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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716405/critical-and-speculative-review-of-the-roles-of-multi-protein-complexes-in-starch-biosynthesis-in-cereals
#1
REVIEW
Naoko Crofts, Yasunori Nakamura, Naoko Fujita
Starch accounts for the majority of edible carbohydrate resources generated through photosynthesis. Amylopectin is the major component of starch and is one of highest-molecular-weight biopolymers. Rapid and systematic synthesis of frequently branched hydro-insoluble amylopectin and efficient accumulation into amyloplasts of cereal endosperm is crucial. The functions of multiple starch biosynthetic enzymes, including elongation, branching, and debranching enzymes, must be temporally and spatially coordinated...
September 2017: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710263/enzymatic-mechanism-for-arabinan-degradation-and-transport-in-the-thermophilic-bacterium-caldanaerobius-polysaccharolyticus
#2
Daniel Wefers, Jia Dong, Ahmed M Abdel-Hamid, Hans Müller Paul, Gabriel V Pereira, Yejun Han, Dylan Dodd, Ramiya Baskaran, Beth Mayer, Roderick I Mackie, Isaac Cann
The plant cell wall polysaccharide arabinan is an important supply of arabinose, and unraveling arabinan degrading strategies by microbes is important for understanding its use as a source of energy. Here, we explored the arabinan degrading enzymes in the thermophilic bacterium Caldanaerobius polysaccharolyticus and identified a gene cluster encoding two glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 51 α-L-arabinofuranosidases (CpAbf51A, CpAbf51B), a GH43 endo-arabinanase (CpAbn43A), a GH27 β-L-arabinopyranosidase (CpAbp27A), and two GH127 β-L-arabinofuranosidases (CpAbf127A, CpAbf127B)...
July 14, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693049/hybrid-repair-techniques-for-complex-aneurysms-and-dissections-involving-the-aortic-arch-and-thoracic-aorta
#3
Rami Tadros, Scott R Safir, Peter L Faries, Daniel K Han, Rajiv K Chander, James F McKinsey, Michael L Marin, Allan S Stewart, Sharif Ellozy
Aortic aneurysms involving the ascending aorta, aortic arch, and descending thoracic aorta have been a challenging entity to surgically treat for over 60 years. Despite the mortality of the disease, early open surgical procedures also had significant morbidity and mortality. The inherent risk in treating multiple anatomic segments simultaneously led to the innovation of the staged elephant trunk (ET) approach by Borst in 1983. To avoid the thoracotomy and associated complications related to the second stage of the procedure, an endovascular completion paradigm was begun by Volodos in 1991...
July 11, 2017: Surgical Technology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683910/treatment-of-complex-thoracoabdominal-aortic-disease
#4
REVIEW
Eric C Kuo, Sukgu M Han
Thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms are increasing in incidence. Rupture is associated with a high rate of morbidity and mortality. The historic gold standard of open repair can be performed with low rates of complications at centers of excellence. However, these results are not universally achievable, with significantly higher rates of mortality reported from statewide studies. With the advent of endovascular therapy, techniques to mitigate the physiologic stress of open surgery have been developed. Hybrid open/endovascular operations are being undertaken with total visceral debranching followed by endografting...
August 2017: Cardiology Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673938/design-starch-stochastic-modeling-of-starch-granule-biogenesis
#5
REVIEW
Adélaïde Raguin, Oliver Ebenhöh
Starch is the most widespread and abundant storage carbohydrate in plants and the main source of carbohydrate in the human diet. Owing to its remarkable properties and commercial applications, starch is still of growing interest. Its unique granular structure made of intercalated layers of amylopectin and amylose has been unraveled thanks to recent progress in microscopic imaging, but the origin of such periodicity is still under debate. Both amylose and amylopectin are made of linear chains of α-1,4-bound glucose residues, with branch points formed by α-1,6 linkages...
