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Controled cortical impact

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933218/effects-of-human-es-derived-neural-stem-cell-transplantation-and-kindling-in-a-rat-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#1
Stefania Beretta, Kelly M Cunningham, Daniel L Haus, Eric M Gold, Harvey Perez, Luci López-Velázquez, Brian J Cummings
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of death and disability in the population worldwide, with a broad spectrum of symptoms and disabilities. Posttraumatic hyperexcitability is one of the most common neurological disorders that affect people after a head injury. A reliable animal model of posttraumatic hyperexcitability induced by TBI which allows one to test effective treatment strategies is yet to be developed. To address these issues, in the present study, we tested human embryonic stem cell-derived neural stem cell (NSC) transplantation in an animal model of posttraumatic hyperexcitability in which the brain injury was produced in one hemisphere of immunodeficient athymic nude rats by controlled cortical impact, and spontaneous seizures were produced by repeated electrical stimulation (kindling) in the contralateral hemisphere...
July 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933217/implantation-of-brain-derived-extracellular-matrix-enhances-neurological-recovery-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#2
Yun Wu, Jiayin Wang, Yejie Shi, Hongjian Pu, Rehana K Leak, Anthony K F Liou, Stephen F Badylak, Zhixiong Liu, Jun Zhang, Jun Chen, Ling Chen
Scaffolds composed of extracellular matrix (ECM) are being investigated for their ability to facilitate brain tissue remodeling and repair following injury. The present study tested the hypothesis that the implantation of brain-derived ECM would attenuate experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI) and explored potential underlying mechanisms. TBI was induced in mice by a controlled cortical impact (CCI). ECM was isolated from normal porcine brain tissue by decellularization methods, prepared as a hydrogel, and injected into the ipsilesional corpus callosum and striatum 1 h after CCI...
July 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933216/dexamethasone-attenuates-the-enhanced-rewarding-effects-of-cocaine-following-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury
#3
Steven F Merkel, Allison M Andrews, Evan M Lutton, Roshanak Razmpour, Lee Anne Cannella, Servio H Ramirez
Clinical studies have identified traumatic brain injury (TBI) as a risk factor for the development of cocaine dependence. This claim is supported by our recent preclinical studies showing enhancement of the rewarding effects of cocaine in mice sustaining moderate controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury during adolescence. Here we test the efficacy of dexamethasone, an anti-inflammatory corticosteroid, to attenuate augmentation of the behavioral response to cocaine observed in CCI-TBI animals using the conditioned place preference (CPP) assay...
July 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929580/selective-expression-of-egfp-in-mouse-perivascular-astrocytes-by-modification-of-the-mlc1-gene-using-t2a-based-ribosome-skipping
#4
Jordan J Toutounchian, Joseph H McCarty
Perivascular astrocyte end feet closely juxtapose cerebral blood vessels to regulate important developmental and physiological processes including endothelial cell proliferation and sprouting as well as the formation of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The mechanisms underlying these events remain largely unknown due to a lack of experimental models for identifying perivascular astrocytes and distinguishing these cell types from other astroglial populations. Megalencephalic leukoencephalopathy with subcortical cysts 1 (Mlc1) is a transmembrane protein that is expressed in perivascular astrocyte end feet where it controls BBB development and homeostasis...
September 20, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924363/thrombospondin-1-gene-deficiency-worsens-the-neurological-outcomes-of-traumatic-brain-injury-in-mice
#5
Chongjie Cheng, Zhanyang Yu, Song Zhao, Zhengbu Liao, Changhong Xing, Yinghua Jiang, Yong-Guang Yang, Michael J Whalen, Eng H Lo, Xiaochuan Sun, Xiaoying Wang
Background: Thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) is an extracellular matrix protein that plays multiple physiological and pathophysiological roles in the brain. Experimental reports suggest that TSP-1 may have an adverse role in neuronal function recovery under certain injury conditions. However, the roles of TSP-1 in traumatic brain injury (TBI) have not been elucidated. In this study we for the first time investigated the roles of TSP-1 in a controlled cortical impact (CCI) model of TBI in TSP-1 knockout (TSP-1 KO) and wild type (WT) mice...
