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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774829/novel-parvovirus-related-to-primate-bufaviruses-in-dogs
#1
Vito Martella, Gianvito Lanave, Eszter Mihalov-Kovács, Szilvia Marton, Renáta Varga-Kugler, Eszter Kaszab, Barbara Di Martino, Michele Camero, Nicola Decaro, Canio Buonavoglia, Krisztián Bányai
A novel protoparvovirus species, related genetically to human bufaviruses, was identified in dogs with respiratory signs. The canine bufavirus was distantly related to the well-known canine protoparvovirus, canine parvovirus type 2, sharing low amino acid identities in the nonstructural protein 1 (40.6%) and in the capsid protein 1 (33.4%). By screening collections of fecal, nasal, and oropharyngeal samples obtained from juvenile dogs (<1 year of age), canine bufavirus DNA appeared as a common component of canine virome...
June 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773090/vsita-an-improved-approach-of-target-amplification-in-the-identification-of-viral-pathogens
#2
Yi Zhang, Chen Zhang, Bo Li, Yang Li, Xiao Zhou He, Acher Li, Wei Wu, Su Xia Duan, Fang Zhou Qiu, Ji Wang, Xin Xin Shen, Meng Jie Yang, De Xin Li, Xue Jun Ma
OBJECTIVE: Unbiased next generation sequencing (NGS) is susceptible to interference from host or environmental sequences. Consequently, background depletion and virome enrichment techniques are usually needed for clinical samples where viral load is much lower than background sequences. METHODS: A viral Sequence Independent Targeted Amplification (VSITA) approach using a set of non-ribosomal and virus-enriched octamers (V8) was developed and compared with traditionally used random hexamers (N6)...
April 2018: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761040/viromes-of-one-year-old-infants-reveal-the-impact-of-birth-mode-on-microbiome-diversity
#3
Angela McCann, Feargal J Ryan, Stephen R Stockdale, Marion Dalmasso, Tony Blake, C Anthony Ryan, Catherine Stanton, Susan Mills, Paul R Ross, Colin Hill
Establishing a diverse gut microbiota after birth is being increasingly recognised as important for preventing illnesses later in life. It is well established that bacterial diversity rapidly increases post-partum; however, few studies have examined the infant gut virome/phageome during this developmental period. We performed a metagenomic analysis of 20 infant faecal viromes at one year of age to determine whether spontaneous vaginal delivery (SVD) or caesarean section (CS) influenced viral composition. We find that birth mode results in distinctly different viral communities, with SVD infants having greater viral and bacteriophage diversity...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752559/discovery-of-a-novel-iflavirus-sequence-in-the-eastern-paralysis-tick-ixodes-holocyclus
#4
Caitlin A O'Brien, Sonja Hall-Mendelin, Jody Hobson-Peters, Georgia Deliyannis, Andy Allen, Ala Lew-Tabor, Manuel Rodriguez-Valle, Dayana Barker, Stephen C Barker, Roy A Hall
Ixodes holocyclus, the eastern paralysis tick, is a significant parasite in Australia in terms of animal and human health. However, very little is known about its virome. In this study, next-generation sequencing of I. holocyclus salivary glands yielded a full-length genome sequence which phylogenetically groups with viruses classified in the Iflaviridae family and shares 45% amino acid similarity with its closest relative Bole hyalomma asiaticum virus 1. The sequence of this virus, provisionally named Ixodes holocyclus iflavirus (IhIV) has been identified in tick populations from northern New South Wales and Queensland, Australia and represents the first virus sequence reported from I...
May 11, 2018: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751830/amniotic-fluid-from-healthy-term-pregnancies-does-not-harbor-a-detectable-microbial-community
#5
Efrem S Lim, Cynthia Rodriguez, Lori R Holtz
Recent studies have conflicting data regarding the presence of intra-amniotic microbiota. Viral communities are increasingly recognized as important although overlooked components of the human microbiota. It is unknown if the developing fetus is exposed to a community of viruses (virome). Given the debate over the existence of an intra-amniotic microbial community and the importance of understanding how the infant gut is populated, we characterized the virome and bacterial microbiota of amniotic fluid from 24 uncomplicated term pregnancies using next-generation sequencing methods...
