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Controled cortical impact

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747875/effects-of-high-definition-anodal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-applied-simultaneously-to-both-primary-motor-cortices-on-bimanual-sensorimotor-performance
#1
Nils H Pixa, Fabian Steinberg, Michael Doppelmayr
Many daily activities, such as tying one's shoe laces, opening a jar of jam or performing a free throw in basketball, require the skillful coordinated use of both hands. Even though the non-invasive method of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has been repeatedly shown to improve unimanual motor performance, little is known about its effects on bimanual motor performance. More knowledge about how tDCS may improve bimanual behavior would be relevant to motor recovery, e.g., in persons with bilateral impairment of hand function...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745861/mass-spectrometric-imaging-of-ceramides-tracks-therapeutic-response-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#2
Damon Christopher Barbacci, Aurélie Roux, Ludovic Muller, Shelley N Jackson, Jeremy Post, Kathrine Baldwin, Barry Hoffer, Carey Balaban, Shawn Gouty, Brian M Cox, Amina S Woods
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a serious public health problem and the leading cause of death in children and young adults. It also contributes to a substantial number of cases of permanent disability. As lipids make up over 50% of the brain mass and play a key role in both membrane structure and cell signaling, their profile is of particular interest. In this study, we show that advanced mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) has sufficient technical accuracy and reproducibility to demonstrate the anatomical distribution of 50 micron diameter microdomains that show changes in brain ceramide levels in a rat model of controlled cortical impact (CCI) 3 days post injury with and without treatment...
July 26, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745642/assessing-spatial-memory-impairment-in-a-mouse-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury-using-a-radial-water-tread-maze
#3
Marcella M Cline, Megan A Ostlie, Chloe G Cross, Gregory G Garwin, Satoshi Minoshima, Donna J Cross
Despite the recent increase in use of mouse models in scientific research, researchers continue to use cognitive tasks that were originally designed and validated for rat use. The Radial Water Tread (RWT) maze test of spatial memory (designed specifically for mice and requiring no swimming) has been shown previously to successfully distinguish between controlled cortical impact-induced TBI mice and sham controls. Here, a detailed protocol for this task is presented. The RWT maze capitalizes on the natural tendency of mice to avoid open areas in favor of hugging the sides of an apparatus (thigmotaxis)...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744969/abnormal-functional-activation-and-maturation-of-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-and-cerebellum-during-temporal-discounting-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#4
Clodagh M Murphy, Anastasia Christakou, Vincent Giampietro, Michael Brammer, Eileen M Daly, Christine Ecker, Patrick Johnston, Debbie Spain, Dene M Robertson, Declan G Murphy, Katya Rubia
People with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have poor decision-making and temporal foresight. This may adversely impact on their everyday life, mental health, and productivity. However, the neural substrates underlying poor choice behavior in people with ASD, or its' neurofunctional development from childhood to adulthood, are unknown. Despite evidence of atypical structural brain development in ASD, investigation of functional brain maturation in people with ASD is lacking. This cross-sectional developmental fMRI study investigated the neural substrates underlying performance on a temporal discounting (TD) task in 38 healthy (11-35 years old) male adolescents and adults with ASD and 40 age, sex, and IQ-matched typically developing healthy controls...
July 26, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743945/lithium-sensitive-orai1-expression-store-operated-ca-2-entry-and-suicidal-death-of-neurons-in-chorea-acanthocytosis
#5
Lisann Pelzl, Stefan Hauser, Bhaeldin Elsir, Basma Sukkar, Itishri Sahu, Yogesh Singh, Philip Höflinger, Rosi Bissinger, Mohamed Jemaà, Christos Stournaras, Ludger Schöls, Florian Lang
Chorea-Acanthocytosis (ChAc), a neurodegenerative disorder, results from loss-of-function-mutations of chorein-encoding gene VPS13A. In tumour cells chorein up-regulates ORAI1, a Ca(2+)-channel accomplishing store operated Ca(2+)-entry (SOCE) upon stimulation by STIM1. Furthermore SOCE could be up-regulated by lithium. The present study explored whether SOCE impacts on neuron apoptosis. Cortical neurons were differentiated from induced pluripotent stem cells generated from fibroblasts of ChAc patients and healthy volunteers...
