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Antiepileptics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346659/is-universal-hla-b-15-02-screening-a-cost-effective-option-in-an-ethnically-diverse-population-a-case-study-of-malaysia
#1
H Y Chong, Z Mohamed, L L Tan, D B C Wu, F H Shabaruddin, M Dahlui, Y D Apalasamy, S R Snyder, M S Williams, J Hao, L H Cavallari, N Chaiyakunapruk
BACKGROUND: Strong association was documented between human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B*15:02 and carbamazepine-induced severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs) in Asians. Beyond Asia, the HLA testing is potentially valuable in many countries with increasingly diverse communities of Asian ancestry, to facilitate an early recognition of patient susceptibility to SCARs. OBJECTIVE: To determine the cost-effectiveness of universal HLA-B*15:02 screening in preventing carbamazepine-induced Stevens-Johnson syndrome/ toxic epidermal necrolysis in an ethnically-diverse Malaysian population...
March 27, 2017: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345735/-supratentorial-cavernous-malformations-in-an-argentinian-institution-experience-with-surgical-treatment
#2
G E Vergara, A Cervio, M Farez, R Mormandi, S Condomi-Alcorta, J Salvat
INTRODUCTION: Cavernous malformations are vascular malformations of the central nervous system formed by a group of capillaries not covered by pia mater and communicated to the vascular system at very low pressure with very slow flow. Surgery or radiosurgery are the treatment modalities. AIMS: To analyze our results after surgical treatment of supratentorial cavernous malformations, reviewing clinical presentation, surgical indications and postoperative complications...
April 1, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343443/lacosamide-induced-recurrent-ventricular-tachycardia-in-the-acute-care-setting
#3
Theodore J Berei, Matthew P Lillyblad, Adrian K Almquist
Lacosamide is a new-generation antiepileptic drug (AED) most commonly used adjunctively in the setting of partial-onset seizures refractory to traditional therapy. We describe the first case report, to our knowledge, of a patient who developed recurrent, sustained ventricular tachycardia with multiple administrations of lacosamide in an acute setting. A 70-year-old woman with a history significant for valvular heart disease was admitted to the inpatient cardiology service for worsening heart failure. On hospital day 7, she received a bioprosthetic aortic valve...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343093/influence-of-genetic-variants-of-cyp2d6-cyp2c9-cyp2c19-and-cyp3a4-on-antiepileptic-drug-metabolism-in-pediatric-patients-with-refractory-epilepsy
#4
Miguel A López-García, Iris A Feria-Romero, Héctor Serrano, Darío Rayo-Mares, Pietro Fagiolino, Marta Vázquez, Consuelo Escamilla-Núñez, Israel Grijalva, David Escalante-Santiago, Sandra Orozco-Suarez
BACKGROUND: Identified the polymorphisms of CYP2D6, CYP2C9, CYP2C19 and CYP3A4, within a rigorously selected population of pediatric patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. METHOD: The genomic DNA of 23 drug-resistant epilepsy patients and 7 patients with good responses were analyzed. Ten exons in these four genes were genotyped, and the drug concentrations in saliva and plasma were determined. RESULTS: The relevant SNPs with pharmacogenomics relations were CYP2D6*2 (rs16947) decreased your activity and CYP2D6*4 (rs1065852), CYP2C19*2 (rs4244285) and CYP3A4*1B (rs2740574) by association with poor metabolizer...
January 19, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343009/prognostic-analysis-for-short-and-long-term-outcomes-of-newly-diagnosed-epilepsy
#5
Yong-Li Jiang, Fang Yuan, Fang Yang, Xiao-Long Sun, Xi-Ai Yang, Lu Song, Wen Jiang
PURPOSE: To explore predictors for short- and long-term prognosis of newly diagnosed epilepsy. METHODS: 549 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy were reviewed, 336 were enrolled in the study. Two-year remission in the short term (5 years) and five-year remission in the long term (>5, up to 8 years) were assessed as the outcomes. Logistic regression was used to identify independent predictors for unfavorable outcomes. χ(2) test was used to compare the retention rates of old and new antiepileptic drugs (AEDs)...
