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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324302/huntington-s-disease-update-on-treatments
#1
REVIEW
Kara J Wyant, Andrew J Ridder, Praveen Dayalu
Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive motor, behavioral, and cognitive decline, ending in death. Despite the discovery of the underlying genetic mutation more than 20 years ago, treatment remains focused on symptomatic management. Chorea, the most recognizable symptom, responds to medication that reduces dopaminergic neurotransmission. Psychiatric symptoms such as depression and anxiety may also respond well to symptomatic therapies...
April 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319687/effects-of-subclinical-depression-anxiety-and-somatization-on-brain-structure-in-healthy-subjects
#2
Bianca Besteher, Christian Gaser, Kerstin Langbein, Maren Dietzek, Heinrich Sauer, Igor Nenadić
BACKGROUND: Dimensional approaches in highly prevalent psychiatric disorders like depression or anxiety could lead to a better understanding of pathogenesis and advantages in early detection and prevention. In an effort to better understand associations of brain structural variation across the depression/anxiety spectra, we investigated minor subclinical symptoms in a non-clinical healthy population. METHODS: We studied 177 healthy subjects from the community, who underwent high-resolution T1-weighted 3T MRI and completed the symptom-checklist-90 (SCL-90-R)...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315958/brain-tumor-location-influences-the-onset-of-acute-psychiatric-adverse-events-of-levetiracetam-therapy-an-observational-study
#3
Vincenzo Belcastro, Laura Rosa Pisani, Silvio Bellocchi, Paolo Casiraghi, Gaetano Gorgone, Marco Mula, Francesco Pisani
To explore possible correlations among brain lesion location, development of psychiatric symptoms and the use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in a population of patients with brain tumor and epilepsy. The medical records of 283 patients with various types of brain tumor (161 M/122 F, mean age 64.9 years) were analysed retrospectively. Patients with grade III and IV glioma, previous history of epileptic seizures and/or psychiatric disorders were excluded. Psychiatric symptoms occurring after initiation of AED therapy were considered as treatment emergent psychiatric adverse events (TE-PAEs) if they fulfilled the following conditions: (1) onset within 4 weeks after the beginning of AED therapy; (2) disappearance on drug discontinuation; (3) absence of any other identified possible concurrent cause...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315109/mental-health-visits-examining-socio-demographic-and-diagnosis-trends-in-the-emergency-department-by-the-pediatric-population
#4
Sharon M Holder, Kenneth Rogers, Eunice Peterson, Christian Ochonma
The emergency department (ED) is increasingly being used for mental health visits by children and adolescents. It is estimated that 21-23% of youth have a diagnosable psychiatric or substance use disorder. Using data from the ED of a tertiary medical center, we examined trends in mental health diagnoses over a 5-year period. In school age children the most prevalent diagnoses were anxiety disorders (28.4%); disorders first usually diagnosed in infancy, childhood, or adolescence (26.5%), and mood disorders (18...
March 17, 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314446/the-insula-an-underestimated-brain-area-in-clinical-neuroscience-psychiatry-and-neurology
#5
REVIEW
Ho Namkung, Sun-Hong Kim, Akira Sawa
Supported by recent human neuroimaging studies, the insula is re-emerging as an important brain area not only in the physiological understanding of the brain, but also in pathological contexts in clinical research. In this opinion article, we briefly introduce the anatomical and histological features of the human insula. We then summarize the physiological functions of the insula and underscore its pathological roles in psychiatric and neurological disorders that have long been underestimated. We finally propose possible strategies through which the role of the insula may be further understood for both basic and clinical neuroscience...
March 14, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314228/untreated-perinatal-paternal-depression-effects-on-offspring
#6
REVIEW
Salvatore Gentile, Maria Luigia Fusco
Transition to parenthood represents an important life event which increases vulnerability to psychological disorders. Aim of this article is to analyze all studies which investigated the effects of untreated perinatal paternal depression in offspring. We searched pertinent, peer-reviewed articles published in English (January 1980 to April 2016) on MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and Science.gov. Twenty-three studies met the inclusion criteria. Most of the reviewed studies suffer from methodological limitations, including the small sample, the lack of a structured psychiatric diagnosis, and inclusion bias...
March 2, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303200/atypical-neuroleptic-malignant-syndrome-associated-with-use-of-clozapine
#7
Quevedo-Florez Leonardo, Granada-Romero Juliana, Camargo-Arenas Juan Fernando
The Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS) is a medical emergency of infrequent presentation in the emergency department, which is associated with the use of psychiatric drugs, such as typical and atypical antipsychotics. Our case addresses a 55-year-old patient diagnosed with undifferentiated schizophrenia for 10 years, who had been receiving clozapine and clonazepam as part of their treatment. This patient presents the symptoms of Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome without fever, which improves with treatment especially with the withdrawal of clozapine...