2017: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923595/attentional-deficits-and-altered-neuronal-activation-in-medial-prefrontal-and-posterior-parietal-cortices-in-mice-with-reduced-dopamine-transporter-levels
#6
Anita Cybulska-Klosowicz, Marta Laczkowska, Renata Zakrzewska, Aleksandra Kaliszewska
The executive control function of attention is regulated by the dopaminergic (DA) system. Dopamine transporter (DAT) likely plays a role in controlling the influence of DA on cognitive processes. We examined the effects of DAT depletion on cognitive processes related to attention. Mice with the DAT gene genetically deleted (DAT+/- heterozygotes) were compared to wild type (WT) mice on the Attentional Set-Shifting Task (ASST). Changes in neuronal activity during the ASST were shown with early growth response genes 1 and 2 (egr-1 and egr-2) immunohistochemistry in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and in the posterior parietal cortex (PPC)...
September 16, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921587/dimethyl-fumarate-treatment-after-traumatic-brain-injury-prevents-depletion-of-antioxidative-brain-glutathione-and-confers-neuroprotection
#7
Tobias Krämer, Theresa Grob, Lutz Menzel, Tobias Hirnet, Eva Griemert, Konstantin Radyushkin, Serge C Thal, Axel Methner, Michael K E Schaefer
Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is an immunomodulatory therapeutic for multiple sclerosis and psoriasis with neuroprotective potential. Its mechanism of action involves activation of the antioxidant pathway regulator Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) thereby increasing synthesis of the cellular antioxidant glutathione (GSH). The objective of this study was to investigate whether post-traumatic DMF treatment is beneficial after experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI). Adult C57Bl/6 mice were subjected to controlled cortical impact followed by oral administration of DMF (80 mg/kg body weight) or vehicle at 3 h, 24 h, 48 h and 72 h after the inflicted TBI...
September 16, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919871/investigating-the-neural-correlates-of-emotion-cognition-interaction-using-an-affective-stroop-task
#8
Nora M Raschle, Lynn V Fehlbaum, Willeke M Menks, Felix Euler, Philipp Sterzer, Christina Stadler
The human brain has the capacity to integrate various sources of information and continuously adapts our behavior according to situational needs in order to allow a healthy functioning. Emotion-cognition interactions are a key example for such integrative processing. However, the neuronal correlates investigating the effects of emotion on cognition remain to be explored and replication studies are needed. Previous neuroimaging studies have indicated an involvement of emotion and cognition related brain structures including parietal and prefrontal cortices and limbic brain regions...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915853/low-threshold-unmyelinated-mechanoafferents-can-modulate-pain
#9
Kathrin Habig, Anne Schänzer, Wolfgang Schirner, Gothje Lautenschläger, Benjamin Dassinger, Håkan Olausson, Frank Birklein, Elke R Gizewski, Heidrun H Krämer
BACKGROUND: Human, hairy skin contains a subgroup of C-fibers, the C-low threshold mechanoreceptive afferents ((C-LTMR) C-tactile or C-touch (CT) fibers) that are linked with the signaling of affective aspects of human touch. Recent studies suggest an involvement of these afferents in the modulation of pain in healthy volunteers. Small fiber neuropathy (SFN) is associated with a damage of C-fibers. Therefore, an impairment of C-LTMRs can be assumed. We aimed to elaborate a possible role of CT-afferents in pain modulation by investigating healthy volunteers and SFN-patients...
September 15, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912751/decreased-secondary-lesion-growth-and-attenuated-immune-response-after-traumatic-brain-injury-in-tlr2-4-mice
#10
Sandro M Krieg, Florian Voigt, Pascal Knuefermann, Carsten Jürgen Kirschning, Nikolaus Plesnila, Florian Ringel
Danger-associated molecular patterns are released by damaged cells and trigger neuroinflammation through activation of non-specific pattern recognition receptors, e.g., toll-like receptors (TLRs). Since the role of TLR2 and 4 after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is still unclear, we examined the outcome and the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators after experimental TBI in Tlr2/4(-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice. Tlr2/4(-/-) and WT mice were subjected to controlled cortical injury and contusion volume and brain edema formation were assessed 24 h thereafter...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911901/structural-brain-abnormalities-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-with-oppositional-defiant-disorder
#11
Siri D S Noordermeer, Marjolein Luman, Corina U Greven, Kim Veroude, Stephen V Faraone, Catharina A Hartman, Pieter J Hoekstra, Barbara Franke, Jan K Buitelaar, Dirk J Heslenfeld, Jaap Oosterlaan
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with structural abnormalities in total gray matter, basal ganglia, and cerebellum. Findings of structural abnormalities in frontal and temporal lobes, amygdala, and insula are less consistent. Remarkably, the impact of comorbid oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) (comorbidity rates up to 60%) on these neuroanatomical differences is scarcely studied, while ODD (in combination with conduct disorder) has been associated with structural abnormalities of the frontal lobe, amygdala, and insula...
