions to consume alcohol. METHODS: Women (N = 1069) aged 18-87 years, completed a questionnaire measuring their intentions to engage in binge drinking and frequent drinking...
August 16, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766908/building-essential-biodiversity-variables-ebvs-of-species-distribution-and-abundance-at-a-global-scale
#4
W Daniel Kissling, Jorge A Ahumada, Anne Bowser, Miguel Fernandez, Néstor Fernández, Enrique Alonso García, Robert P Guralnick, Nick J B Isaac, Steve Kelling, Wouter Los, Louise McRae, Jean-Baptiste Mihoub, Matthias Obst, Monica Santamaria, Andrew K Skidmore, Kristen J Williams, Donat Agosti, Daniel Amariles, Christos Arvanitidis, Lucy Bastin, Francesca De Leo, Willi Egloff, Jane Elith, Donald Hobern, David Martin, Henrique M Pereira, Graziano Pesole, Johannes Peterseil, Hannu Saarenmaa, Dmitry Schigel, Dirk S Schmeller, Nicola Segata, Eren Turak, Paul F Uhlir, Brian Wee, Alex R Hardisty
Much biodiversity data is collected worldwide, but it remains challenging to assemble the scattered knowledge for assessing biodiversity status and trends. The concept of Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBVs) was introduced to structure biodiversity monitoring globally, and to harmonize and standardize biodiversity data from disparate sources to capture a minimum set of critical variables required to study, report and manage biodiversity change. Here, we assess the challenges of a 'Big Data' approach to building global EBV data products across taxa and spatiotemporal scales, focusing on species distribution and abundance...
August 2, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751749/soil-natural-capital-in-europe-a-framework-for-state-and-change-assessment
#5
David A Robinson, Panos Panagos, Pasquale Borrelli, Arwyn Jones, Luca Montanarella, Andrew Tye, Carl G Obst
Soils underpin our existence through food production and represent the largest terrestrial carbon store. Understanding soil state-and-change in response to climate and land use change is a major challenge. Our aim is to bridge the science-policy interface by developing a natural capital accounting structure for soil, for example, attempting a mass balance between soil erosion and production, which indicates that barren land, and woody crop areas are most vulnerable to potential soil loss. We test out our approach using earth observation, modelling and ground based sample data from the European Union's Land Use/Cover Area frame statistical Survey (LUCAS) soil monitoring program...
July 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706091/predict-cp-study-protocol-of-implementation-of-comprehensive-surveillance-to-predict-outcomes-for-school-aged-children-with-cerebral-palsy
#6
Roslyn N Boyd, Peter Sw Davies, Jenny Ziviani, Stewart Trost, Lee Barber, Robert Ware, Stephen Rose, Koa Whittingham, Leanne Sakzewski, Kristie Bell, Christopher Carty, Steven Obst, Katherine Benfer, Sarah Reedman, Priya Edwards, Megan Kentish, Lisa Copeland, Kelly Weir, Camilla Davenport, Denise Brooks, Alan Coulthard, Rebecca Pelekanos, Andrea Guzzetta, Simona Fiori, Meredith Wynter, Christine Finn, Andrea Burgess, Kym Morris, John Walsh, Owen Lloyd, Jennifer A Whitty, Paul A Scuffham
OBJECTIVES: Cerebral palsy (CP) remains the world's most common childhood physical disability with total annual costs of care and lost well-being of $A3.87b. The PREDICT-CP (NHMRC 1077257 Partnership Project: Comprehensive surveillance to PREDICT outcomes for school age children with CP) study will investigate the influence of brain structure, body composition, dietary intake, oropharyngeal function, habitual physical activity, musculoskeletal development (hip status, bone health) and muscle performance on motor attainment, cognition, executive function, communication, participation, quality of life and related health resource use costs...
July 12, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690540/the-role-of-microglia-in-prion-diseases-a-paradigm-of-functional-diversity
#7
REVIEW
Juliane Obst, Emilie Simon, Renzo Mancuso, Diego Gomez-Nicola
Inflammation is a major component of neurodegenerative diseases. Microglia are the innate immune cells in the central nervous system (CNS). In the healthy brain, microglia contribute to tissue homeostasis and regulation of synaptic plasticity. Under disease conditions, they play a key role in the development and maintenance of the neuroinflammatory response, by showing enhanced proliferation and activation. Prion diseases are progressive chronic neurodegenerative disorders associated with the accumulation of the scrapie prion protein PrP(Sc), a misfolded conformer of the cellular prion protein PrP(C)...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685156/road-map-fluoroscopy-successfully-guides-endoscopic-interventions-in-the-esophagus
#8
Jochen Weigt, Wilfried Obst, Arne Kandulski, Maciej Pech, Ali Canbay, Peter Malfertheiner
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS : Road Map (RM) fluoroscopy is a radiological technique that enables visualization of anatomic structures using image subtraction at peak opacification. RM fluoroscopy has never previously been evaluated for use in endoscopy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of RM in guiding endoscopic intervention in the esophagus. PATIENTS AND METHODS : This was a monocentric observational trial of consecutive patients with esophageal strictures in a university hospital...