July 3, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669588/gh62-arabinofuranosidases-structure-function-and-applications
#6
REVIEW
Casper Wilkens, Susan Andersen, Claire Dumon, Jean-Guy Berrin, Birte Svensson
Motivated by industrial demands and ongoing scientific discoveries continuous efforts are made to identify and create improved biocatalysts dedicated to plant biomass conversion. α-1,2 and α-1,3 arabinofuranosyl specific α-l-arabinofuranosidases (EC 3.2.1.55) are debranching enzymes catalyzing hydrolytic release of α-l-arabinofuranosyl residues, which decorate xylan or arabinan backbones in lignocellulosic and pectin constituents of plant cell walls. The CAZy database classifies α-l-arabinofuranosidases in Glycoside Hydrolase (GH) families GH2, GH3, GH43, GH51, GH54 and GH62...
June 29, 2017: Biotechnology Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660114/a-rare-complication-of-tevar-performed-for-complex-acute-stanford-b-aortic-dissection
#7
George Awad, Patrick Zardo, Hassina Baraki, Ingo Kutschka
Management of aortic dissection with a novel endovascular technique known as thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) paired with surgical debranching as a less invasive alternative to conventional repair has gained widespread acceptance. However, experience for complicated, Stanford type B dissection involving the aortic arch is still limited.
January 2017: Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647036/supra-aortic-interventions-for-endovascular-exclusion-of-the-entire-aortic-arch
#8
REVIEW
Terézia B Andrási, Marius Grossmann, Dieter Zenker, Bernhard C Danner, Friedrich A Schöndube
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to analyze the outcomes of endovascular exclusion of the entire aortic arch (proximal landing in zone 0, distal landing in zone III or beyond, after Ishimaru) in which complete surgical debranching of the supra-aortic vessels (I), endovascular supra-aortic revascularization (chimney, fenestrated, or branched grafts) with partial surgical debranching (II), or total endovascular supra-aortic revascularization (III) was additionally performed. METHODS: Publications describing endovascular repair of the aortic arch (2000-2016) were systematically searched and reviewed...
July 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642793/repair-of-thoracoabdominal-aortic-aneurysm-with-thrombosed-infrarenal-component-a-modified-hybrid-technique-without-aortic-cross-clamping
#9
Hussam Abou-Al-Shaar, Khaled J Zaza, Muhammad Anees Sharif, Samer Koussayer
The authors report the successful repair of a Crawford type III thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA) with a thrombosed infrarenal component using a modified hybrid technique without aortic clamping in a high-risk patient. A 64-year-old male with a history of hypertension, diabetes, and severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease presented with acute on chronic backache and bilateral short distance claudication. A computerized tomography scan demonstrated a large, nonleaking Crawford type III TAAA with thrombosed infrarenal component of the aneurysm...
2017: Case Reports in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616351/hybrid-aortic-repair-with-antegrade-supra-aortic-and-renovisceral-debranching-from-ascending-aorta
#10
José Antonio Del Castro-Madrazo, Margarita Rivas-Domínguez, Carlota Fernández-Prendes, Amer Zanabili Al-Sibbai, José Manuel Llaneza-Coto, Manuel Alonso-Pérez
Aortic dissection is a life threatening condition. Hybrid repair has been described for the treatment of complex aortic pathology such as thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms (TAAA) and type A and B dissections, although open and total endovascular repair are also possible. Open surgery is still associated with substantial perioperative morbi-mortality rates, thus less invasive techniques such as endovascular repair and hybrid procedures can achieve good results in centers with experience. We present the case of a patient with a chronic type B dissection and TAAA degeneration that was treated in a single stage hybrid procedure with antegrade supra-aortic and renovisceral debranching from the ascending aorta and TEVAR...