July 21, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910378/neuroinflammation-myelin-and-behavior-temporal-patterns-following-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-in-mice
#12
Toufik Taib, Claire Leconte, Juliette Van Steenwinckel, Angelo H Cho, Bruno Palmier, Egle Torsello, Rene Lai Kuen, Somfieme Onyeomah, Karine Ecomard, Chiara Benedetto, Bérard Coqueran, Anne-Catherine Novak, Edwige Deou, Michel Plotkine, Pierre Gressens, Catherine Marchand-Leroux, Valérie C Besson
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in white matter injury (WMI) that is associated with neurological deficits. Neuroinflammation originating from microglial activation may participate in WMI and associated disorders. To date, there is little information on the time courses of these events after mild TBI. Therefore we investigated (i) neuroinflammation, (ii) WMI and (iii) behavioral disorders between 6 hours and 3 months after mild TBI. For that purpose, we used experimental mild TBI in mice induced by a controlled cortical impact...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900826/comparative-examination-of-temporal-glyoxalase-1-variations-following-perforant-pathway-transection-excitotoxicity-and-controlled-cortical-impact-injury
#13
Philipp Pieroh, Daniel-Christoph Wagner, Beat Alessandri, Mojgan Dabbagh Nazari, Angela Ehrlich, Chalid Ghadban, Constance Hobusch, Gerd Birkenmeier, Faramarz Dehghani
Following acute neuronal lesions, metabolic imbalance occurs, the rate of glycolysis increases, and methylglyoxal (MGO) forms, finally leading to metabolic dysfunction and inflammation. The glyoxalase system is the main detoxification system for MGO and is impaired following excitotoxicity and stroke. However, it is not known yet whether alterations of the glyoxalase system are also characteristic for other neuronal damage models. Neuronal damage was induced in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures by transection of perforant pathway (PPT; 5 min to 72 h) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA; 50 μM for 4 h) or in vivo after controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury (2 h to 14 days)...
September 12, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900214/structure-function-correlations-in-retinitis-pigmentosa-patients-with-partially-preserved-vision-a-voxel-based-morphometry-study
#14
Ana Rita Machado, Andreia Carvalho Pereira, Fábio Ferreira, Sónia Ferreira, Bruno Quendera, Eduardo Silva, Miguel Castelo-Branco
Retinitis Pigmentosa is a group of hereditary retinal dystrophy disorders associated with progressive peripheral visual field loss. The impact of this retinal loss in cortical gray matter volume has not been addressed before in Retinitis Pigmentosa patients with low vision. Voxel-based morphometry was applied to study whole brain gray matter volume changes in 27 Retinitis Pigmentosa patients with partially preserved vision and 38 age- and gender-matched normally sighted controls to determine whether peripheral visual loss can lead to changes in gray matter volume...
September 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899758/chronic-global-analysis-of-vascular-permeability-and-cerebral-blood-flow-after-bone-marrow-stromal-cell-treatment-of-traumatic-brain-injury-in-the-rat-a-long-term-mri-study
#15
Lian Li, Michael Chopp, Guangliang Ding, Qingjiang Li, Asim Mahmood, Quan Jiang
Vascular permeability and hemodynamic alteration in response to the transplantation of human bone marrow stromal cells (hMSCs) after traumatic brain injury (TBI) were longitudinally investigated in non directly injured and normal-appearing cerebral tissue using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Male Wistar rats (300-350g, n=30) subjected to controlled cortical impact TBI were intravenously injected with 1 ml of saline (at 6-hours or 1-week post-injury, n=5/group) or with hMSCs in suspension (∼3x10(6) hMSCs, at 6-hours or 1-week post-injury, n=10/group)...
