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Lin Du, Fan Xu, Jun Fang, Shaopei Gao, Jiuyou Tang, Shuang Fang, Hongru Wang, Hongning Tong, Fengxia Zhang, Jinfang Chu, Guodong Wang, Chengcai Chu
Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) is an unfavorable trait in cereal crops which could seriously decrease grain yield and quality. Although some PHS-associated quantitative trait loci (QTL) or genes in cereals have been reported, the molecular mechanism underlying PHS remains largely elusive. Here, we characterized a rice mutant, phs8, which exhibits PHS phenotype accompanied by sugary endosperm. Map-based cloning revealed that PHS8 encodes a starch debranching enzyme named isoamylase1. Mutation in PHS8 resulted in the phytoglycogen breakdown and sugar accumulation in the endosperm...
May 18, 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
Yuta Fujii, Yasushi Makino, Masaaki Sato
It is widely known that sulfate ion at high concentration serves like an allosteric activator of glycogen phosphorylase (GP). Based on the crystallographic studies on GP, it has been assumed that the sulfate ion is bound close to the phosphorylatable Ser14 site of nonactivated GP, causing a conformational change to catalytically-active GP. However, there are also reports that sulfate ion inhibits allosterically-activated GP by preventing the phosphate substrate from attaching to the catalytic site. In the present study, using a high concentration of sulfate ion, significant enhancement of GP activity was observed when macromolecular glycogen was used as substrate but not when smaller maltohexaose was used...
May 4, 2018: Glycoconjugate Journal
Ruijie Gao, Zhecun Xu, Huaxiang Deng, Zhengbing Guan, Xiangru Liao, Ye Zhao, Xiaohui Zheng, Yujie Cai
Relative expression levels of twenty-four amylase genes in Shiraia sp. SUPER-H168 were investigated by real-time quantitative PCR when various carbohydrates, including glucose, sucrose, maltose, amylose, amylopectin and corn flour, were used as carbon source. Genes, including an α-glucosidase gene Amy33 (2997 bp), an α-amylase gene Amy365-1 (1749 bp) and a glycogen debranching enzyme gene Amy130 (2487 bp), were overexpressed, and four overexpression transformants were constructed, respectively. When Amy365-1 and Amy130 were co-overexpressed, relative expression levels of seven hypocrellin biosynthesis genes and four related genes in central carbon catabolism were all increased...
2018: PloS One
Hugo Silva, Andreia Fernandes, João Rodrigues, Daniel Brandão, Manuela Vieira, Catarina Celestino
INTRODUCTION: Endovascular aortic interventions are suitable alternatives to open surgery, being less invasive and having lower mortality and complications. Accurate positioning of the stent graft is a critical point because of systolic thrush. Techniques used to prevent it include pharmacological (antihypertensive drugs, nitroglycerin, adenosine) and mechanical methods (temporary caval occlusion by balloon). Rapid Right Ventricular Pacing (RRVP) is an emerging alternative with good patient tolerance and low level of complications...
July 2017: Revista Portuguesa de Cirurgia Cardio-torácica e Vascular
Álvaro Laranjeira Santos, António Cruz Tomás, Jorge Pinheiro Santos, Daniela Varela-Afonso, José Fragata
INTRODUCTION: Surgical approach of multisegmental pathology of the thoracic aorta, namely aortic arch / descending aorta is challenging. The Frozen Elephant Trunk (FET) has good results, with acceptable risk. However, in the subgroup of patients (pts) older than 75 years and with important comorbidities, the surgical risk is very high. OBJECTIVES: Review short-term results of this original, simplified and potentially hybrid technique developed in our Department for this subgroup of patients...
July 2017: Revista Portuguesa de Cirurgia Cardio-torácica e Vascular
Nikolaos A Papakonstantinou, Constantine N Antonopoulos, Nikolaos G Baikoussis, Ioannis Kakisis, Georgios Geroulakos
INTRODUCTION: Conventional open total arch replacement is the treatment of choice for surgical aortic arch pathologies. However, it is an invasive procedure, requiring cardiopulmonary bypass and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest leading to significant morbidity and mortality rates. Hybrid aortic arch debranching procedures without (type I) or with (type II) ascending aorta replacement seek to limit operative, bypass, and circulatory arrest times by making the arch repair procedure simpler and shorter...
