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Controled cortical impact

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343214/moderate-grade-germinal-matrix-haemorrhage-activates-cell-division-in-the-neonatal-mouse-subventricular-zone
#1
William J Dawes, Xinyu Zhang, Stephen P J Fancy, David Rowitch, Silvia Marino
Precise temporal and spatial control of the neural stem/progenitor cells within the subventricular zone (SVZ) germinal matrix of the brain is important for normal development in the third trimester and the early postnatal period. The high metabolic demands of proliferating germinal matrix precursors, coupled with the flimsy structure of the germinal matrix cerebral vasculature, are thought to account for the high rates of haemorrhage in extremely- and very-low-birth-weight preterm infants. Germinal matrix haemorrhage can commonly extend to intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH)...
March 25, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342966/time-courses-of-post-injury-mitochondrial-oxidative-damage-and-respiratory-dysfunction-and-neuronal-cytoskeletal-degradation-in-a-rat-model-of-focal-traumatic-brain-injury
#2
Rachel L Hill, Indrapal N Singh, Juan A Wang, Edward D Hall
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in rapid reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and oxidative damage to essential brain cellular components leading to neuronal dysfunction and cell death. It is increasingly appreciated that a major player in TBI-induced oxidative damage is the reactive nitrogen species (RNS) peroxynitrite (PN) which is produced in large part in injured brain mitochondria. Once formed, PN decomposes into highly reactive free radicals that trigger membrane lipid peroxidation (LP) of polyunsaturated fatty acids (e...
March 23, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341672/activation-of-myeloid-tlr4-mediates-t-lymphocyte-polarization-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#3
Molly Braun, Kumar Vaibhav, Nancy Saad, Sumbul Fatima, Darrell W Brann, John R Vender, Lei P Wang, Md Nasrul Hoda, Babak Baban, Krishnan M Dhandapani
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major public health issue, producing significant patient mortality and poor long-term outcomes. Increasing evidence suggests an important, yet poorly defined, role for the immune system in the development of secondary neurologic injury over the days and weeks following a TBI. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that peripheral macrophage infiltration initiates long-lasting adaptive immune responses after TBI. Using a murine controlled cortical impact model, we used adoptive transfer, transgenic, and bone marrow chimera approaches to show increased infiltration and proinflammatory (classically activated [M1]) polarization of macrophages for up to 3 wk post-TBI...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340575/nox2-deficiency-alters-macrophage-phenotype-through-an-il-10-stat3-dependent-mechanism-implications-for-traumatic-brain-injury
#4
James P Barrett, Rebecca J Henry, Sonia Villapol, Bogdan A Stoica, Alok Kumar, Mark P Burns, Alan I Faden, David J Loane
BACKGROUND: NADPH oxidase (NOX2) is an enzyme system that generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) in microglia and macrophages. Excessive ROS production is linked with neuroinflammation and chronic neurodegeneration following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Redox signaling regulates macrophage/microglial phenotypic responses (pro-inflammatory versus anti-inflammatory), and NOX2 inhibition following moderate-to-severe TBI markedly reduces pro-inflammatory activation of macrophages/microglia resulting in concomitant increases in anti-inflammatory responses...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338437/contralateral-peripheral-neurotization-for-a-hemiplegic-hindlimb-after-central-neurological-injury
#5
Mou-Xiong Zheng, Xu-Yun Hua, Su Jiang, Yan-Qun Qiu, Yun-Dong Shen, Wen-Dong Xu
OBJECTIVE Contralateral peripheral neurotization surgery has been successfully applied to rescue motor function of the hemiplegic upper extremity in patients with central neurological injury (CNI). It may contribute to strengthened neural pathways between the contralesional cortex and paretic limbs. However, the effect of this surgery in the lower extremities remains unknown. In the present study the authors explored the effectiveness and safety of contralateral peripheral neurotization in treating a hemiplegic lower extremity following CNI in adult rats...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337422/the-combined-use-of-computer-guided-minimally-invasive-flapless-corticotomy-and-clear-aligners-as-a-novel-approach-to-moderate-crowding-a-case-report
#6
Michele Cassetta, Federica Altieri, Stefano Pandolfi, Matteo Giansanti
The aim of this case report was to describe an innovative orthodontic treatment method that combined surgical and orthodontic techniques. The novel method was used to achieve a positive result in a case of moderate crowding by employing a computer-guided piezocision procedure followed by the use of clear aligners. A 23-year-old woman had a malocclusion with moderate crowding. Her periodontal indices, oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL), and treatment time were evaluated. The treatment included interproximal corticotomy cuts extending through the entire thickness of the cortical layer, without a full-thickness flap reflection...