March 18, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342959/early-lance-adams-syndrome-after-cardiac-arrest-prevalence-time-to-return-to-awareness-and-outcome-in-a-large-cohort
#6
Irene Aicua Rapun, Jan Novy, Daria Solari, Mauro Oddo, Andrea O Rossetti
INTRODUCTION: Early myoclonus after Cardiac Arrest (CA) is traditionally viewed as a poor prognostic sign (status myoclonus). However, some patients may present early Lance-Adams syndrome (LAS): under appropriate treatment, they can reach a satisfactory functional outcome. Our aim was to describe their profile, focusing on pharmacologic management in the ICU, time to return of awareness, and long-term prognosis. METHODS: Adults with early LAS (defined as generalized myoclonus within 96hours, with epileptiform EEG within 48hours after CA) were retrospectively identified in our CA registry between 2006 and 2016...
March 22, 2017: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338647/is-primary-prevention-with-antiepileptic-drugs-effective-in-brain-tumors-or-brain-metastases
#7
Diego Lobos-Urbina, Lucas Kittsteiner-Manubens, José Peña
Patients with brain tumors –primary or metastatic- have an increased risk of presenting seizures during the course of their disease. So, prophylactic antiepileptic drugs have been proposed. However, the effects of this intervention are not yet clear. To answer this question, we searched in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening multiple databases. We identified 12 systematic reviews including 80 studies overall. Twelve corresponded to randomized trials, but only two answered the question of interest...
March 21, 2017: Medwave
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337727/newer-antiepileptic-drugs-in-status-epilepticus-prescription-trends-and-outcomes-in-comparison-with-traditional-agents
#8
Isabelle Beuchat, Jan Novy, Andrea O Rossetti
INTRODUCTION: Newer antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are increasingly prescribed; however, relatively limited data are available regarding their use in status epilepticus (SE) and the impact on outcome. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to explore the evolution in prescription patterns of newer and traditional AEDs in this clinical setting, and their association with prognosis. METHODS: We analyzed our prospective adult SE registry over a 10-year period (2007-2016) and assessed the yearly use of newer and traditional AEDs and their association with mortality, return to baseline conditions at discharge, and SE refractoriness, defined as treatment resistance to two AEDs, including benzodiazepines...
March 24, 2017: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335764/health-care-cost-associated-with-the-use-of-enzyme-inducing-and-non-enzyme-active-antiepileptic-drugs-in-the-uk-a-long-term-retrospective-matched-cohort-study
#9
Simon Borghs, Solène Thieffry, Matthias Noack-Rink, Peter Dedeken, Lai San Hong, Laura Byram, John Logan, Jane Chan, Victor Kiri
BACKGROUND: Some antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) induce expression of hepatic enzymes. This can contribute to comorbidities via interference with metabolic pathways and concomitant drug metabolization, thereby increasing the likelihood of health care interventions. Using medical records, we compared the direct health care cost in patients initiating epilepsy therapy with enzyme-inducing AEDs (EIAEDs) vs non-enzyme-active AEDs (nEAAEDs) over up to 12 years. METHODS: Patients with untreated epilepsy were indexed in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink and Hospital Episode Statistics database when prescribed a new EIAED or nEAAED between January 2001 and December 2010...
March 23, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332798/discontinuation-of-antiepileptic-drugs-in-seizure-free-patients-when-and-how
#10
Morten I Lossius, Kristin Å Alfstad, Kari M Aaberg, Karl O Nakken
In seizure-free patients with epilepsy, the question of whether, and if so when, it is acceptable to withdraw treatment may be difficult to answer. A thorough risk-benefit assessment should be undertaken with the patient and next of kin, during which the consequences of a relapse must be weighed against the disadvantages of continued administration of the drug. As a main rule, adult patients should have been seizure-free for at least two years before discontinuation is considered. In children with epilepsy with a known good prognosis, discontinuation may be considered even earlier...