2017: Case Reports in Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302306/further-victimization-of-child-sexual-abuse-victims-a-latent-class-typology-of-re-victimization-trajectories
#8
Nina L Papalia, Stefan Luebbers, James R P Ogloff, Margaret Cutajar, Paul E Mullen, Emily Mann
The association between child sexual abuse (CSA) and risk for re-victimization is well-documented; however, less is known about the temporal progression of re-victimization experiences over the early life-course among CSA survivors, and whether this differs from that of those without known sexual abuse histories. This study investigated whether there are distinct temporal pathways of interpersonal re-victimization between the ages of 10-25 years among medically confirmed CSA cases, and considered whether abuse variables, re-victimization variables, and the presence of other adverse outcomes, were associated with heterogeneity in re-victimization pathways...
March 13, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300946/kraepelin-s-views-on-obsessive-neurosis-a-comparison-with-dsm-5-criteria-for-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#9
Holger Steinberg, Dirk Carius, Leonardo F Fontenelle
Emil Kraepelin (1856-1926) is considered one of the founders of modern psychiatric nosology. However, his conceptualization of obsessive-compulsive phenomena is relatively understudied. In this article, we compare and contrast excerpts from the eighth edition (1909-1915) of Kraepelin's Textbook of Clinical Psychiatry focusing on what Kraepelin called "obsessive neurosis" and related "original pathological conditions" with the current DSM-5 criteria for obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Consistently with DSM-5 OCD, Kraepelin described obsessive neurosis as characterized by obsessive ideas, compulsive acts, or both together...
March 13, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299553/history-of-morgellons-disease-the-same-name-for-different-psychodermatologic-diseases
#10
Bárbara Roque Ferreira, Maria Grazia Roccia, José Carlos Cardoso, Katlein França, Uwe Wollina, Torello Lotti, Massimo Fioranelli
"Morgellons disease" has been a controversial topic in the history of psychodermatology. The most consensual scientific opinion is that it is a primary psychiatric disorder, particularly, a delusional disorder, although others were also pointed out. Some authors have suggested that it may correspond to a common dermatosis with secondary psychopathology. The Morgellons Research Foundation has advocated that it is "an emerging infectious" entity. This paper intends to critically review the main ideas and controversies, since its first description...
March 15, 2017: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295339/annual-research-review-childhood-maltreatment-latent-vulnerability-and-the-shift-to-preventative-psychiatry-the-contribution-of-functional-brain-imaging
#11
REVIEW
Eamon J McCrory, Mattia I Gerin, Essi Viding
BACKGROUND: Childhood maltreatment is a potent predictor of poor mental health across the life span. We argue that there is a need to improve the understanding of the mechanisms that confer psychiatric vulnerability following maltreatment, if we are to progress from simply treating those with a manifest disorder, to developing effective preventative approaches that can help offset the likelihood that such disorders will emerge in the first place. METHODS: We review extant functional neuroimaging studies of children and adolescents exposed to early neglect and/or maltreatment, including physical, sexual and emotional abuse across four neurocognitive domains: threat processing, reward processing, emotion regulation and executive control...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294443/health-service-utilisation-attributable-to-methamphetamine-use-in-australia-patterns-predictors-and-national-impact
#12
Rebecca McKetin, Louisa Degenhardt, Marian Shanahan, Amanda L Baker, Nicole K Lee, Dan I Lubman
AIM AND BACKGROUND: We estimated health service utilisation attributable to methamphetamine use, its national impact and examined other predictors of health service utilisation among dependent methamphetamine users. METHOD: Past year rates of health service utilisation (number of attendances for general hospitals, psychiatric hospitals, emergency departments, general practitioners, psychiatrists, counsellors or psychologists, and dentists) were estimated for three levels of methamphetamine use (no use, < weekly, ≥ weekly) using panel data from a longitudinal cohort of 484 dependent methamphetamine users from Sydney and Brisbane, Australia...
March 12, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293921/effects-of-intramuscular-midazolam-and-lorazepam-on-acute-agitation-in-non-elderly-subjects-a-systematic-review
#13
Sabrina Just Kousgaard, Rasmus W Licht, René Ernst Nielsen
Benzodiazepines are commonly used for the treatment of acute agitation in a psychiatric setting.We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) for relevant publications. Randomized trials evaluating intramuscular (IM) midazolam or lorazepam given as monotherapy or as add-on treatment, with more than 10 patients aged 18-65 years, conducted in a psychiatric setting, and published between January 1, 1980, and February 3, 2016, were included. 16 studies from a search result of 5 516 studies were included...
