Read by QxMD icon Read


Iglika G Ivanova, Catherine V Park, Adrian I Yemm, Niall S Kenneth
HIF1α (hypoxia inducible factor 1α) is the central regulator of the cellular response to low oxygen and its activity is deregulated in multiple human pathologies. Consequently, given the importance of HIF signaling in disease, there is considerable interest in developing strategies to modulate HIF1α activity and down-stream signaling events. In the present study we find that under hypoxic conditions, activation of the PERK branch of the unfolded protein response (UPR) can suppress the levels and activity of HIF1α by preventing efficient HIF1α translation...
February 26, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Georgi K Marinov, Anshul Kundaje
Advances in the methods for detecting protein-DNA interactions have played a key role in determining the directions of research into the mechanisms of transcriptional regulation. The most recent major technological transformation happened a decade ago, with the move from using tiling arrays [chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP)-on-Chip] to high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq) as a readout for ChIP assays. In addition to the numerous other ways in which it is superior to arrays, by eliminating the need to design and manufacture them, sequencing also opened the door to carrying out comparative analyses of genome-wide transcription factor occupancy across species and studying chromatin biology in previously less accessible model and nonmodel organisms, thus allowing us to understand the evolution and diversity of regulatory mechanisms in unprecedented detail...
February 26, 2018: Briefings in Functional Genomics
Moran Brenner, Lior Lobel, Ilya Borovok, Nadejda Sigal, Anat A Herskovits
Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) is a saprophyte and intracellular pathogen. Transition to the pathogenic state relies on sensing of host-derived metabolites, yet it remains unclear how these are recognized and how they mediate virulence gene regulation. We previously found that low availability of isoleucine signals Lm to activate the virulent state. This response is dependent on CodY, a global regulator and isoleucine sensor. Isoleucine-bound CodY represses metabolic pathways including branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) biosynthesis, however under BCAA depletion, as occurs during infection, BCAA biosynthesis is upregulated and isoleucine-unbound CodY activates virulence genes...
March 12, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Azza M EzzEl-Din, Sherif H Galal, Asmaa O Ahmed, Sherif I Kamel, Dalia T Kamal
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the one of the major causes of chronic liver disease. Individuals exposed to HBV show wide spectrum outcomes including immunized persons, asymptomatic carrier, chronic active hepatitis, cirrhosis and HCC. The outcome of HBV infection and the severity of associated liver diseases are determined by the nature and strength of host immune responses against the virus. There is accumulating evidence that the innate branch of the host immune system plays an important role in the control of HBV infection...
June 2017: Egyptian Journal of Immunology
Adam N Wallace, Jonathan A Grossberg, Josser E Delgado Almandoz, Mudassar Kamran, Anil K Roy, Yasha Kayan, Matthew J Austin, Brian M Howard, Christopher J Moran, C Michael Cawley, DeWitte T Cross, Jacques E Dion, Akash P Kansagra, Joshua W Osbun
BACKGROUND: Flow diversion of posterior cerebral artery (PCA) aneurysms has not been widely reported, possibly owing to concerns regarding parent vessel size and branch vessel coverage. OBJECTIVE: To examine the safety and effectiveness of PCA aneurysm flow diverter treatment. METHODS: Retrospective review of PCA aneurysms treated with the Pipeline Embolization Device (PED; Medtronic Inc, Dublin, Ireland) at 3 neurovascular centers, including periprocedural complications and clinical and angiographic outcomes...
March 8, 2018: Neurosurgery
Takahiro Osada, Timo Krings
BACKGROUND: Pial arterial supplies are sometimes found in patients with dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs), though their characteristics have rarely been clarified. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the characteristics of pial arterial supplies in DAVFs and to discuss their pathophysiology and treatment. METHODS: Two hundred four consecutive patients with intracranial DAVFs over 11 yr were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical factors and radiological findings, including the presence of pial arterial supplies, were evaluated...
March 8, 2018: Neurosurgery
Michael V Westbury, Stefanie Hartmann, Axel Barlow, Ingrid Wiesel, Viyanna Leo, Rebecca Welch, Daniel M Parker, Florian Sicks, Arne Ludwig, Love Dalén, Michael Hofreiter
Hyenas (family Hyaenidae), as the sister group to cats (family Felidae), represent a deeply diverging branch within the cat-like carnivores (Feliformia). With an estimated population size of less than 10,000 individuals worldwide, the brown hyena (Parahyaena brunnea) represents the rarest of the four extant hyena species and has been listed as Near Threatened by the IUCN. Here we report a high coverage genome from a captive bred brown hyena and both mitochondrial and low-coverage nuclear genomes of 14 wild-caught brown hyena individuals from across southern Africa...