May 11, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749926/metagenomic-analysis-of-varroa-free-australian-honey-bees-apis-mellifera-shows-a-diverse-picornavirales-virome
#6
John M K Roberts, Denis L Anderson, Peter A Durr
The viral landscape of the honey bee (Apismellifera) has changed as a consequence of the global spread of the parasitic mite Varroa destructor and accompanying virulent strains of the iflavirus deformed wing virus (DWV), which the mite vectors. The presence of DWV in honey bee populations is known to influence the occurrence of other viruses, suggesting that the current known virome of A. mellifera may be undercharacterized. Here we tested this hypothesis by examining the honey bee virome in Australia, which is uniquely free of parasitic mites or DWV...
May 11, 2018: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746280/the-impact-of-microbial-communities-on-wound-healing-a-review
#7
Zhenzhen Xu, Henry C Hsia
Chronic, nonhealing wounds place an enormous burden on both the health care system and patients, with no definitive treatments available. There has been increasing evidence that the microbial composition of wounds may play an important role in wound healing. Culture-independent methods for bacterial detection and analysis have revealed the wound microbiome to be much more diverse and complex than culture alone. Such methods primarily rely on targeted amplification and sequencing of various hypervariable regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA for phylogenetic analysis...
April 30, 2018: Annals of Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738749/the-vaginal-eukaryotic-dna-virome-and-preterm-birth
#8
Kristine M Wylie, Todd N Wylie, Alison G Cahill, George A Macones, Methodius G Tuuli, Molly J Stout
BACKGROUND: Despite decades of attempts to link infectious agents to preterm birth, an exact causative microbe or community of microbes remains elusive. Culture-independent sequencing of vaginal bacterial communities demonstrates community characteristics are associated with preterm birth, although none are specific enough to apply clinically. Viruses are important components of the vaginal microbiome and have dynamic relationships with vaginal bacterial communities. We hypothesized that vaginal eukaryotic DNA viral communities (the "vaginal virome") either alone or in the context of bacterial communities are associated with preterm birth...
May 5, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725592/urinary-virome-perturbations-in-kidney-transplantation
#9
Tara K Sigdel, Neil Mercer, Sharvin Nandoe, Carrie D Nicora, Kristin Burnum-Johnson, Wei-Jun Qian, Minnie M Sarwal
The human microbiome is important for health and plays a role in essential metabolic functions and protection from certain pathogens. Conversely, dysbiosis of the microbiome is seen in the context of various diseases. Recent studies have highlighted that a complex microbial community containing hundreds of bacteria colonizes the healthy urinary tract, but little is known about the human urinary viruses in health and disease. To evaluate the human urinary virome in the context of kidney transplantation (tx), variations in the composition of the urinary virome were evaluated in urine samples from normal healthy volunteers as well as patients with kidney disease after they had undergone kidney tx...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719871/a-prospective-metagenomic-and-metabolomic-analysis-of-the-impact-of-exercise-and-or-whey-protein-supplementation-on-the-gut-microbiome-of-sedentary-adults
#10
Owen Cronin, Wiley Barton, Peter Skuse, Nicholas C Penney, Isabel Garcia-Perez, Eileen F Murphy, Trevor Woods, Helena Nugent, Aine Fanning, Silvia Melgar, Eanna C Falvey, Elaine Holmes, Paul D Cotter, Orla O'Sullivan, Michael G Molloy, Fergus Shanahan
Many components of modern living exert influence on the resident intestinal microbiota of humans with resultant impact on host health. For example, exercise-associated changes in the diversity, composition, and functional profiles of microbial populations in the gut have been described in cross-sectional studies of habitual athletes. However, this relationship is also affected by changes in diet, such as changes in dietary and supplementary protein consumption, that coincide with exercise. To determine whether increasing physical activity and/or increased protein intake modulates gut microbial composition and function, we prospectively challenged healthy but sedentary adults with a short-term exercise regime, with and without concurrent daily whey protein consumption...