July 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741426/influence-of-different-irradiation-protocols-on-vascularization-and-bone-formation-parameters-in-rat-femora
#6
Ulrike Rottensteiner-Brandl, Luitpold Distel, Martin Stumpf, Tobias Fey, Katrin Köhn, Ulf Bertram, Lara F Lingens, Peter Greil, Raymund E Horch, Andreas Arkudas
INTRODUCTION: Aim of the present study was the establishment of an efficient and reproducible model for irradiation of rat femora as a model for impaired osteogenesis and angiogenesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four different irradiation protocols were compared: single irradiation of the left femur with 20 Gy and explantation after 4 or 8 weeks (group A, B); three irradiation fractions at 3-4 days intervals with 10 Gy and explantation after 4 or 8 weeks (group C, D)...
July 25, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739248/the-protective-effect-of-hydrogen-sulfide-h2s-on-traumatic-brain-injury-tbi-induced-memory-deficits-in-rats
#7
Seyed Asaad Karimi, Narges Hosseinmardi, Mahyar Janahmadi, Mohammad Sayyah, Razieh Hajisoltani
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), as an expanding public health epidemic, is a common cause of death among youth. TBI is associated with cognitive deficits and memory impairment. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a novel gaseous mediator, has been recognized as an important neuromodulator and neuroprotective agent in the central nervous system. In the present study the potential neuroprotective role of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), an H2S donor on TBI induced memory deficit in a rat model of controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury was investigated...
July 21, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732352/cerebral-blood-flow-changes-in-remitted-early-and-late-onset-depression-patients
#8
Wenxiang Liao, Ze Wang, Xiangrong Zhang, Hao Shu, Zan Wang, Duan Liu, Zhijun Zhang
Abnormal cerebral blood flow (CBF) is reportedly associated with major depressive disorder (MDD). We have investigated CBF changes in early-onset depression (EOD) and late-onset depression (LOD), and their impact on cognitive function. Thirty-two remitted EOD patients, 32 remitted LOD patients, and 43 age-matched healthy controls were recruited, and the pulsed arterial spin labeling data were scanned under 3.0T MRI and processed through voxel-by-voxel statistical analysis. Compared to healthy controls, LOD patients had decreased normalized CBF in the bilateral precuneus, cuneus, right fronto-cingulate-striatal areas, and right temporal, occipital and parietal lobes, but increased normalized CBF in the left frontal and temporal cortices and the cingulate gyrus...
July 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730641/basal-ganglia-and-autism-a-translational-perspective
#9
REVIEW
Krishna Subramanian, Cheryl Brandenburg, Fernanda Orsati, Jean-Jacques Soghomonian, John P Hussman, Gene J Blatt
The basal ganglia are a collection of nuclei below the cortical surface that are involved in both motor and non-motor functions, including higher order cognition, social interactions, speech, and repetitive behaviors. Motor development milestones that are delayed in autism such as gross motor, fine motor and walking can aid in early diagnosis of autism. Neuropathology and neuroimaging findings in autism cases revealed volumetric changes and altered cell density in select basal ganglia nuclei. Interestingly, in autism, both the basal ganglia and the cerebellum are impacted both in their motor and non-motor domains and recently, found to be connected via the pons through a short disynaptic pathway...