May 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616343/debranching-aortic-surgery
#11
REVIEW
Manuel Alonso Pérez, José Manuel Llaneza Coto, José Antonio Del Castro Madrazo, Carlota Fernández Prendes, Mario González Gay, Amer Zanabili Al-Sibbai
Conventional open surgery still remains as the gold standard of care for aortic arch and thoracoabdominal pathology. In centers of excellence, open repair of the arch has been performed with 5% immediate mortality and a low rate of complications; however overall mortality rates are around 15%, being up to 40% of all patients rejected for treatment due to their age or comorbidities. For thoracoabdominal aortic pathology, data reported from centers of excellence show immediate mortality rates from 5% to 19%, spinal cord ischemia from 2...
May 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610926/effects-of-single-and-co-immobilization-on-the-product-specificity-of-type-i-pullulanase-from-anoxybacillus-sp-sk3-4
#12
Ummirul Mukminin Kahar, Kok-Gan Chan, Mohd Helmi Sani, Nur Izzati Mohd Noh, Kian Mau Goh
Type I pullulanase from Anoxybacillus sp. SK3-4 (PulASK) is an unusual debranching enzyme that specifically hydrolyzes starch α-1,6 linkages at long branches producing oligosaccharides (≥G8), but is nonreactive against short branches; thus, incapable of producing reducing sugars (G1-G7). We report on the effects of both single and co-immobilization of PulASK on product specificity. PulASK was purified and immobilized through covalent attachment to three epoxides (ReliZyme EP403/M, Immobead IB-150P, and Immobead IB-150A) and an amino-epoxide (ReliZyme HFA403/M) activated supports...
June 10, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595218/-disruption-of-matsui-kitamura-stent-graft-six-years-after-treatment-for-rupture-of-thoracic-aortic-aneurysm
#13
Takahiro Ishigaki, Hitoshi Matsuda, Ryuta Kawasaki, Soichiro Henmi, Hidekazu Nakai, So Izumi, Masamichi Matsumori, Hirohisa Murakami, Tasuku Honda, Masato Yoshida, Nobuhiko Mukohara
Matsui-Kitamura stent-graft (MKSG) is a home-made device for thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) developed in Japan. A 76-year-old man who had been treated by TEVAR (zone 3) with a MKSG for ruptured thoracic aortic aneurysm was diagnosed as having type Ia endoleak caused by suture disruption and aneurysmal sac expansion 6 years later. He underwent TEVAR (zone 1) with debranching and type Ia endoleak disappeared. MKSG had been the effective device especially for acute aortic emergencies in the descending thoracic aorta until the stent-grafts became commercially available, but careful observation and appropriate re-intervention is mandatory for the continued life-saving contribution...
June 2017: Kyobu Geka. the Japanese Journal of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594811/-successful-two-stage-surgical-treatment-of-a-thoracoabdominal-aortic-aneurysm-a-case-report
#14
V V Shlomin, D A Zverev, E D Zvereva, P D Puzdriak, P B Bondarenko, M L Gordeev
Presented herein is a clinical case report regarding hybrid or two-stage surgical treatment of a Crawford type II thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm in an 87-year-old woman. For the first stage operation we performed open resection of the abdominal aortic aneurysm with aortofemoral bifurcation prosthetic repair and debranching of visceral and renal arteries. Several months thereafter, the second stage operation was performed, consisting in transcatheter exclusion of the thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm with the help of two stent grafts...
2017: Angiologii︠a︡ i Sosudistai︠a︡ Khirurgii︠a︡, Angiology and Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584628/involvement-of-glycogen-debranching-enzyme-in-bladder-cancer
#15
Benjamin Weinhaus, Sunny Guin
Bladder cancer is the most common malignancy of the urinary system, however the molecular pathways underlying this disease are incompletely understood. To understand new regulators of bladder cancer progression, the authors carried out a functional genomic screen which identified glycogen debranching enzyme (AGL) as a novel regulator of bladder cancer growth. Glycogen debranching enzyme is involved in glycogen breakdown and germline loss of function mutation of this gene leads to glycogen storage disease type III...
