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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421867/symptom-related-attributional-biases-in-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder
#1
Nicole Sanford, Todd S Woodward
INTRODUCTION: Biases in causal attributions and evidence integration have been implicated in delusions, but have not been investigated simultaneously to examine additive or multiplicative effects. It was hypothesised that paranoid delusions would correlate with self-serving and personalising biases ("defence" model of paranoia), particularly when these biases were disconfirmed. METHODS: Constrained principal component analysis was used to investigate differences between schizophrenia patients (paranoid vs...
April 19, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419586/a-review-of-the-nutritional-challenges-experienced-by-people-living-with-severe-mental-illness-a-role-for-dietitians-in-addressing-physical-health-gaps
#2
REVIEW
S B Teasdale, K Samaras, T Wade, R Jarman, P B Ward
People experiencing a severe mental illness (SMI), such as schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, bipolar affective disorder or depression with psychotic features, have a 20-year mortality gap compared to the general population. This 'scandal of premature mortality' is primarily driven by preventable cardiometabolic disease, and recent research suggests that the mortality gap is widening. Multidisciplinary mental health teams often include psychiatrists, clinical psychologists, specialist mental health nurses, social workers and occupational therapists, offering a range of pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatments to enhance the recovery of clients who have experienced, or are experiencing a SMI...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415832/the-synergistic-effect-of-dual-use-of-amphetamine-type-stimulants-and-ketamine-on-drug-induced-psychotic-symptoms-in-chinese-synthetic-drug-users
#3
Xue-Bing Liu, Yao Zhang, Xu-Yi Wang, Wei Hao
The use of amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS) and ketamine is of particular clinical concern because of its associated psychotic symptoms. In Chinese clinical practice, ATS and ketamine are commonly used simultaneously, but very few studies have reported the symptom profile of users who use both drugs. This study determined whether the combined use of ATS and ketamine is associated with more psychotic symptoms than either ATS or ketamine alone. According to drug use characteristics, 375 Chinese synthetic drug users were categorized into 2 pairs of comparison groups: ATS-only (n=125) vs...
March 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414487/how-much-is-enough-examining-frequency-criteria-for-nssi-disorder-in-adolescent-inpatients
#4
Jennifer J Muehlenkamp, Amy M Brausch, Jason J Washburn
OBJECTIVE: To empirically evaluate the diagnostic relevance of the proposed Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.; DSM-5; APA, 2013) Criterion-A frequency threshold for nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) disorder. METHOD: Archival, de-identified, self-reported clinical assessment data from 746 adolescent psychiatric patients (Mage = 14.97; 88% female; 76% White) were used. The sample was randomly split into 2 unique samples for data analyses...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413935/predictive-validity-of-the-k-sads-pl-2009-version-in-school-aged-and-adolescent-outpatients
#5
Håkan Jarbin, Markus Andersson, Maria Råstam, Tord Ivarsson
BACKGROUND: The schedule for affective disorders and schizophrenia for school-age children (K-SADS) is one of the most commonly used standardized diagnostic interviews in child and adolescent psychiatry. Validity studies are scarce, and limited to concurrent validity with other measures and clinical diagnoses. AIMS: To evaluate the K-SADS interview in an outpatient child and adolescent psychiatry (CAP) setting with a Longitudinal Expert All Data (LEAD) procedure...
May 2017: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409714/psychotic-depression-and-suicidal-behavior
#6
Kristin J Fredriksen, Helle K Schoeyen, Jan O Johannessen, Fredrik A Walby, Larry Davidson, Margrethe A Schaufel
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated how severely depressed individuals experienced the relationship between psychotic symptoms and suicidal ideation and behavior. METHOD: Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of nine inpatients from a psychiatric university hospital between September 2012 and May 2013 fulfilling diagnostic criteria for a psychotic depressive episode as part of a unipolar or bipolar disorder. Analysis was conducted using systematic text condensation...