March 2017: Tidsskrift for Den Norske Lægeforening: Tidsskrift for Praktisk Medicin, Ny Række
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331466/generic-modified-release-antiepileptic-drugs-no-difference-within-formulations-but-important-differences-across-formulations
#11
Cynthia L Harden
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2017: Epilepsy Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330759/amiodarone-reduces-depolarization-evoked-glutamate-release-from-hippocampual-synaptosomes
#12
Chia Yu Chang, Chi Feng Hung, Shu Kuei Huang, Jinn Rung Kuo, Su Jane Wang
Decreased brain glutamate level has emerged as a new therapeutic approach for epilepsy. This study investigated the effect and mechanism of amiodarone, an anti-arrhythmic drug with antiepileptic activity, on glutamate release in the rat hippocampus. In a synaptosomal preparation, amiodarone reduced 4-aminopyridine-evoked Ca(2+)-dependent glutamate release and cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration elevation. Amiodarone did not affect the 4-aminopyridine-evoked depolarization of the synaptosomal membrane potential or the Na(+) channel activator veratridine-evoked glutamate release, indicating that the amiodarone-mediated inhibition of glutamate release is not caused by a decrease in synaptosomal excitability...
March 8, 2017: Journal of Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327340/epileptic-activity-in-alzheimer-s-disease-causes-and-clinical-relevance
#13
REVIEW
Keith A Vossel, Maria C Tartaglia, Haakon B Nygaard, Adam Z Zeman, Bruce L Miller
Epileptic activity is frequently associated with Alzheimer's disease; this association has therapeutic implications, because epileptic activity can occur at early disease stages and might contribute to pathogenesis. In clinical practice, seizures in patients with Alzheimer's disease can easily go unrecognised because they usually present as non-motor seizures, and can overlap with other symptoms of the disease. In patients with Alzheimer's disease, seizures can hasten cognitive decline, highlighting the clinical relevance of early recognition and treatment...
April 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324940/use-of-local-field-potentials-of-dissociated-cultures-grown-on-multi-electrode-arrays-for-pharmacological-assays
#14
G D C Mendis, E Morrisroe, C A Reid, S K Halgamuge, S Petrou
In vitro Multi-Electrode Arrays (MEA) are an extracellular recording technology that enables the analysis of networks of neurons in vitro. Neurons in culture exhibit a range of behavioral dynamics, which can be measured in terms of individual action potentials, network-wide synchronized firing and a host of other features that characterize network activity. MEA data analysis was historically focused on high frequency spike data forgoing the low frequency content of the signal. In this study, we use local field potentials, which are low frequency components of MEA signals, to differentiate between two types of antiepileptic drugs (p<;0...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324653/evaluation-of-brain-pharmacokinetic-and-neuropharmacodynamic-attributes-of-antiepileptic-drug-lacosamide-in-hepatic-and-renal-impairment-preclinical-evidence
#15
Baldeep Kumar, Manish Modi, Biman Saikia, Bikash Medhi
The knowledge of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of antiepileptic drugs is helpful in optimizing drug therapy for epilepsy. This study was designed to evaluate the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of lacosamide in experimentally induced hepatic and renal impairment in seizure animals. Hepatic or renal impairment was induced by injection of carbon tetrachloride or diclofenac sodium, respectively. After induction, the animals were administered with a single dose of lacosamide. At different time points, MES seizure recordings were done followed by isolation of plasma and brain samples for drug quantification and pharmacodynamic measurements...