July 21, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729823/administration-of-tauroursodeoxycholic-acid-attenuates-early-brain-injury-via-akt-pathway-activation
#10
Dongdong Sun, Gang Gu, Jianhao Wang, Yan Chai, Yueshan Fan, Mengchen Yang, Xin Xu, Weiwei Gao, Fei Li, Dongpei Yin, Shuai Zhou, Xin Chen, Jianning Zhang
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the leading causes of trauma-induced mortality and disability, and emerging studies have shown that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays an important role in the pathophysiology of TBI. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), a hydrophilic bile acid, has been reported to act as an ER stress inhibitor and chemical chaperone and to have the potential to attenuate apoptosis and inflammation. To study the effects of TUDCA on brain injury, we subjected mice to TBI with a controlled cortical impact (CCI) device...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729445/preferential-disruption-of-prefrontal-gabaergic-function-by-nanomolar-concentrations-of-the-%C3%AE-7nach-negative-modulator-kynurenic-acid
#11
Eden Flores-Barrera, Daniel R Thomases, Daryn K Cass, Ajay Bhandari, Robert Schwarcz, John P Bruno, Kuei Y Tseng
Increased concentrations of kynurenic acid (KYNA) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) are thought to contribute to the development of cognitive deficits observed in schizophrenia. Although this view is consistent with pre-clinical studies showing a negative impact of prefrontal KYNA elevation on executive function, the mechanism underlying such a disruption remains unclear. Here we measured changes in local field potential responses to ventral hippocampal stimulation in vivo, and conducted whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in brain slices to reveal how nanomolar concentrations of KYNA alter synaptic transmission in the PFC of male adult rats...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726717/mini-review-of-controlled-cortical-impact-a-well-suited-device-for-concussion-research
#12
REVIEW
Nicole Osier, C Edward Dixon
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is increasingly recognized as a significant public health problem which warrants additional research. Part of the effort to understand mTBI and concussion includes modeling in animals. Controlled cortical impact (CCI) is a commonly employed and well-characterized model of experimental TBI that has been utilized for three decades. Today, several commercially available pneumatic- and electromagnetic-CCI devices exist as do a variety of standard and custom injury induction tips...
July 20, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724780/a-reduced-somatosensory-gating-response-in-individuals-with-multiple-sclerosis-is-related-to-walking-impairment
#13
David J Arpin, James E Gehringer, Tony W Wilson, Max J Kurz
When identical stimuli are presented in rapid temporal succession, neural responses to the second stimulation are often weaker than that observed for the first. This phenomenon is termed sensory gating and is believed to be an adaptive feature that helps prevent higher-order cortical centers from being flooded with unnecessary information. Recently, sensory gating in the somatosensory system has been linked to deficits in tactile discrimination. Additionally, studies have linked poor tactile discrimination with impaired walking and balance in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS)...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724747/interleukin-1-receptor-in-seizure-susceptibility-after-traumatic-injury-to-the-pediatric-brain
#14
Bridgette D Semple, Terence J O'Brien, Kayleen Gimlin, David K Wright, Shi Eun Kim, Pablo M Casillas-Espinosa, Kyria M Webster, Steven Petrou, Linda J Noble-Haeusslein
Epilepsy after pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) is associated with poor quality of life. This study aimed to characterize post-traumatic epilepsy in a mouse model of pediatric brain injury, and to evaluate the role of interleukin-1 (IL-1) signaling as a target for pharmacological intervention. Male mice received a controlled cortical impact or sham surgery at postnatal day 21, approximating a toddler-aged child. Mice were treated acutely with an IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra; 100 mg/kg s.c.) or vehicle...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722103/decreased-levels-of-active-upa-and-klk8-assessed-by-111-in-mica-401-binding-correlate-with-the-seizure-burden-in-an-animal-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#15
Stephan Missault, Lore Peeters, Halima Amhaoul, David Thomae, Annemie Van Eetveldt, Barbara Favier, Anagha Thakur, Jeroen Van Soom, Asla Pitkänen, Koen Augustyns, Jurgen Joossens, Steven Staelens, Stefanie Dedeurwaerdere
OBJECTIVE: Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and kallikrein-related peptidase 8 (KLK8) are serine proteases that contribute to extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling after brain injury. They can be labelled with the novel radiotracer [(111) In]MICA-401. As the first step in exploring the applicability of [(111) In]MICA-401 in tracing the mechanisms of postinjury ECM reorganization in vivo, we performed in vitro and ex vivo studies, assessing [(111) In]MICA-401 distribution in the brain in two animal models: kainic acid-induced status epilepticus (KASE) and controlled cortical impact (CCI)-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI)...