March 2017: Korean Journal of Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337130/the-brainstem-in-emotion-a-review
#7
REVIEW
Anand Venkatraman, Brian L Edlow, Mary Helen Immordino-Yang
Emotions depend upon the integrated activity of neural networks that modulate arousal, autonomic function, motor control, and somatosensation. Brainstem nodes play critical roles in each of these networks, but prior studies of the neuroanatomic basis of emotion, particularly in the human neuropsychological literature, have mostly focused on the contributions of cortical rather than subcortical structures. Given the size and complexity of brainstem circuits, elucidating their structural and functional properties involves technical challenges...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336431/calcium-sensing-receptor-antagonist-nps2390-attenuates-neuronal-apoptosis-though-intrinsic-pathway-following-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rats
#8
Zhaoliang Xue, Zhengfei Song, Yingfeng Wan, Kun Wang, Lianjie Mo, Yirong Wang
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) initiates a complex cascade of neurochemical and signaling changes that leads to neuronal apoptosis, which contributes to poor outcomes for patients with TBI. Previous study indicates that calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) activation contributes to neuron death in focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion mice, however, its role in neuronal apoptosis after TBI is not well-established. Using a controlled cortical impact model in rats, the present study was designed to determine the effect of CaSR inhibitor NPS2390 upon neuronal apoptosis after TBI...
March 20, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334882/decreased-integration-and-information-capacity-in-stroke-measured-by-whole-brain-models-of-resting-state-activity
#9
Mohit H Adhikari, Carl D Hacker, Josh S Siegel, Alessandra Griffa, Patric Hagmann, Gustavo Deco, Maurizio Corbetta
While several studies have shown that focal lesions affect the communication between structurally normal regions of the brain, and that these changes may correlate with behavioural deficits, their impact on brain's information processing capacity is currently unknown. Here we test the hypothesis that focal lesions decrease the brain's information processing capacity, of which changes in functional connectivity may be a measurable correlate. To measure processing capacity, we turned to whole brain computational modelling to estimate the integration and segregation of information in brain networks...
February 20, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331228/traumatic-brain-injury-results-in-acute-rarefication-of-the-vascular-network
#10
Andre Obenaus, Michelle Ng, Amanda M Orantes, Eli Kinney-Lang, Faisal Rashid, Mary Hamer, Richard A DeFazio, Jiping Tang, John H Zhang, William J Pearce
The role of the cerebrovascular network and its acute response to TBI is poorly defined and emerging evidence suggests that cerebrovascular reactivity is altered. We explored how cortical vessels are physically altered following TBI using a newly developed technique, vessel painting. We tested our hypothesis that a focal moderate TBI results in global decrements to structural aspects of the vasculature. Rats (naïve, sham-operated, TBI) underwent a moderate controlled cortical impact. Animals underwent vessel painting perfusion to label the entire cortex at 1 day post TBI followed by whole brain axial and coronal images using a wide-field fluorescence microscope...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325854/the-effect-of-diabetes-on-cortical-function-in-stroke-implications-for-post-stroke-plasticity
#11
William Huynh, Natalie Kwai, Ria Arnold, Arun V Krishnan, Cindy S-Y Lin, Steve Vucic, Matthew C Kiernan
Diabetes may impair the capacity for neuroplasticity such that patients experience a slower and poorer recovery after stroke. The current study aimed to investigate changes in cortical function in stroke patients with diabetes to determine how this comorbidity may impact post-stroke cortical plasticity and thereby functional recovery. From a cohort of 57 participants, threshold-tracking transcranial magnetic stimulation was utilised to assess cortical function over the ipsi- and contralesional hemispheres in 7 diabetic patients following an acute stroke, and compared to 12 stroke patients without diabetes...
March 21, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318973/the-dual-nature-of-early-life-experience-on-somatosensory-processing-in-the-human-infant-brain
#12
Nathalie L Maitre, Alexandra P Key, Olena D Chorna, James C Slaughter, Pawel J Matusz, Mark T Wallace, Micah M Murray
Every year, 15 million preterm infants are born, and most spend their first weeks in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) [1]. Although essential for the support and survival of these infants, NICU sensory environments are dramatically different from those in which full-term infants mature and thus likely impact the development of functional brain organization [2]. Yet the integrity of sensory systems determines effective perception and behavior [3, 4]. In neonates, touch is a cornerstone of interpersonal interactions and sensory-cognitive development [5-7]...
March 15, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315110/impact-of-astrocytes-on-the-injury-induced-by-in-vitro-ischemia
#13
Cláudio Roque, Graça Baltazar
Cell cultures are characterized by their simplicity, controllability, and ability to provide detailed basic information on how a particular cell population responds to specific stimuli or insult. These characteristics led to their extensive application in the study of molecular interactions and represent a valuable tool in the study of different pathologies. However, due to the lack of interactions between the different components that form an in vivo system, the results obtained in pure cell cultures not always translate what occurs in vivo...
March 17, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306235/gas-cluster-ion-beam-time-of-flight-secondary-ion-mass-spectrometry-high-resolution-imaging-of-cardiolipin-speciation-in-the-brain-identification-of-molecular-losses-after-traumatic-injury
#14
Hua Tian, Louis J Sparvero, Andrew A Amoscato, Anna Bloom, Hülya Bayır, Valerian E Kagan, Nicholas Winograd
Gas cluster ion beam-secondary ion mass spectrometry (GCIB-SIMS) has shown the full potential of mapping intact lipids in biological systems with better than 10 μm lateral resolution. This study investigated further the capability of GCIB-SIMS in imaging high-mass signals from intact cardiolipin (CL) and gangliosides in normal brain and the effect of a controlled cortical impact model (CCI) of traumatic brain injury (TBI) on their distribution. A combination of enzymatic and chemical treatments was employed to suppress the signals from the most abundant phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE)) and enhance the signals from the low-abundance CLs and gangliosides to allow their GCIB-SIMS detection at 8 and 16 μm spatial resolution...