March 21, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320517/influence-of-age-and-co-medication-on-the-steady-state-pharmacokinetics-of-valproic-acid-in-tunisian-patients-with-epilepsy
#16
L Ben Mahmoud, A Hakim, H Ghozzi, R Atheymen, Z Sahnoun, K Zeghal
AIM: Valproic acid (VPA) is a widely prescribed broad-spectrum antiepileptic drug. However, the use of VPA is complicated in clinical practice by its remarkably wide variability of pharmacokinetics. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of demographic factors and associated therapies on steady-state plasma VPA concentrations in patients with epilepsy. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was carried out using the routine therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) database...
March 17, 2017: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319750/unfavorable-effect-of-levetiracetam-on-cultured-hippocampal-neurons-after-hyperthermic-injury
#17
Krzysztof Sendrowski, Piotr Sobaniec, Elżbieta Poskrobko, Małgorzata Rusak, Wojciech Sobaniec
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine the viability of neurons and the putative neuroprotective effects of second-generation antiepileptic drug, levetiracetam (LEV), on cultured hippocampal neurons injured by hyperthermia. METHODS: Primary cultures of rat's hippocampal neurons at 7day in vitro (DIV) were incubated in the presence or absence of LEV in varied concentrations under hyperthermic conditions. Cultures were heated in a temperature of 40°C for 24h or in a temperature of 41°C for 6h...
January 24, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317156/synthesis-and-anticonvulsant-properties-of-new-3-3-diphenyl-2-5-dioxo-pyrrolidin-1-yl-acetamides-and-3-3-diphenyl-propionamides
#18
Jolanta Obniska, Anna Rapacz, Sabina Rybka, Małgorzata Góra, Paweł Żmudzki, Krzysztof Kamiński
The focused library of new amides derived from 3,3-diphenyl-2,5-dioxo-pyrrolidin-1-yl-acetic acid (2a-t) and 3,3-diphenyl-propionic acid (3a-t) as potential anticonvulsant agents was synthesized. The final products were obtained in the amidation reaction of the given carboxylic acid (2, 3) with appropriate secondary amines in the presence of carbonyldiimidazole (CDI) as a coupling reagent. The initial anticonvulsant screening was performed in mice intraperitoneally (i.p.) using the "classical" maximal electroshock (MES) and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole (scPTZ) seizure models, whereas the acute neurological toxicity was determined applying the rotarod test...
March 20, 2017: Archiv der Pharmazie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315958/brain-tumor-location-influences-the-onset-of-acute-psychiatric-adverse-events-of-levetiracetam-therapy-an-observational-study
#19
Vincenzo Belcastro, Laura Rosa Pisani, Silvio Bellocchi, Paolo Casiraghi, Gaetano Gorgone, Marco Mula, Francesco Pisani
To explore possible correlations among brain lesion location, development of psychiatric symptoms and the use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) in a population of patients with brain tumor and epilepsy. The medical records of 283 patients with various types of brain tumor (161 M/122 F, mean age 64.9 years) were analysed retrospectively. Patients with grade III and IV glioma, previous history of epileptic seizures and/or psychiatric disorders were excluded. Psychiatric symptoms occurring after initiation of AED therapy were considered as treatment emergent psychiatric adverse events (TE-PAEs) if they fulfilled the following conditions: (1) onset within 4 weeks after the beginning of AED therapy; (2) disappearance on drug discontinuation; (3) absence of any other identified possible concurrent cause...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315500/relation-between-sexual-dysfunctions-and-epilepsy-type-of-epilepsy-type-of-antiepileptic-drugs-a-prospective-study
#20
Carlo Pavone, Ninfa Giacalone, Lidia Urso, Leila Zummo, Brigida Fierro
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of sexual dysfunctions in males with epilepsy, the type of epilepsy, the frequency of seizures, the type of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), the serum hormonal profile and the presence of psychiatric comorbidity. METHODS: Sixty-one patients focused on type of epilepsy, frequency of seizures, AEDs, hormonal profile and presence of mood disorders. We excluded all patients with severe neurologic and psychiatric impairment and patient who were not able to fill questionnaires...
March 18, 2017: Urologia
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