March 30, 2018: Heart, Lung & Circulation
Taijiro Sueda, Shinya Takahashi, Keijiro Katayama
We present the case of an 86-year-old male with an aortic arch saccular aneurysm who underwent zone 1 thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) with debranching from the right subclavian artery to the left carotid and left subclavian arteries. The patient developed a type Ia endoleak 1 month later. Postoperative contrast computed tomography (CT) showed a hematoma around the aneurysm, concerning for impending rupture. He thus underwent emergency endograft removal and replacement with a one-branched graft using selective cerebral perfusion via the left subclavian artery perfusion...
April 26, 2018: Annals of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
A V Pokrovskiĭ, B G Alekian, A E Zotikov, A S Ivandaev, D I Mar'ian, A V Kozhanova, V V Kazennov, I E Timina, M V Il'ina
Described in the article is a clinical case report concerning staged management of a patient presenting with a thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm. The first stage consisted in complete lower debranching with prosthetic repair of all visceral arteries and the right renal artery. The second stage was endovascular repair of the aortic aneurysm. The chosen approach made it possible to avoid clamping of the thoracic portion of the aorta, which favourably contributed to a decrease in the traumatic nature of the operative procedure, simultaneously preserving the radicality of treatment after the two-stage intervention...
2018: Angiologii︠a︡ i Sosudistai︠a︡ Khirurgii︠a︡, Angiology and Vascular Surgery
Alexander Gombert, Lea van Issum, Mohammad E Barbati, Jochen Grommes, Andras Keszei, Drosos Kotelis, Houman Jalaie, Andreas Greiner, Michael J Jacobs, Johannes Kalder
OBJECTIVE: The safety and feasibility of supra-aortic debranching as part of endovascular aortic surgery or as a treatment option for arterial occlusive disease (AOD) remains controversial. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical outcome of this surgery. METHODS: This single centre, retrospective study included 107 patients (mean age 69.2 years, 38.4% women) who underwent supra-aortic bypass surgery (carotid-subclavian bypass, carotid-carotid bypass, and carotid-carotid-subclavian bypass) because of thoracic or thoraco-abdominal endovascular aortic repair (57%; 61/107) or as AOD treatment (42...
April 20, 2018: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
Craig S Richmond, Darby Oldenburg, Garrett Dancik, David R Meier, Benjamin Weinhaus, Dan Theodorescu, Sunny Guin
Glycogen debranching enzyme (AGL) and Glycogen phosphorylase (PYG) are responsible for glycogen breakdown. We have earlier shown that AGL is a regulator of bladder tumor growth. Here we investigate the role of AGL in non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). Short hairpin RNA (shRNA) driven knockdown of AGL resulted in increased anchorage independent and xenograft growth of NSCLC cells. We further establish that an increase in hyaluronic acid (HA) synthesis driven by Hyaluronic Acid Synthase 2 (HAS2) is critical for anchorage independent growth of NSCLC cells with AGL loss...
March 30, 2018: Oncotarget
Lauren E Lees, Stacy A Krueger-Hadfield, Andrew J Clark, Elizabeth A Duermit, Erik E Sotka, Courtney J Murren
Theory predicts that the maintenance of haplodiplontic life cycles requires ecological differences between the haploid gametophytes and diploid sporophytes, yet evidence of such differences remain scarce. The haplodiplontic red seaweed Gracilaria vermiculophylla has invaded the temperate estuaries of the Northern Hemisphere, where it commonly modifies detrital and trophic pathways. In native populations, abundant hard substratum enables spore settlement, and gametophyte:tetrasporophyte ratios are approximately 40:60...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Phycology
Jin Chen, Xiaoxi Li, Ling Chen, Fengwei Xie
The aim of this study was to prepare and characterize a novel type of starch-coated microparticles (MPs) allowing site-specific delivery of bioactives to the colon. An oral colon-specific controlled-release system was developed in the form of MPs coated with a resistant starch (RS2/RS3) film (RS@MPs) through an aqueous suspension coating process. The RS2 was chosen from a high-amylose cornstarch with 88.5% digestion resistibility. The RS3 was prepared by a high-temperature/pressure (HTP) treatment, with the following of enzymatic debranching, and retrogradation, resulting in a dramatic increase in enzymatic resistance (RS3 content: 76...