March 29, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292310/microglial-derived-microparticles-mediate-neuroinflammation-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#15
Alok Kumar, Bogdan A Stoica, David J Loane, Ming Yang, Gelareh Abulwerdi, Niaz Khan, Asit Kumar, Stephen R Thom, Alan I Faden
BACKGROUND: Local and systemic inflammatory responses are initiated early after traumatic brain injury (TBI), and may play a key role in the secondary injury processes resulting in neuronal loss and neurological deficits. However, the mechanisms responsible for the rapid expansion of neuroinflammation and its long-term progression have yet to be elucidated. Here, we investigate the role of microparticles (MP), a member of the extracellular vesicle family, in the exchange of pro-inflammatory molecules between brain immune cells, as well as their transfer to the systemic circulation, as key pathways of inflammation propagation following brain trauma...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288787/evolution-of-autobiographical-memory-impairments-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-frontotemporal-dementia-a-longitudinal-neuroimaging-study
#16
Muireann Irish, Ramon Landin-Romero, Annu Mothakunnel, Siddharth Ramanan, Sharpley Hsieh, John R Hodges, Olivier Piguet
Compromised autobiographical memory (ABM) retrieval is well established in dementia, attributable to degeneration of a core memory brain network. It remains unclear, however, how the progressive spread of atrophy with advancing disease severity impacts ABM retrieval across life epochs. To this end, we conducted a longitudinal study of recent and remote ABM in Alzheimer's disease (AD, n =11), and a frontotemporal lobar degeneration group (FTD, n =13) comprising 7 behavioral variant FTD and 6 semantic dementia patients, in comparison with 23 healthy older Controls...
March 10, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287776/emotion-processing-in-early-blind-and-sighted-individuals
#17
Lucile Gamond, Tomaso Vecchi, Chiara Ferrari, Lotfi B Merabet, Zaira Cattaneo
OBJECTIVE: Emotion processing is known to be mediated by a complex network of cortical and subcortical regions with evidence of specialized hemispheric lateralization within the brain. In light of prior evidence indicating that lateralization of cognitive functions (such as language) may depend on normal visual development, we investigated whether the lack of prior visual experience would have an impact on the development of specialized hemispheric lateralization in emotional processing...
March 13, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284238/applying-current-concepts-in-pain-related-brain-science-to-dance-rehabilitation
#18
Sarah B Wallwork, Valeria Bellan, G Lorimer Moseley
Dance involves exemplary sensory-motor control, which is subserved by sophisticated neural processing at the spinal cord and brain level. Such neural processing is altered in the presence of nociception and pain, and the adaptations within the central nervous system that are known to occur with persistent nociception or pain have clear implications for movement and, indeed, risk of further injury. Recent rapid advances in our understanding of the brain's representation of the body and the role of cortical representations, or "neurotags," in bodily protection and regulation have given rise to new strategies that are gaining traction in sports medicine...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Dance Medicine & Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273767/impairment-of-social-cognition-in-multiple-sclerosis-amygdala-atrophy-is-the-main-predictor
#19
Sonia Batista, Otília C d'Almeida, Ana Afonso, Sandra Freitas, Carmo Macário, Lívia Sousa, Miguel Castelo-Branco, Isabel Santana, Luís Cunha
BACKGROUND: Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) frequently reveal social behavior disturbance. Nevertheless, little is known regarding the impact of MS on social cognition, particularly theory of mind (ToM), and its neural basis. OBJECTIVES: To explore how ToM is affected in MS and its neural correlates. METHODS: Enrolled 60 consecutive MS patients and 60 healthy controls (HC) matched on age, sex, and education. Participants underwent ToM testing (Eyes Test, Videos Test) and 3 T brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
December 1, 2016: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272153/brain-gray-matter-mri-morphometry-for-neuroprognostication-after-cardiac-arrest
#20
Stein Silva, Patrice Peran, Lionel Kerhuel, Briguita Malagurski, Nicolas Chauveau, Benoit Bataille, Jean Albert Lotterie, Pierre Celsis, Florent Aubry, Giuseppe Citerio, Betty Jean, Russel Chabanne, Vincent Perlbarg, Lionel Velly, Damien Galanaud, Audrey Vanhaudenhuyse, Olivier Fourcade, Steven Laureys, Louis Puybasset
OBJECTIVES: We hypothesize that the combined use of MRI cortical thickness measurement and subcortical gray matter volumetry could provide an early and accurate in vivo assessment of the structural impact of cardiac arrest and therefore could be used for long-term neuroprognostication in this setting. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Five Intensive Critical Care Units affiliated to the University in Toulouse (France), Paris (France), Clermont-Ferrand (France), Liège (Belgium), and Monza (Italy)...
March 7, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
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