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Controled cortical impact

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343928/exploration-of-lower-frequency-eeg-dynamics-and-cortical-alpha-asymmetry-in-long-term-rajyoga-meditators
#1
Kanishka Sharma, Sushil Chandra, Ashok Kumar Dubey
Background: Rajyoga meditation is taught by Prajapita Brahmakumaris World Spiritual University (Brahmakumaris) and has been followed by more than one million followers across the globe. However, rare studies were conducted on physiological aspects of rajyoga meditation using electroencephalography (EEG). Band power and cortical asymmetry were not studied with Rajyoga meditators. Aims: This study aims to investigate the effect of regular meditation practice on EEG brain dynamics in low-frequency bands of long-term Rajyoga meditators...
January 2018: International Journal of Yoga
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339923/an-acute-bout-of-housework-activities-has-beneficial-effects-on-executive-function
#2
Kenji Tsuchiya, Shinichi Mitsui, Ryuji Fukuyama, Noriki Yamaya, Takaaki Fujita, Kaori Shimoda, Fusae Tozato
Purpose: Although acute bouts of exercise reportedly have beneficial effects on executive function, inactive people may find it difficult to start exercising. In this study, we focused on housework activities (HAs) that generate a sense of accomplishment and require a mild intensity of physical activity. We examined the impact of an acute bout of HA on executive function and oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) flow to related cortical regions. Materials and methods: Twenty-five participants (age, 18-21 years; mean, 19...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336204/continuous-infusion-of-phenelzine-cyclosporine-a-or-the-combination-evaluation-of-mitochondrial-bioenergetics-oxidative-damage-and-cytoskeletal-degradation-following-severe-controlled-cortical-impact-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rats
#3
Jacqueline Renee Kulbe, Indrapal N Singh, Juan Wang, John E Cebak, Edward D Hall
To date, all monotherapy clinical traumatic brain injury (TBI) trials have failed, and there are currently no FDA-approved pharmacotherapies for the acute treatment of severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Due to the complex secondary injury cascade following injury, there is a need to develop multi-mechanistic combinational neuroprotective approaches for the treatment of acute TBI. As central mediators of the TBI secondary injury cascade, both mitochondria and lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes make promising therapeutic targets...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333886/anaemia-worsens-early-functional-outcome-after-traumatic-brain-injury-a-preliminary-study
#4
N Scott Litofsky, Douglas C Miller, Zhenzhou Chen, Agnes Simonyi, Diana Klakotskaia, Andrew Giritharan, Qi Feng, Diane McConnell, Jiankun Cui, Zezong Gu
OBJECTIVE: To determine early effects on outcome from traumatic brain injury (TBI) induced by controlled cortical impact (CCI) associated with anaemia in mice. HYPOTHESIS: Outcome from TBI with concomitant anaemia would be worse than TBI without anaemia. METHODS: CCI was induced with electromagnetic impaction in four groups of C57BL/6J mice: sham, sham+anaemia; TBI; and TBI+anaemia. Anaemia was created by withdrawal of 30% of calculated intravascular blood volume and saline replacement of equal volume...
January 15, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333742/parvalbumin-fast-spiking-interneurons-are-selectively-altered-by-pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury
#5
Joshua Nichols, George Reed Bjorklund, Jason Newbern, Trent Anderson
Pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability in children. Traditionally, ongoing neurodevelopment and neuroplasticity have thought to confer children with an advantage following TBI. However, recent findings indicate that the pediatric brain may be more sensitive to brain injury. Inhibitory interneurons are essential for proper cortical function and implicated in the pathophysiology of TBI, yet few studies have directly examined for TBI induced changes to interneurons themselves...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325997/reduced-cortical-oxygenation-predicts-a-progressive-decline-of-renal-function-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease
#6
Menno Pruijm, Bastien Milani, Edward Pivin, Agata Podhajska, Bruno Vogt, Matthias Stuber, Michel Burnier
Renal tissue hypoxia is a final pathway in the development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD), but whether renal oxygenation predicts renal function decline in humans has not been proven. Therefore, we performed a prospective study and measured renal tissue oxygenation by blood oxygenation level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-MRI) in 112 patients with CKD, 47 with hypertension without CKD, and 24 healthy control individuals. Images were analyzed with the twelve-layer concentric objects method that divided the renal parenchyma in 12 layers of equal thickness and reports the mean R2* value of each layer (a high R2* corresponds to low oxygenation), along with the change in R2* between layers called the R2* slope...