May 2018: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695682/a-systematic-review-of-the-natural-virome-of-anopheles-mosquitoes
#11
REVIEW
Ferdinand Nanfack Minkeu, Kenneth D Vernick
Anopheles mosquitoes are vectors of human malaria, but they also harbor viruses, collectively termed the virome. The Anopheles virome is relatively poorly studied, and the number and function of viruses are unknown. Only the o'nyong-nyong arbovirus (ONNV) is known to be consistently transmitted to vertebrates by Anopheles mosquitoes. A systematic literature review searched four databases: PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and Lissa. In addition, online and print resources were searched manually. The searches yielded 259 records...
April 25, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692764/the-virome-and-its-major-component-anellovirus-a-convoluted-system-molding-human-immune-defenses-and-possibly-affecting-the-development-of-asthma-and-respiratory-diseases-in-childhood
#12
REVIEW
Giulia Freer, Fabrizio Maggi, Massimo Pifferi, Maria E Di Cicco, Diego G Peroni, Mauro Pistello
The microbiome, a thriving and complex microbial community colonizing the human body, has a broad impact on human health. Colonization is a continuous process that starts very early in life and occurs thanks to shrewd strategies microbes have evolved to tackle a convoluted array of anatomical, physiological, and functional barriers of the human body. Cumulative evidence shows that viruses are part of the microbiome. This part, called virome, has a dynamic composition that reflects what we eat, how and where we live, what we do, our genetic background, and other unpredictable variables...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689266/alterations-in-enteric-virome-associate-with-colorectal-cancer-and-survival-outcomes
#13
Geicho Nakatsu, Haokui Zhou, William Ka Kei Wu, Sunny Hei Wong, Olabisi Oluwabukola Coker, Zhenwei Dai, Xiangchun Li, Chun-Ho Szeto, Naoki Sugimura, Thomas Yuen-Tung Lam, Allen Chi-Shing Yu, Xiansong Wang, Zigui Chen, Martin Chi-Sang Wong, Siew Chien Ng, Matthew T V Chan, Paul Kay Sheung Chan, Francis Ka Leung Chan, Joseph Jao-Yiu Sung, Jun Yu
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) have a different gut microbiome signature than individuals without CRC. Little is known about the viral component of CRC-associated microbiome. We aimed to identify and validate viral taxonomic markers of CRC that might be used in detection of disease or predicting outcome. METHODS: We performed shotgun metagenomic analyses of viromes of fecal samples from 74 patients with CRC (cases) and 92 individuals without CRC (controls) in Hong Kong (discovery cohort)...
April 21, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685747/four-domains-the-fundamental-unicell-and-post-darwinian-cognition-based-evolution
#14
William B Miller, John S Torday
Contemporary research supports the viewpoint that self-referential cognition is the proper definition of life. From that initiating platform, a cohesive alternative evolutionary narrative distinct from standard Neodarwinism can be presented. Cognition-Based Evolution contends that biological variation is a product of a self-reinforcing information cycle that derives from self-referential attachment to biological information space-time with its attendant ambiguities. That information cycle is embodied through obligatory linkages among energy, biological information, and communication...
April 13, 2018: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670252/urbanization-and-the-gut-microbiota-in-health-and-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#15
REVIEW
Tao Zuo, Michael A Kamm, Jean-Frédéric Colombel, Siew C Ng
In the 21st century, urbanization represents a major demographic shift in developed and developing countries. Rapid urbanization in the developing world has been associated with an increasing incidence of several autoimmune diseases, including IBD. Patients with IBD exhibit a decrease in the diversity and richness of the gut microbiota, while urbanization attenuates the gut microbial diversity and might have a role in the pathogenesis of IBD. Environmental exposures during urbanization, including Westernization of diet, increased antibiotic use, pollution, improved hygiene status and early-life microbial exposure, have been shown to affect the gut microbiota...