2017: Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403164/characterising-the-latent-structure-and-organisation-of-self-reported-thoughts-feelings-and-behaviours-in-adolescents-and-young-adults
#7
Michelle C St Clair, Sharon Neufeld, Peter B Jones, Peter Fonagy, Edward T Bullmore, Raymond J Dolan, Michael Moutoussis, Umar Toseeb, Ian M Goodyer
Little is known about the underlying relationships between self-reported mental health items measuring both positive and negative emotional and behavioural symptoms at the population level in young people. Improved measurement of the full range of mental well-being and mental illness may aid in understanding the aetiological substrates underlying the development of both mental wellness as well as specific psychiatric diagnoses. A general population sample aged 14 to 24 years completed self-report questionnaires on anxiety, depression, psychotic-like symptoms, obsessionality and well-being...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401296/associations-of-specific-psychiatric-disorders-with-isolated-focal-dystonia-and-monogenic-and-idiopathic-parkinson-s-disease
#8
Susanne Steinlechner, Johann Hagenah, Hans-Jürgen Rumpf, Christian Meyer, Ulrich John, Tobias Bäumer, Norbert Brüggemann, Meike Kasten, Alexander Münchau, Christine Klein, Rebekka Lencer
Comorbidity of psychiatric disorders in patients with movement disorders is common. Often, psychiatric symptoms manifest before the onset of the movement disorder, thus not representing a mere reaction to its burden. How the disease mechanisms of psychiatric and movement disorders are related is still poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to compare prevalence rates of specific psychiatric disorders between different movement disorders including isolated focal dystonia (IFD, N = 91), monogenic Parkinson's disease (PD, N = 41), idiopathic PD (N = 45), and a sample from a Northern Germany general population (TACOS Study; N = 4075)...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397634/metacognitive-beliefs-mediate-the-effect-of-emotional-abuse-on-depressive-and-psychotic-symptoms-in-severe-mental-disorders
#9
T Østefjells, J U Lystad, A O Berg, R Hagen, R Loewy, L Sandvik, I Melle, J I Røssberg
BACKGROUND: Early trauma is linked to higher symptom levels in bipolar and psychotic disorders, but the translating mechanisms are not well understood. This study examines whether the relationship between early emotional abuse and depressive symptoms is mediated by metacognitive beliefs about thoughts being uncontrollable/dangerous, and whether this pathway extends to influence positive symptoms. METHOD: Patients (N = 261) with psychotic or bipolar disorders were assessed for early trauma experiences, metacognitive beliefs, and current depression/anxiety and positive symptoms...
April 11, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395229/depressive-symptoms-and-suicidal-behavior-after-first-episode-psychosis-a-comprehensive-systematic-review
#10
REVIEW
Ricardo Coentre, Miguel Cotrim Talina, Carlos Góis, Maria Luísa Figueira
Depressive symptoms and suicidal behavior are common among patients that suffered a first-episode psychosis. We searched Web of Knowledge(SM) and Pubmed® for English and Portuguese original articles investigating prevalence of depressive symptoms and/or suicidal behavior and associated factors after first-episode psychosis. We included 19 studies from 12 countries, 7 studied depressive symptoms and 12 suicidal behavior. The findings confirm that depressive symptoms and suicidal behavior have high rates in the years after first-episode psychosis...
April 5, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391165/metapristone-suppresses-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-proliferation-and-metastasis-via-modulating-ras-raf-mek-mapk-signaling-pathway
#11
Guirong Zheng, Zhichun Shen, Hongning Chen, Jian Liu, Kai Jiang, Lulu Fan, Lee Jia, Jingwei Shao
BACKGROUND: Metastasis is the key phase of cancer progression that characterizes a more advanced stage and a poorer prognosis. The majority of cancer fatalities occur as a consequence of metastasis. OBJECTIVE: Mifepristone (RU486), a chemical abortifacient, has recently been used in clinical trials for psychotic depression and cancer chemotherapy. As the most predominant biological active metabolite of mifepristone, metapristone is being developed as a novel cancer metastasis chemopreventive agent by us...
April 5, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389889/nicotine-dependence-is-associated-with-depression-and-childhood-trauma-in-smokers-with-schizophrenia-results-from-the-face-sz-dataset
#12
Romain Rey, Thierry D'Amato, Laurent Boyer, Lore Brunel, Bruno Aouizerate, Fabrice Berna, Delphine Capdevielle, Isabelle Chereau, Gabrielle Chesnoy-Servanin, Hélène Denizot, Jean-Michel Dorey, Caroline Dubertret, Julien Dubreucq, Catherine Faget, Franck Gabayet, Christophe Lancon, Jasmina Mallet, David Misdrahi, Christine Passerieux, Aurélie Schandrin, Franck Schürhoff, Mathieu Urbach, Pierre Vidailhet, Pierre-Michel Llorca, Guillaume Fond
In a perspective of personalized care for smoking cessation, a better clinical characterization of smokers with schizophrenia (SZ) is needed. The objective of this study was to determine the clinical characteristics of SZ smokers with severe nicotine (NIC) dependence. 240 stabilized community-dwelling SZ smokers (mean age = 31.9 years, 80.4% male gender) were consecutively included in the network of the FondaMental Expert Centers for Schizophrenia and assessed with validated scales. Severe NIC dependence was defined by a Fagerstrom questionnaire score ≥ 7...
April 7, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388932/the-efficacy-of-sodium-benzoate-as-an-adjunctive-treatment-in-early-psychosis-cadence-bz-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
Alex Ryan, Andrea Baker, Frances Dark, Sharon Foley, Anne Gordon, Sean Hatherill, Stephen Stathis, Sukanta Saha, George Bruxner, Martin Beckman, Drew Richardson, Michael Berk, Olivia Dean, John McGrath, Cadence Working Group, James Scott
BACKGROUND: Psychotic disorders affect up to 3% of the population and are often chronic and disabling. Innovation in the pharmacological treatment of psychosis has remained stagnant in recent decades. In order to improve outcomes for those with psychotic disorders, we present a protocol for the trial of a common food preservative, sodium benzoate, as an adjunctive treatment in early psychosis. METHODS: Persons experiencing early psychosis (n = 160) will be recruited through hospitals and community mental health services in Queensland, Australia...