July 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Sureeporn Boonna, Sunanta Tongta
Structural transformation of crystallized debranched cassava starch prepared by temperature cycling (TC) treatment and then subjected to annealing (ANN), heat-moisture treatment (HMT) and dual hydrothermal treatments of ANN and HMT was investigated. The relative crystallinity, lateral crystal size, melting temperature and resistant starch (RS) content increased for all hydrothermally treated samples, but the slowly digestible starch (SDS) content decreased. The RS content followed the order: HMT → ANN > HMT > ANN → HMT > ANN > TC, respectively...
July 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Jingxu Guo, Alun R Coker, Steve P Wood, Jonathan B Cooper, Ronan M Keegan, Nasir Ahmad, Majida Atta Muhammad, Naeem Rashid, Muhummad Akhtar
Pullulan-hydrolysing enzymes, more commonly known as debranching enzymes for starch and other polysaccharides, are of great interest and have been widely used in the starch-saccharification industry. Type III pullulan hydrolase from Thermococcus kodakarensis (TK-PUL) possesses both pullulanase and α-amylase activities. Until now, only two enzymes in this class, which are capable of hydrolysing both α-1,4- and α-1,6-glycosidic bonds in pullulan to produce a mixture of maltose, panose and maltotriose, have been described...
April 1, 2018: Acta Crystallographica. Section D, Structural Biology
Tao Li, Lei Chen, Jianbo Xiao, Fengping An, Cheng Wan, Hongbo Song
The in vitro prebiotic effects of resistant starch (RS), prepared by different treatments from purple yam, on Bifidobacterium adolescentis (bifidobacteria for short), were investigated. Tolerance tests indicated that bifidobacteria in PDS (prepared by debranching combined with autoclaving) and PDS.H (PDS further treated by double enzyme hydrolysis) media adapted better to simulated upper gastrointestinal conditions (at pH 1.5-3.0 and 0.3% and 1.0% bile acid) than those in GLU (glucose) and DAS (prepared by autoclaving) media...
April 5, 2018: Food & Function
Yanbo Hu, Xuecui Yan, Han Zhang, Jiaqi Liu, Feng Luo, Yingying Cui, Weiyang Wang, Yifa Zhou
The discovery and creation of biocatalysts for plant biomass conversion are essential for industrial demand and scientific research of the plant cell wall. α-1,2 and α-1,3-L-arabinofuranosidases are debranching enzymes that catalyzing hydrolytic release of α-L-arabinofuranosyl residues in plant cell wall. Gene database analyses shows that GH62 family only contains specific α-L-arabinofuranosidases that play an important role in the degradation and structure of the plant cell wall. At present, there are only 22 enzymes in this group has been characterized...
April 2, 2018: AMB Express
Raffaello Bellosta, Luca Luzzani, Francesca Bontempi, Monica Vescovi, Antonio Sarcina
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
Xiaolei Li, Jiahui Zhao, Jingchao Fu, Yutian Pan, Dan Li
The acidophilic and thermophilic pullulanases have many potential applications in the processes of starch liquefaction and saccharification. In this study, a gene encoding an amylopullulanase from Thermofilum pendens (TPApu) was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. Although TPApu possessed the same continuous GH57N_Apu domain and the succeeding α-helical region as other two amylopullulanases from Staphylothermus marinus (SMApu) and Caldivirga maquilingensis (CMApu), it only showed maximal amino acid identities of 25...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Liping Yang, Yuesheng Xia, Yuchen Tao, Huihui Geng, Yanyan Ding, Yibin Zhou
Three kinds of potato starch were treated with 2.2 N HCl at 35 °C for 40 days, and their susceptibility to acid hydrolysis and the resulting structural changes were evaluated. Red potato starch was more susceptible to acid hydrolysis and presented highest rate of hydrolysis. Lintnerized starches had relatively low average molecular weights and z-average radius of gyration. HPAEC analyses showed three lintners presented different molecular size distributions. Lintnerized yellow potato starch had few chains of DP ≤ 12 (2...
May 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Nikolas Tsilimparis, Sebastian E Debus, Max Biehl, Konstantinos Spanos, Axel Larena-Avellaneda, Sabine Wipper, Fiona Rohlffs, Tilo Kölbel
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the immediate postoperative and midterm outcome of complex aortic aneurysm treatment necessitating four-vessel revascularization with either a total endovascular approach (fenestrated-branched stent graft [FBSG]) or a hybrid technique of visceral debranching plus stenting. METHODS: The clinical data of consecutively treated patients presenting with a complex aortic aneurysm that necessitated four-vessel revascularization between 2010 and 2015 were retrospectively analyzed...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery
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