March 8, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
Lilian A Martinez Carrera, Elke Gabriel, Colin Donohoe, Irmgard Hölker, Aruljothi Mariappan, Markus Storbeck, Mirka Uhlirova, Jay Gopalakrishnan, Brunhilde Wirth
BICD2 encodes a highly conserved motor adaptor protein that regulates the dynein-dynactin complex in different cellular processes. Heterozygous mutations in BICD2 cause autosomal dominant lower extremity-predominant spinal muscular atrophy-2 (SMALED2). Although, various BICD2 mutations have been shown to alter interactions with different binding partners or the integrity of the Golgi apparatus, the specific pathological effects of BICD2 mutations underlying SMALED2 remain elusive. Here, we show that the fibroblasts derived from individuals with SMALED2 exhibit stable microtubules...
March 8, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Alberto A Esteves-Ferreira, Masami Inaba, Antoine Fort, Wagner L Araújo, Ronan Sulpice
Cyanobacteria are one of the earliest branching groups of organisms on the planet, and during their evolutionary history were submitted to varying selective pressures. Nowadays, cyanobacteria can grow in a variety of conditions, using a large number of nitrogen sources. The control of the nitrogen metabolism in cyanobacteria depends on a fine-tuning regulatory network involving 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG), PII, PipX, and NtcA. This network answers to the cellular 2-OG levels, which reflects the cellular carbon/nitrogen balance, and as an output regulates gene expression, translation, protein activities and thus metabolic pathways...
March 12, 2018: Critical Reviews in Microbiology
Olga Vladimirovna Ezhova, Vladimir Vasil'yevich Malakhov, Ekaterina Alekseevna Egorova
Studies of echinoid microscopic anatomy over the last two centuries have created a number of inaccuracies and mistakes that have accumulated in the descriptions of the intricate organization of the coelomic system of Echinoidea. To clarify the situation, we reconstructed the axial complex and radial complex of the echinoid Strongylocentrotus pallidus. The water ring is located between the perivisceral coelom and the perioral coelom. The oral haemal ring lies between the coelothelia of the water-vascular, perivisceral, and perioral rings...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Morphology
P Gómez-Cortés, A Cívico, M A de la Fuente, N Núñez Sánchez, F Peña Blanco, A L Martínez Marín
Milk fat composition can be modulated by the inclusion of lipid supplements in ruminant diets. An interaction between the lipid supplement and the forage to concentrate ratio or the type of forage in the rations may affect milk fat composition. However, little is known about the effects of the starch-to-non-forage NDF ratio in the concentrate and lipid supplementation of goat diets. The aim of this work was to determine the role of dietary carbohydrates in goats rations supplemented with linseed oil on animal performance and milk fatty acid (FA) profile...
March 12, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Laura Gobelius, Johanna Kim Hedlund, Wiebke Dürig, Rikard Tröger, Karl Lilja, Karin Wiberg, Lutz Ahrens
The aim of this study was to assess per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in the Swedish aquatic environment, identify emission sources and compare measured concentrations with environmental quality standards (EQS) and (drinking) water guideline values. In total, 493 samples were analysed in 2015 for 26 PFASs (∑26PFASs) in surface water, groundwater, landfill leachate, sewage treatment plant effluents and reference lakes, focusing on hot spots and drinking water sources. Highest ∑26PFAS concentrations were detected in surface- (13,000 ng L-1) and groundwater (6,400 ng L-1)...
March 12, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Xu-Man Chen, Yong Chen, Lu Liang, Qiu-Jun Liu, Yu Liu
Circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) induced by host-guest complexation remains a challenge in supramolecular chemistry. Herein, a couple of CPL-silent enantiomeric guest binaphthylbis(4,4'-bipyridinium) salts can emit obvious CPL in the presence of cucurbit[8]uril in aqueous media, due to the restriction of molecular rotation limitation effect. Such CPL can be reversibly adjusted by the addition of acid and base. Furthermore, the resultant supramolecular systems can interact with DNA, accompanied by the morphological conversion from branched supramolecular nanowires to exfoliated nanowires, which can enable to the exploration of such supramolecular systems as DNA markers by CPL signals...