April 7, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387674/psychotic-symptoms-associated-with-poor-renal-function-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-dementias
#14
Ralf Kunschmann, Stefan Busse, Thomas Frodl, Mandy Busse
Patients suffering from cognitive decline such as mild cognitive impairment or neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's dementia, vascular dementia, frontotemporal dementia, and Lewy body dementia are often accompanied by symptoms like psychosis, depression, agitation, and apathy. Aging increases not only the prevalence of dementia but also the development of kidney disorders, which had emerged as possible risk factor of cognitive impairment and dementia. However, a contribution of renal dysfunction to psychosis associated with cognitive decline remains to be investigated...
April 3, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385706/borderline-intellectual-functioning-and-psychosis-adult-psychiatric-morbidity-survey-evidence
#15
A Hassiotis, M Noor, P Bebbington, A Afia, J Wieland, T Qassem
Borderline intellectual functioning (BIF) is associated with several neuropsychological deficits. We used national data to establish the prevalence of psychosis and psychotic symptoms, and the role of potential mediators. The BIF group were more than twice as likely to have probable psychosis (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 2.3, 95% CI 1.4-4.0) and to report hallucinations (adjusted OR = 2.9, 95% CI 1.9-4.4) but not persecutory ideation. Salient mediators were depressive symptoms and the cumulative total of life events...
April 6, 2017: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383362/aripiprazole-once-monthly-in-the-treatment-of-acute-psychotic-episodes-in-schizophrenia-post-hoc-analysis-of-positive-and-negative-syndrome-scale-marder-factor-scores
#16
Zahinoor Ismail, Timothy Peters-Strickland, Maia Miguelez, Ross A Baker, Peter Hertel, Anna Eramo, Na Jin, Pamela Perry, Raymond Sanchez, Robert D McQuade, John M Kane
BACKGROUND: Long-acting injectable antipsychotics are treatment options for acute and long-term treatment of patients with schizophrenia. In a previously published 12-week randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of patients with schizophrenia experiencing an acute psychotic episode, aripiprazole once-monthly 400 mg (AOM 400) produced significantly greater improvement than placebo on the primary endpoint, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score at week 10...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380173/academic-performance-of-students-who-underwent-psychiatric-treatment-at-the-students-mental-health-service-of-a-brazilian-university
#17
Cláudia Ribeiro Franulovic Campos, Maria Lilian Coelho Oliveira, Tânia Maron Vichi Freire de Mello, Clarissa de Rosalmeida Dantas
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: University students are generally at the typical age of onset of mental disorders that may affect their academic performance. We aimed to characterize the university students attended by psychiatrists at the students' mental health service (SAPPE) and to compare their academic performance with that of non-patient students. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study based on review of medical files and survey of academic data at a Brazilian public university...
January 2017: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374687/-the-structure-of-the-non-psychotic-mental-disorders-in-patients-with-epilepsy-with-and-without-pharmacoressistance
#18
N A Sivakova, A P Kotsyubinsky, L V Lipatova
AIM: Patients with epilepsy (PE) develop persistent mental disorders identified as significant personal and affective disorders, especially of depressive and anxiety spectrum, observed in the interictal period of the disease. To study the frequency of non-psychotic mental disorders in patients with epilepsy, to specify the clinical features of non-psychotic affective disorders and to analyze the association of different variants of affective disorders with symptoms of drug-resistance in epilepsy (DRE)...
2017: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373800/the-effects-of-occupational-therapy-and-psychosocial-interventions-on-interpersonal-functioning-and-personal-and-social-performance-levels-of-corresponding-patients
#19
Soner Çakmak, Hüzün Süt, Sibel Öztürk, Lut Tamam, Ufuk Bal
INTRODUCTION: In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of occupational therapy and psychosocial interventions on the interpersonal functioning and individual and social performance levels of corresponding patients under the heading of psychosocial treatment approaches in psychiatry clinics as well as the attitudes of the patients in regard to those interventions. METHODS: In 2013, out of psychotic (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder/mania) and nonpsychotic (depression, obsessive compulsive disorder, alcohol dependence) inpatients in our clinic, 48 patients who participated in occupational activities were included in the study group and 43 patients who did not participate in these activities were included in the control group...
September 2016: Noro Psikiyatri Arsivi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369185/lower-likelihood-of-falling-at-age-90-is-associated-with-daily-exercise-a-quarter-of-a-century-earlier-the-90-study
#20
Annlia Paganini-Hill, Dana E Greenia, Shawna Perry, Seyed Ahmad Sajjadi, Claudia H Kawas, Maria M Corrada
Objective: to explore the relationship between risk of falling at age 90+ and prior physical activity at age 60-70s. Design: population-based cohort study (The 90+ Study). Setting: California retirement community. Participants: of 1596 cohort members, 1536 had both falls and prior activity data. Mean age = 94 years; 78% female; 99% Caucasian. Methods: time spent in active physical activity was self-reported in 1980s; medical history, medication, assistive devices, residence type, and falls (outcome) was collected in 2000s...
March 21, 2017: Age and Ageing
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