January 9, 2018: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310513/sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor-subtype-1-s1pr1-as-a-therapeutic-target-for-brain-trauma
#7
Salvatore Cuzzocrea, Timothy Doyle, Michela Campolo, Irene Paterniti, Emanuela Esposito, Susan Farr, Daniela Salvemini
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) provokes secondary pathological mechanisms, including ischemic and inflammatory processes. The new research in sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) receptor modulators has opened the door for an effective mechanism of reducing central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory lesion activity. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterize the immunomodulatory effect of the functional S1PR1 antagonist siponimod in Phase III clinical trials for autoimmune disorders and of the competitive S1PR1 antagonist TASP0277308 in preclinical development in an in vivo model of TBI in mice...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298129/mild-contralesional-hypothermia-reduces-use-of-the-unimpaired-forelimb-in-a-skilled-reaching-task-after-motor-cortex-injury-in-rats
#8
Ana C Klahr, Kelly Fagan, Jasmine R Aziz, Roseleen John, Frederick Colbourne
Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) mitigates neuronal injury in models of ischemic stroke. Although this therapy is meant for injured tissue, most protocols cool the whole body, including the contralesional hemisphere. Neuroplasticity responses within this hemisphere can affect functional outcome. Thus, cooling the contralesional hemisphere serves no clear neuroprotective function and may instead be detrimental. In this study, we cooled the contralesional hemisphere to determine whether this harms behavioral recovery after cortical injury in rats...
January 3, 2018: Therapeutic Hypothermia and Temperature Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296629/alterations-in-neurovascular-coupling-following-acute-traumatic-brain-injury
#9
Hyounguk Jang, Stanley Huang, Daniel X Hammer, Lin Wang, Harmain Rafi, Meijun Ye, Cristin G Welle, Jonathan A N Fisher
Following acute traumatic brain injury (TBI), timely transport to a hospital can significantly improve the prognosis for recovery. There is, however, a dearth of quantitative biomarkers for brain injury that can be rapidly acquired and interpreted in active, field environments in which TBIs are frequently incurred. We explored potential functional indicators for TBI that can be noninvasively obtained through portable detection modalities, namely optical and electrophysiological approaches. By combining diffuse correlation spectroscopy with colocalized electrophysiological measurements in a mouse model of TBI, we observed concomitant alterations in sensory-evoked cerebral blood flow (CBF) and electrical potentials following controlled cortical impact...
October 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286866/omega-3-fatty-acid-deficiency-impairs-frontostriatal-recruitment-following-repeated-amphetamine-treatment-in-rats-a-7-tesla-in-vivo-phmri-study
#10
Robert K McNamara, Jennifer D Schurdak, Ruth H Asch, Diana M Lindquist
Although attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is associated with deficits in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), an omega-3 fatty acid implicated in dopamine and glutamate synaptic plasticity, its role in neuroplastic brain changes that occur following repeated amphetamine (AMPH) treatment are not known. This study used pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the impact of repeated AMPH exposure and alterations in brain DHA levels on AMPH-induced brain activation patterns. Male rats were fed a diet with no n-3 fatty acids (Deficient, DEF, n = 20), a diet fortified with preformed DHA (fish oil, FO, n = 20), or a control diet fortified with alpha-linolenic acid (n = 20) from P21 to P90...
December 29, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285982/effects-of-veliparib-on-microglial-activation-and-functional-outcomes-following-traumatic-brain-injury-in-the-rat-and-pig
#11
Karen Irvine, Robin Bishop, Seok Joon Won, Jianguo Xu, Katherine Hamel, Valerie Coppes, Pardeep Singh, Andrew Sondag, Eric Rome, Jayinee Basu, Giordano Santos, S Scott Panter, Raymond Swanson
The inflammation response induced by brain trauma can impair recovery. This response requires several hours to fully develop, and thus provides a clinically relevant therapeutic window of opportunity. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors suppress inflammatory responses, including brain microglial activation. Here we evaluated delayed treatment with veliparib, a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor currently in clinical trials as a cancer therapeutic, in rats and pigs subjected to controlled cortical impact (CCI)...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282709/neurodevelopmental-origins-of-abnormal-cortical-morphology-in-dissociative-identity-disorder
#12
A A T S Reinders, S Chalavi, Y R Schlumpf, E M Vissia, E R S Nijenhuis, L Jäncke, D J Veltman, C Ecker
OBJECTIVE: To examine the two constitutes of cortical volume (CV), that is, cortical thickness (CT) and surface area (SA), in individuals with dissociative identity disorder (DID) with the view of gaining important novel insights into the underlying neurobiological mechanisms mediating DID. METHODS: This study included 32 female patients with DID and 43 matched healthy controls. Between-group differences in CV, thickness, and SA, the degree of spatial overlap between differences in CT and SA, and their relative contribution to differences in regional CV were assessed using a novel spatially unbiased vertex-wise approach...