June 2017: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28554014/investigation-of-debranching-pattern-of-a-thermostable-isoamylase-and-its-application-for-the-production-of-resistant-starch
#16
Youran Li, Jingjing Xu, Liang Zhang, Zhongyang Ding, Zhenghua Gu, Guiyang Shi
Debranching enzymes contribute to the enzymatic production of resistant starch (RS) by reducing substrate molecular weight and increasing amylose yield. In the present study, the action pattern of a thermostable isoamylase-type debranching enzyme on different types of starch was investigated. The molecular weight distribution, glycosidic bond composition and contents of oligosaccharides released were monitored by various liquid chromatography techniques and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). These analyses showed that the isoamylase could specifically and efficiently attack α-1,6-glucosidic linkages at branch points, leaving the amylose favored by other amylolytic enzymes...
May 22, 2017: Carbohydrate Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516092/frozen-elephant-trunk-and-antegrade-visceral-debranching-in-the-surgical-treatment-of-type-b-aortic-dissection-an-alternative-method
#17
Altug Tuncer, Mustafa Akbulut, Taylan Adademir, Serpil Tas, Adnan Ak, Özgür Arslan, Benay Erden, Mesut Şişmanoğlu
Intervention is inevitable in complicated Type B aortic dissections. Classical surgical procedures and endovascular interventions are far from ideal treatments due to their high risk of periprocedural complications and mortality. There is often a need for alternative method in cases of difficult anatomy. We present the combined use of frozen elephant trunk and antegrade visceral debranching methods in the treatment of a 54-year-old male patient with complicated Type B aortic dissection.
October 2016: Aorta (Stamford, Conn.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504715/human-dbr1-modulates-the-recycling-of-snrnps-to-affect-alternative-rna-splicing-and-contributes-to-the-suppression-of-cancer-development
#18
B Han, H K Park, T Ching, J Panneerselvam, H Wang, Y Shen, J Zhang, L Li, R Che, L Garmire, P Fei
The contribution of RNA processing to tumorigenesis is understudied. Here, we report that the human RNA debranching enzyme (hDBR1), when inappropriately regulated, induces oncogenesis by causing RNA processing defects, for example, splicing defects. We found that wild-type p53 and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 co-regulate hDBR1 expression, and insufficient hDBR1 leads to a higher rate of exon skipping. Transcriptomic sequencing confirmed the effect of hDBR1 on RNA splicing, and metabolite profiling supported the observation that neoplasm is triggered by a decrease in hDBR1 expression both in vitro and in vivo...
May 15, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504306/crystal-structure-of-the-entamoeba-histolytica-rna-lariat-debranching-enzyme-ehdbr1-reveals-a-catalytic-zn-2-mn-2-heterobinucleation
#19
Elizabeth Ransey, Eduardo Paredes, Sourav K Dey, Subha R Das, Annie Heroux, Mark R Macbeth
The RNA lariat debranching enzyme, Dbr1, is a metallophosphoesterase that cleaves 2'-5' phosphodiester bonds within intronic lariats. Previous reports have indicated that Dbr1 enzymatic activity is supported by diverse metal ions including Ni(2+) , Mn(2+) , Mg(2+) , Fe(2+) , and Zn(2+) . While in initial structures of the Entamoeba histolytica Dbr1 only one of the two catalytic metal-binding sites were observed to be occupied (with a Mn(2+) ion), recent structures determined a Zn(2+) /Fe(2+) heterobinucleation...
July 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504155/structural-and-physicochemical-properties-of-granular-starches-after-treatment-with-debranching-enzyme
#20
Ping Li, Xiaowei He, Sushil Dhital, Bin Zhang, Qiang Huang
The present study modified maize and potato granular starches by partial debranching treatment below the gelatinization temperature, and investigated their structural and physicochemical properties. Pullulanase was much effective (more than three times) on hydrolyzing potato starch compared to maize starch as measured from total carbohydrate values in the supernatant. The pullulanase hydrolysis decreased the amount of double helices as observed from DSC measurement. These effects were dependent upon the time of enzyme hydrolysis (24h>8h>1h) as well as type of starch (potato>maize)...
August 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
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