July 2017: Endoscopy International Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620014/the-tendinopathic-achilles-tendon-does-not-remain-iso-volumetric-upon-repeated-loading-insights-from-3d-ultrasound
#9
Leila Nuri, Steven J Obst, Richard Newsham-West, Rod S Barrett
Mid-portion Achilles tendinopathy (MAT) alters the normal three-dimensional (3D) morphology of the Achilles tendon (AT) at rest and under a single tensile load. However, how MAT changes the 3D morphology of the AT during repeated loading remains unclear. This study compared the AT longitudinal, transverse and volume strains during repeated loading of the tendinopathic AT with those of the contralateral tendon in people with unilateral MAT. Ten adults with unilateral MAT performed 10 successive 25 s submaximal (50%) voluntary isometric plantarflexion contractions with both legs...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582546/the-contribution-of-homology-arms-to-nuclease-assisted-genome-engineering
#10
Oliver Baker, Sarah Tsurkan, Jun Fu, Barbara Klink, Andreas Rump, Mandy Obst, Andrea Kranz, Evelin Schröck, Konstantinos Anastassiadis, A Francis Stewart
Designer nucleases like CRISPR/Cas9 enable fluent site-directed damage or small mutations in many genomes. Strategies for their use to achieve more complex tasks like regional exchanges for gene humanization or the establishment of conditional alleles are still emerging. To optimize Cas9-assisted targeting, we measured the relationship between targeting frequency and homology length in targeting constructs using a hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl-transferase assay in mouse embryonic stem cells. Targeting frequency with supercoiled plasmids improved steeply up to 2 kb total homology and continued to increase with even longer homology arms, thereby implying that Cas9-assisted targeting efficiencies can be improved using homology arms of 1 kb or greater...
July 27, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548516/relativistic-electron-streaming-instabilities-modulate-proton-beams-accelerated-in-laser-plasma-interactions
#11
S Göde, C Rödel, K Zeil, R Mishra, M Gauthier, F-E Brack, T Kluge, M J MacDonald, J Metzkes, L Obst, M Rehwald, C Ruyer, H-P Schlenvoigt, W Schumaker, P Sommer, T E Cowan, U Schramm, S Glenzer, F Fiuza
We report experimental evidence that multi-MeV protons accelerated in relativistic laser-plasma interactions are modulated by strong filamentary electromagnetic fields. Modulations are observed when a preplasma is developed on the rear side of a μm-scale solid-density hydrogen target. Under such conditions, electromagnetic fields are amplified by the relativistic electron Weibel instability and are maximized at the critical density region of the target. The analysis of the spatial profile of the protons indicates the generation of B>10  MG and E>0...
May 12, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511014/protein-corona-formation-on-colloidal-polymeric-nanoparticles-and-polymeric-nanogels-impact-on-cellular-uptake-toxicity-immunogenicity-and-drug-release-properties
#12
Katja Obst, Guy Yealland, Benjamin Balzus, Enrico Miceli, Mathias Dimde, Christoph Weise, Murat Eravci, Roland Bodmeier, Rainer Haag, Marcelo Calderón, Nada Charbaji, Sarah Hedtrich
The adsorption of biomolecules to the surface of nanoparticles (NPs) following administration into biological environments is widely recognized. In particular, the "protein corona" is well understood in terms of formation kinetics and impact upon the biological interactions of NPs. Its presence is an essential consideration in the design of therapeutic NPs. In the present study, the protein coronas of six polymeric nanoparticles of prospective therapeutic use were investigated. These included three colloidal NPs-soft core-multishell (CMS) NPs, plus solid cationic Eudragit RS (EGRS), and anionic ethyl cellulose (EC) nanoparticles-and three nanogels (NGs)-thermoresponsive dendritic-polyglycerol (dPG) nanogels (NGs) and two amino-functionalized dPG-NGs...
May 26, 2017: Biomacromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505685/-weaning-unit-of-the-university-medicine-greifswald-institutional-structure-and-weaning-results-from-prolonged-ventilation-over-10-years
#13
A Müller-Heinrich, C Warnke, A Heine, T Bollmann, M Boesche, C Schäper, B Stubbe, S Friesecke, S B Felix, S Gläser, A Obst, R Ewert
The increasing importance of intensive care medicine including mechanical ventilation has been accompanied by the demand of weaning opportunities for patients undergoing prolonged mechanical ventilation. Consequently, specialised clinical institutions, focusing on the weaning from mechanical ventilation, have been established since the 1980 s.The present article illustrates the structural development and results of such a specialised institution at the University Medicine Greifswald, using data of 616 patients collected within the past ten years (2006 - 2015)...