April 18, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668682/biogeography-and-environmental-conditions-shape-bacteriophage-bacteria-networks-across-the-human-microbiome
#16
Geoffrey D Hannigan, Melissa B Duhaime, Danai Koutra, Patrick D Schloss
Viruses and bacteria are critical components of the human microbiome and play important roles in health and disease. Most previous work has relied on studying bacteria and viruses independently, thereby reducing them to two separate communities. Such approaches are unable to capture how these microbial communities interact, such as through processes that maintain community robustness or allow phage-host populations to co-evolve. We implemented a network-based analytical approach to describe phage-bacteria network diversity throughout the human body...
April 18, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666290/viral-diversity-of-house-mice-in-new-york-city
#17
Simon H Williams, Xiaoyu Che, Joel A Garcia, John D Klena, Bohyun Lee, Dorothy Muller, Werner Ulrich, Robert M Corrigan, Stuart Nichol, Komal Jain, W Ian Lipkin
The microbiome of wild Mus musculus (house mouse), a globally distributed invasive pest that resides in close contact with humans in urban centers, is largely unexplored. Here, we report analysis of the fecal virome of house mice in residential buildings in New York City, NY. Mice were collected at seven sites in Manhattan, Queens, Brooklyn, and the Bronx over a period of 1 year. Unbiased high-throughput sequencing of feces revealed 36 viruses from 18 families and 21 genera, including at least 6 novel viruses and 3 novel genera...
April 17, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644097/the-virome-of-drosophila-suzukii-an-invasive-pest-of-soft-fruit
#18
Nathan C Medd, Simon Fellous, Fergal M Waldron, Anne Xuéreb, Madoka Nakai, Jerry V Cross, Darren J Obbard
Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) is one of the most damaging and costly pests to invade temperate horticultural regions in recent history. Conventional control of this pest is challenging, and an environmentally benign microbial biopesticide is highly desirable. A thorough exploration of the pathogens infecting this pest is not only the first step on the road to the development of an effective biopesticide, but also provides a valuable comparative dataset for the study of viruses in the model family Drosophilidae ...
January 2018: Virus Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625974/the-viral-structure-of-the-cuatro-ci%C3%A3-negas-basin-a-unique-oasis-in-northern-mexico-reveals-a-highly-diverse-population-at-a-small-geographic-scale
#19
B Taboada, P Isa, A L Gutiérrez-Escolano, R M Del Ángel, J E Ludert, N Vázquez, M A Tapia-Palacios, P Chávez, E Garrido, A C Espinosa, L E Eguiarte, S López, V Souza, C F Arias
The Cuatro Ciénegas Basin (CCB) is located in the Chihuahuan desert, in the Mexican state of Coahuila; it has been characterized as a site with a biological high diversity despite its extreme oligotrophic conditions. It has the greatest number of endemic species in North America, containing abundant living microbialites (including stromatolites and microbial mats), and diverse microbial communities. With the hypothesis that this large biodiversity and the geographic structure should be reflected in the virome, the viral communities in 11 different locations of three drainage systems: Churince, La Becerra, and Pozas Rojas and in the intestinal content of 3 different fish species were analyzed, looking for both eukaryotic and prokaryotic RNA and DNA viruses, using NGS methods...
April 6, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615108/phages-infecting-faecalibacterium-prausnitzii-belong-to-novel-viral-genera-that-help-to-decipher-intestinal-viromes
#20
Jeffrey K Cornuault, Marie-Agnès Petit, Mahendra Mariadassou, Leandro Benevides, Elisabeth Moncaut, Philippe Langella, Harry Sokol, Marianne De Paepe
BACKGROUND: Viral metagenomic studies have suggested a role for bacteriophages in intestinal dysbiosis associated with several human diseases. However, interpretation of viral metagenomic studies is limited by the lack of knowledge of phages infecting major human gut commensal bacteria, such as Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, a bacterial symbiont repeatedly found depleted in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. In particular, no complete genomes of phages infecting F. prausnitzii are present in viral databases...
April 3, 2018: Microbiome
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