February 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251706/valproic-acid-induces-pro-survival-transcriptomic-changes-in-swine-subjected-to-traumatic-injury-and-hemorrhagic-shock
#13
Patrick E Georgoff, Vahagn C Nikolian, Gerald Higgins, Kiril Chtraklin, Hassan Eidy, Mohamed H Ghandour, Aaron Williams, Brian Athey, Hasan B Alam
BACKGROUND: Valproic acid (VPA) is a histone deacetylase inhibitor that improves outcomes in large animal models of trauma. However, its protective mechanism of action is not completely understood. We sought to characterize the genetic changes induced by VPA treatment following traumatic injuries. METHODS: Six female Yorkshire swine were subjected to traumatic brain injury (TBI, controlled cortical impact), polytrauma (liver and splenic laceration, rib fracture, rectus crush), and hemorrhagic shock (HS, 40% total blood volume)...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248508/extracellular-lactate-dehydrogenase-a-release-from-damaged-neurons-drives-central-nervous-system-angiogenesis
#14
Hsiaoyun Lin, Rieko Muramatsu, Noriko Maedera, Hiroto Tsunematsu, Machika Hamaguchi, Yoshihisa Koyama, Mariko Kuroda, Kenji Ono, Makoto Sawada, Toshihide Yamashita
Angiogenesis, a prominent feature of pathology, is known to be guided by factors secreted by living cells around a lesion. Although many cells are disrupted in a response to injury, the relevance of degenerating cells in pathological angiogenesis is unclear. Here, we show that the release of lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) from degenerating neurons drives central nervous system (CNS) angiogenesis. Silencing neuronal LDHA expression suppressed angiogenesis around experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE)- and controlled cortical impact-induced lesions...
December 7, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247624/juxta-apical-radiolucency-prevalence-characterization-and-association-with-the-third-molar-status
#15
Eduarda Helena Leandro Nascimento, Anne Caroline Costa Oenning, Mariana Rocha Nadaes, Gláucia Maria Bovi Ambrosano, Francisco Haiter-Neto, Deborah Queiroz Freitas
PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of juxta-apical radiolucency (JAR), assessing its association with third molar status and describing its radiologic features through panoramic radiography. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated 1,050 radiographs (1,830 third molars) for the presence of JAR. The JAR and control groups were classified according to the third molar's angulation, impaction, and root development. The presence of radiographic signs of proximity between the mandibular canal and third molar and the imaging features of JAR also were recorded...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246746/chronic-deep-brain-stimulation-in-an-alzheimer-s-disease-mouse-model-enhances-memory-and-reduces-pathological-hallmarks
#16
Amandeep Mann, Elise Gondard, Davide Tampellini, Jorge A T Milsted, Desiree Marillac, Clement Hamani, Suneil K Kalia, Andres M Lozano
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive degenerative disorder that currently remains extremely disabling. Recent work has shown that deep brain stimulation (DBS) has promising effects in AD patients. In parallel to the clinical trials, we investigated the impact of chronic DBS in 3xTg mice, a well-established animal model of AD. METHODS: AD mice were assigned to control (Cont), non-stimulation (NS) and stimulation (DBS) groups, along with age matched wild type controls (WT-Cont)...
November 23, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242123/ensemble-of-random-forests-one-vs-rest-classifiers-for-mci-and-ad-prediction-using-anova-cortical-and-subcortical-feature-selection-and-partial-least-squares
#17
J Ramírez, J M Górriz, A Ortiz, F J Martínez-Murcia, F Segovia, D Salas-Gonzalez, D Castillo-Barnes, I A Illán, C G Puntonet
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly and affects approximately 30 million individuals worldwide. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is very frequently a prodromal phase of AD, and existing studies have suggested that people with MCI tend to progress to AD at a rate of about 10% to 15% per year. However, the ability of clinicians and machine learning systems to predict AD based on MRI biomarkers at an early stage is still a challenging problem that can have a great impact in improving treatments...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222798/a-controlled-cortical-impact-preclinical-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#18
Michela Campolo, Emanuela Esposito, Salvatore Cuzzocrea
Over the past three decades, attempts at understanding the multifaceted mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of traumatic brain injury (TBI) have seen the development of numerous animal models to investigate changes in molecular and cellular pathways and neurobehavioral outcomes. Until now, controlled cortical impact (CCI) represents the most frequently used mechanical model to induce TBI, given its accuracy, easy of control, and, most importantly, its ability to produce brain injuries similar to those seen in humans...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222622/toll-like-receptor-4-knockdown-attenuates-brain-damage-and-neuroinflammation-after-traumatic-brain-injury-via-inhibiting-neuronal-autophagy-and-astrocyte-activation
#19
Hongsheng Jiang, Yanzhou Wang, Xin Liang, Xiaofeng Xing, Xiuzhen Xu, Caifeng Zhou
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been linked to various pathophysiological conditions, such as traumatic brain injury (TBI). It is reported that posttraumatic neuroinflammation is an essential event in the progression of brain injury after TBI. Recent evidences indicate that TLR4 mediates glial phagocytic activity and inflammatory cytokines production. Thus, TLR4 may be an important therapeutic target for neuroinflammatory injury post-TBI. This study was designed to explore potential effects and underlying mechanisms of TLR4 in rats suffered from TBI...
December 8, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215039/semantic-discrimination-impacts-tdcs-modulation-of-verb-processing
#20
Valentina Niccolai, Anne Klepp, Peter Indefrey, Alfons Schnitzler, Katja Biermann-Ruben
Motor cortex activation observed during body-related verb processing hints at simulation accompanying linguistic understanding. By exploiting the up- and down-regulation that anodal and cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) exert on motor cortical excitability, we aimed at further characterizing the functional contribution of the motor system to linguistic processing. In a double-blind sham-controlled within-subjects design, online stimulation was applied to the left hemispheric hand-related motor cortex of 20 healthy subjects...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
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