August 2017: Pneumologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455336/insights-into-nitrate-reducing-fe-ii-oxidation-mechanisms-through-analysis-of-cell-mineral-associations-cell-encrustation-and-mineralogy-in-the-chemolithoautotrophic-enrichment-culture-ks
#14
M Nordhoff, C Tominski, M Halama, J M Byrne, M Obst, S Kleindienst, S Behrens, A Kappler
Most described nitrate-reducing Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria (NRFeOB) are mixotrophic and depend on organic cosubstrates for growth. Encrustation of cells in Fe(III) minerals has been observed for mixotrophic NRFeOB but not for autotrophic phototrophic and microaerophilic Fe(II) oxidizers. So far, little is known about cell-mineral associations in the few existing autotrophic NRFeOB. Here, we investigate whether the designated autotrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing strain (closely related to Gallionella and Sideroxydans) or the heterotrophic nitrate reducers that are present in the autotrophic nitrate-reducing Fe(II)-oxidizing enrichment culture KS form mineral crusts during Fe(II) oxidation under autotrophic and mixotrophic conditions...
July 1, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422617/hidden-devices-in-the-school-setting-what-the-nurse-needs-to-know-about-shunts
#15
Barbara Obst, Megan Roesler
The role of school nurse today not only includes making a thorough assessment of the child but also the knowledge and skill to understand hidden medical devices. As of 2011, there were approximately 14.6 million children in the United States living with special health care needs. Many of these children could have hidden medical devices. The Specialized Health Needs Interagency Collaboration (SHNIC) program at the Kennedy Krieger Institute received requests for in-person training regarding ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunts...
May 2017: NASN School Nurse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402123/iron-isotope-fractionation-during-fe-ii-oxidation-mediated-by-the-oxygen-producing-marine-cyanobacterium-synechococcus-pcc-7002
#16
E D Swanner, T Bayer, W Wu, L Hao, M Obst, A Sundman, J M Byrne, F M Michel, I C Kleinhanns, A Kappler, R Schoenberg
In this study, we couple iron isotope analysis to microscopic and mineralogical investigation of iron speciation during circumneutral Fe(II) oxidation and Fe(III) precipitation with photosynthetically produced oxygen. In the presence of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC 7002, aqueous Fe(II) (Fe(II)aq) is oxidized and precipitated as amorphous Fe(III) oxyhydroxide minerals (iron precipitates, Feppt), with distinct isotopic fractionation (ε(56)Fe) values determined from fitting the δ(56)Fe(II)aq (1.79‰ and 2...
May 2, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394214/does-online-social-connectedness-buffer-risk-of-depression-following-driving-cessation-an-analysis-of-older-drivers-and-ex-drivers
#17
Kristina G Challands, Philippe Lacherez, Patricia L Obst
This study investigates the role of online social connectedness as a buffer against depression in older adults who cease driving. A survey of 108 over-65 year olds (M = 73.7, SD = 7.37) was conducted. Measures included online and offline social connectedness; depression; online activities; and general health. The online activities in which older adults most frequently engaged were communicating with family and friends, reading the news, and banking. Face-to-face social connectedness was by far the strongest predictor of depression...
April 2017: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359571/achilles-tendon-stress-is-more-sensitive-to-subject-specific-geometry-than-subject-specific-material-properties-a-finite-element-analysis
#18
Wencke Hansen, Vickie B Shim, Steven Obst, David G Lloyd, Richard Newsham-West, Rod S Barrett
This study used subject-specific measures of three-dimensional (3D) free Achilles tendon geometry in conjunction with a finite element method to investigate the effect of variation in subject-specific geometry and subject-specific material properties on tendon stress during submaximal isometric loading. Achilles tendons of eight participants (Aged 25-35years) were scanned with freehand 3D ultrasound at rest and during a 70% maximum voluntary isometric contraction. Ultrasound images were segmented, volume rendered and transformed into subject-specific 3D finite element meshes...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285516/investigation-on-key-molecules-of-huanglongbing-hlb-induced-orange-juice-off-flavor
#19
Johannes Kiefl, Birgit Kohlenberg, Anja Hartmann, Katja Obst, Susanne Paetz, Gerhard Krammer, Stephan Trautzsch
Orange fruits from huanglongbing (HLB)-infected trees do not fully mature and show a severe off-flavor described as bitter-harsh, metallic, and less juicy and fruity. The investigation of juice from HLB-infected (HLBOJ) and healthy control oranges (COJ) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry showed higher concentrations of fruity esters, such as ethyl butyrate and ethyl 2-methylbutyrate, and soapy-waxy alkanals, such as octanal and decanal, in the COJ, whereas the HLBOJ showed higher concentrations of green aldehydes such as hexanal and degradation compounds of limonene and linalool such as α-terpineol...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261596/the-freedom-of-choice
#20
COMMENT
Jochen Weigt, Wilfried Obst, Peter Malfertheiner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Hepatobiliary Surgery and Nutrition
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