July 19, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719422/polarity-independent-effects-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-over-the-bilateral-opercular-somatosensory-region-a-magnetoencephalography-study
#16
Kei Nakagawa, Soichiro Koyama, Koji Inui, Satoshi Tanaka, Ryusuke Kakigi, Norihiro Sadato
The opercular somatosensory region (OP) plays an indispensable role in pain perception. In the present study, we investigated the neurophysiological effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the OP. Somatosensory-evoked magnetic fields following noxious intraepidermal electrical stimulation to the left index finger (pain-SEFs) were recorded before and after tDCS with a single-blind, sham-controlled, cross-over trial design. Three tDCS conditions of left anodal/right cathodal tDCS, left cathodal/right anodal tDCS (each, 2 mA, 12 min), and sham tDCS (2 mA, 15 s) were applied...
July 17, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719020/fibrin-ogen-and-neurodegeneration-in-the-progressive-multiple-sclerosis-cortex
#17
Richard L Yates, Margaret M Esiri, Jacqueline Palace, Benjamin Jacobs, Rafael Perera, Gabriele C DeLuca
OBJECTIVE: Neuronal loss, a key substrate of irreversible disability in multiple sclerosis (MS), is a recognised feature of MS cortical pathology of which the cause remains unknown. Fibrin(ogen) deposition is neurotoxic in animal models of MS, but has not been evaluated in human progressive MS cortex. The aim of this study was to investigate the extent and distribution of fibrin(ogen) in progressive MS cortex and elucidate its relationship with neurodegeneration. METHODS: A post-mortem cohort of pathologically confirmed MS (n=47) and control (n=10) cases was used...
July 18, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718878/deep-brain-and-cortical-stimulation-for-epilepsy
#18
REVIEW
Mathieu Sprengers, Kristl Vonck, Evelien Carrette, Anthony G Marson, Paul Boon
BACKGROUND: Despite optimal medical treatment, including epilepsy surgery, many epilepsy patients have uncontrolled seizures. Since the 1970s interest has grown in invasive intracranial neurostimulation as a treatment for these patients. Intracranial stimulation includes both deep brain stimulation (DBS) (stimulation through depth electrodes) and cortical stimulation (subdural electrodes). This is an updated version of a previous Cochrane review published in 2014. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy, safety and tolerability of DBS and cortical stimulation for refractory epilepsy based on randomized controlled trials (RCTs)...
July 18, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714867/enhanced-astrocytic-d-serine-underlies-synaptic-damage-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#19
Enmanuel J Perez, Stephen A Tapanes, Zachary B Loris, Darrick T Balu, Thomas J Sick, Joseph T Coyle, Daniel J Liebl
After traumatic brain injury (TBI), glial cells have both beneficial and deleterious roles in injury progression and recovery. However, few studies have examined the influence of reactive astrocytes in the tripartite synapse following TBI. Here, we have demonstrated that hippocampal synaptic damage caused by controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury in mice results in a switch from neuronal to astrocytic d-serine release. Under nonpathological conditions, d-serine functions as a neurotransmitter and coagonist for NMDA receptors and is involved in mediating synaptic plasticity...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707381/radiation-associated-lens-changes-in-the-cardiac-catheterization-laboratory-results-from-the-ic-cataract-cataracts-attributed-to-radiation-in-the-cath-lab-study
#20
Aris Karatasakis, Harilaos S Brilakis, Barbara A Danek, Judit Karacsonyi, Jose Roberto Martinez-Parachini, Phuong-Khanh J Nguyen-Trong, Aya J Alame, Michele K Roesle, Bavana V Rangan, Kenneth Rosenfield, Roxana Mehran, Ehtisham Mahmud, Charles E Chambers, Subhash Banerjee, Emmanouil S Brilakis
OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between occupational exposure to ionizing radiation and the prevalence of lens changes in interventional cardiologists (ICs) and catheterization laboratory ("cath-lab") staff. BACKGROUND: Exposure to ionizing radiation is associated with the development of lens opacities. ICs and cath-lab staff can receive high doses of ionizing radiation without protection, and may thus be at risk for lens opacity formation. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study at an interventional cardiology conference...
July 14, 2017: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
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