March 14, 2017: Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291299/-neurosyphilis-in-psychiatric-settings-three-case-reports
#14
Erhan Akıncı, Fatih Öncü, Barış Topçular
Syphilis is a generally sexually transmitted and multisystem disease caused by the spirochete Treponema pallidum. All of the organs of the body may be involved during the course of the disease. Neurosyphilis is a clinical form of syphilis with the central nervous system (CNS) involvement. While primarily meningeal and vascular structures are involved in early neurosyphilis, a parenchymal affection of the brain and spinal cord emerges at later stages of neurosyphilis. It presents with symptoms of meningitis, meningovasculitis and parenchymal neurosyphilis (presenting as tabes dorsalis and general paresis)...
2017: Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291033/assessing-suicide-risk-what-is-commonly-missed-in-the-emergency-room
#15
Nazanin Alavi, Taras Reshetukha, Eric Prost, Kristen Antoniak, Dianne Groll
OBJECTIVE: Although risk assessment for suicide has been extensively studied, it is still an inexact process. The current study determined how busy emergency clinicians actually assessed and documented suicide risk, while also examining the differences between psychiatric and emergency medicine opinions on the importance of various suicide predictors. METHOD: Phase 1 of the study involved the administration of a survey on the relative importance of various suicide predictors for the specialties of psychiatry and emergency medicine...
March 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290253/the-interaction-between-parenting-and-children-s-cortisol-reactivity-at-age-3-predicts-increases-in-children-s-internalizing-and-externalizing-symptoms-at-age-6
#16
Chelsey S Barrios, Sara J Bufferd, Daniel N Klein, Lea R Dougherty
Little is known about the role of stress reactivity in the emergence of psychopathology across early childhood. In this longitudinal study, we tested the hypothesis that child cortisol reactivity at age 3 moderates associations between early parenting and children's internalizing and externalizing symptoms from age 3 to age 6. One hundred and sixty children were assessed at age 3, and 135 children were reassessed at age 6. At age 3, we exposed children to stress-inducing laboratory tasks, during which we obtained four salivary cortisol samples, and parental hostility was assessed using an observational parent-child interaction task...
March 14, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286854/recurrent-syncope-following-substance-abuse-a-case-report
#17
Forod Salehi, Mohammad Mehdi Hassanzadeh Taheri, HamidReza Riasi, Omid Mehrpour
Drug abuse is considered as the most common poisoning in the world. Stimulants agent especially amphetamines and methamphetamines are among important abused substances. Different types of neurologic, psychiatric, respiratory, gastrointestinal, and cardiogenic complications have been reported to be related to methamphetamine consumption. Some of these substances could cause dysrhythmias which is the most prevalent etiology of cardiogenic syncope. Ecstasy, as one of the most commonly abused drugs, is known as a cause of cardiac dysrhythmias...
2017: Emergency (Tehran, Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286179/formation-of-hippocampal-mhtt-aggregates-leads-to-impaired-spatial-memory-hippocampal-activation-and-adult-neurogenesis
#18
L C Schwab, K Richetin, R A Barker, N Déglon
Huntington's disease (HD) is a genetic neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a triad of motor, psychiatric and cognitive deficits with the latter classically attributed to disruption of fronto-striatal circuits. However, emerging evidence suggests that some of the cognitive deficits in HD may have their origin in other structures including the hippocampus. Hippocampal abnormalities have been reported in HD mouse models particularly in terms of performance on the Morris Water Maze. However, in these animals, it is difficult to be certain whether the spatial memory deficits are due to local pathology within this structure or their poor mobility and motivation...
March 9, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284951/hippocampal-bdnf-overexpression-or-micror124a-silencing-reduces-anxiety-and-autism-like-behaviors-in-rats
#19
Amine Bahi
MicroRNA124a (miR124a) has emerged recently as a key player for multiple neuropsychiatric disorders including depression, anxiety, alcoholism, and cocaine addiction. Although we have previously reported that miR124a and its target the brain-derived neutrophic factor (BDNF) play an important role in autism-like behaviors, the molecular and behavioral dysfunctions remain unknown. The aim of this study was to understand the effects of sustained decreases in miR124a and increases of BDNF in the dentate gyrus (DG) on neonatal isolation-induced anxiety-and autism like behaviors in rats...
March 8, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283277/anabolic-androgen-use-in-the-management-of-hereditary-angioedema-not-so-cheap-after-all
#20
Kevin Y Tse, Bruce L Zuraw, Qiaoling Chen, Sandra C Christiansen
BACKGROUND: Hereditary angioedema due to C1 inhibitor deficiency (HAE) is a rare, life-threatening disease that imposes a significant burden on affected patients. 17α-alkylated androgens (anabolic androgens) decrease attack frequency and severity but carry the risk of potentially serious dose-related adverse effects. Despite the emergence of targeted therapies for HAE, continued anabolic androgen use has been driven in part by their low cost. OBJECTIVE: To examine the hidden cost of anabolic androgen use related to the risk of developing non-HAE comorbidities...
March 7, 2017: Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
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