March 12, 2018: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Yannick Berker, Joel S Karp, Volkmar Schulz
The use of scattered coincidences for attenuation correction of positron emission tomography (PET) data has recently been proposed. For practical applications, convergence speeds require further improvement, yet there exists a trade-off between convergence speed and the risk of non-convergence. In this respect, a maximum-likelihood gradient-ascent (MLGA) algorithm and a two-branch back-projection (2BP), which was previously proposed, were evaluated. Methods: MLGA was combined with the Armijo step size rule; and accelerated using conjugate gradients, Nesterov's momentum method, and data subsets of different sizes...
September 2017: IEEE Transactions on Radiation and Plasma Medical Sciences
Michael Peterson, Scott Rudlosky, Wiebke Deierling
This study documents the composition, morphology, and motion of extreme optical lightning flashes observed by the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS). The furthest separation of LIS events (groups) in any flash is 135 km (89 km), the flash with the largest footprint had an illuminated area of 10,604 km2 , and the most dendritic flash has 234 visible branches. The longest-duration convective LIS flash lasted 28 s and is overgrouped and not physical. The longest-duration convective-to-stratiform propagating flash lasted 7...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Geophysical Research. Atmospheres: JGR
Bing Wang, Na Song, Qiong Zhang, Ning Wang, Zhensheng Kang
Highly conserved mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades regulate numerous plant processes, including hormonal responses, stress, and innate immunity. In this research, TaMAPK4 was predicted to be a target of tae-miR164. We verified the binding and suppression of TaMAPK4 by co-expression in Nicotiana benthamiana . Moreover, we found TaMAPK4 was localized in the cytoplasm and nucleus using transient expression analyses. TaMAPK4 transcripts increased following salicylic acid (SA) treatment and when host plants were infected with an avirulent race of the stripe-rust pathogen...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Riccardo Natoli, Nilisha Fernando, Tess Dahlenburg, Haihan Jiao, Riemke Aggio-Bruce, Nigel L Barnett, Juan Manuel Chao de la Barca, Guillaume Tcherkez, Pascal Reynier, Johnny Fang, Joshua A Chu-Tan, Krisztina Valter, Jan Provis, Matt Rutar
Purpose: Systemic increases in reactive oxygen species, and their association with inflammation, have been proposed as an underlying mechanism linking obesity and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Studies have found increased levels of oxidative stress biomarkers and inflammatory cytokines in obese individuals; however, the correlation between obesity and retinal inflammation has yet to be assessed. We used the leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mouse to further our understanding of the contribution of obesity to retinal oxidative stress and inflammation...
2018: Molecular Vision
Hyojung Kang, Rachel L Orlowsky, Gregory J Gerling
In mammals, touch is encoded by sensory receptors embedded in the skin. For one class of receptors in the mouse, the architecture of its Merkel cells, unmyelinated neurites, and heminodes follow particular renewal and remodeling trends over hair cycle stages from ages 4 to 10 weeks. As it is currently impossible to observe such trends across a single animal's hair cycle, this work employs discrete event simulation to identify and evaluate policies of Merkel cell and heminode dynamics. Well matching the observed data, the results show that the baseline model replicates dynamic remodeling behaviors between stages of the hair cycle - based on particular addition and removal polices and estimated probabilities tied to constituent parts of Merkel cells, terminal branch neurites and heminodes...
December 2017: Proceedings of the Winter Simulation Conference
Sanjeev Jain, Pratima Murthy, Alok Sarin
Specialists in psychiatry, in the Indian sub-continent, were trained in the UK in the early 20th century. Just before Independence, an Indian branch of the Royal Medical Psychological Association was established. Many issues of contemporary concern were discussed, as also plans for the further development of psychiatry in the region. Soon after the Second World War, and the Independence of India, the association was disbanded. However, a large number of psychiatrists from south Asia now live and work in the UK, and the Indian Psychiatric society and the Royal College continue to have close links...
February 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
Ivan Grbatinić, Nebojsa Milosevic, Dusica Maric
The aim of this study is to determine whether the dentate neurons can be translaminary neuromorphotopologically classified as ventrolateral or dorsomedial type. Adult human dentate 2D binary interneuron images are used for the purposes of the analysis. The analysis is performed on the real and the virtual neuron sample. The total of 29 parameters is used. They can be divided into the classes: neuron surface, shape, length, branching and complexity. The clustering is performed through the algorithm consisted from of the steps of predictor extraction (matrix attractor analysis/non-negative matrix factorization and cluster analysis of predictor factors, separate unifactor analysis/Student's t-test and MANOVA) and multivariate cluster analysis set (cluster analysis, principal component analysis, factor analysis with pro/varimax rotation, Fisher's linear discriminant analysis and feed-forward backpropagation artificial neural networks)...
2018: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"