September 9, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899007/the-spectrum-of-structural-and-functional-network-alterations-in-malformations-of-cortical-development
#16
Seok-Jun Hong, Boris C Bernhardt, Ravnoor S Gill, Neda Bernasconi, Andrea Bernasconi
Neuroimaging studies of malformations of cortical development have mainly focused on the characterization of the primary lesional substrate, while whole-brain investigations remain scarce. Our purpose was to assess large-scale brain organization in prevalent cortical malformations. Based on experimental evidence suggesting that distributed effects of focal insults are modulated by stages of brain development, we postulated differential patterns of network anomalies across subtypes of malformations. We studied a cohort of patients with focal cortical dysplasia type II (n = 63), subcortical nodular heterotopia (n = 44), and polymicrogyria (n = 34), and compared them to 82 age- and sex-matched controls...
August 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893279/biomechanics-and-neural-control-of-movement-20%C3%A2-years-later-what-have-we-learned-and-what-has-changed
#17
REVIEW
Andrew D Nordin, William Z Rymer, Andrew A Biewener, Andrew B Schwartz, Daofen Chen, Fay B Horak
We summarize content from the opening thematic session of the 20th anniversary meeting for Biomechanics and Neural Control of Movement (BANCOM). Scientific discoveries from the past 20 years of research are covered, highlighting the impacts of rapid technological, computational, and financial growth on motor control research. We discuss spinal-level communication mechanisms, relationships between muscle structure and function, and direct cortical movement representations that can be decoded in the control of neuroprostheses...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882599/a-network-level-approach-of-cognitive-flexibility-impairment-after-surgery-of-a-right-temporo-parietal-glioma
#18
E Mandonnet, L Cerliani, K Siuda-Krzywicka, I Poisson, N Zhi, E Volle, M T de Schotten
OBJECTIVE: The right "non-dominant" temporo-parietal junction is usually not considered as a highly eloquent area. This contrasts with its mirrored left "dominant" counterpart, which is known as highly eloquent regarding language function. The question arises about which functions should be monitored when operating lesions of the right temporo-parietal junction under awake conditions. METHODS: We report the case of a patient who underwent a surgical resection of a glioma located in the right temporo-parietal junction...
September 4, 2017: Neuro-Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877969/overdominant-effect-of-a-chrna4-polymorphism-on-cingulo-opercular-network-activity-and-cognitive-control
#19
Sepideh Sadaghiani, Bernard Ng, Andre Altmann, Jean-Baptiste Poline, Tobias Banaschewski, Arun L W Bokde, Uli Bromberg, Christian Büchel, Erin Burke Quinlan, Patricia Conrod, Sylvane Desrivières, Herta Flor, Vincent Frouin, Hugh Garavan, Penny Gowland, Jürgen Gallinat, Andreas Heinz, Bernd Ittermann, Jean-Luc Martinot, Marie-Laure Paillère Martinot, Hervé Lemaitre, Frauke Nees, Dimitri Papadopoulos Orfanos, Tomáš Paus, Luise Poustka, Sabina Millenet, Juliane H Fröhner, Michael N Smolka, Henrik Walter, Robert Whelan, Gunter Schumann, Valerio Napolioni, Michael Greicius
The nicotinic system plays an important role in cognitive control, and is implicated in several neuropsychiatric conditions. Yet, the contributions of genetic variability in this system to individuals' cognitive control abilities are poorly understood, and the brain processes that mediate such genetic contributions remain largely unidentified. In this first large-scale neuroimaging genetics study of the human nicotinic receptor system (two cohorts, males and females, fMRI total N=1586, behavioral total N=3650), we investigated a common polymorphism of the high-affinity nicotinic receptor α4β2 (rs1044396 on the CHRNA4 gene) previously implicated in behavioral and nicotine-related studies (albeit with inconsistent major/minor allele impacts)...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875237/uncoupling-protein-2-inhibition-exacerbates-glucose-fluctuation-mediated-neuronal-effects
#20
Susana Cardoso, Raquel M Seiça, Paula I Moreira
Though glucose fluctuations have been considered as an adverse factor for the development of several diabetes-related complications, their impact in the central nervous system is still not fully elucidated. This study was conducted to evaluate the responses of neuronal cells to different glycemic exposures alongside to elucidate the role of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) in regulating such responses. To achieve our goals, primary cortical neurons were submitted to constant high (HG)/low (LG) or glucose level variations (GVs), and the pharmacological inhibition of UCP2 activity was performed using genipin...
September 5, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
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