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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235706/a-conserved-tad-pilus-promotes-vibrio-vulnificus-oyster-colonization
#1
Meng Pu, Patrick Duriez, Mattan Arazi, Dean A Rowe-Magnus
Vibrio vulnificus has the highest death rate (>35%) and per-case economic burden ($3.3 million) of any foodborne pathogen in the US. Infections occur via open wounds or following ingestion of contaminated seafood, most infamously oysters. We isolated a 1000th generation descendant, designated NT, that exhibited increased biofilm and aggregate formation relative to its parent. We identified two significant causal changes underlying these NT phenotypes. First, the entire 24-kb capsular polysaccharide biosynthesis locus, which is essential for virulence but inhibits biofilm formation, had been purged from the genome...
December 13, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233569/continuous-adductor-canal-blocks-provide-superior-ambulation-and-pain-control-compared-to-epidural-analgesia-for-primary-knee-arthroplasty-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#2
Erdan Kayupov, Kamil Okroj, Adam C Young, Mario Moric, Timothy J Luchetti, Gilat Zisman, Asokumar Buvanendran, Tad L Gerlinger, Craig J Della Valle
BACKGROUND: Adductor canal blocks (ACBs) are an alternative to femoral nerve blocks that minimize lower extremity weakness. However, it is unclear whether this block will provide analgesia that is equivalent to techniques, such as epidural analgesia. The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to compare continuous ACBs with epidural analgesia for primary total knee arthroplasty. METHODS: Following institutional review board approval, 145 patients were randomized to 1 of 3 groups: combined spinal-epidural (CSE), spinal + continuous ACB (CACB), or general + CACB...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229219/computer-assisted-navigation-for-intramedullary-nail-fixation-of-intertrochanteric-femur-fractures-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
Ryan J Lilly, Denise M Koueiter, Kelly C Graner, Gregory P Nowinski, Jason Sadowski, Kevin D Grant
INTRODUCTION: Lag screw cutout is one of the most commonly reported complications following intramedullary nail fixation of intertrochanteric femur fractures. However, its occurrence can be minimized by a well-positioned implant, with a short Tip-to-Apex Distance (TAD). Computer-assisted navigation systems provide surgeons with the ability to track screw placement in real-time. This could allow for improved lag screw placement and potentially reduce radiation exposure to the patient and surgeon...
December 7, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226300/a-novel-method-for-treatment-of-class-iii-malocclusion-in-growing-patients
#4
Saad A Al-Mozany, Oyku Dalci, Mohammed Almuzian, Carmen Gonzalez, Nour E Tarraf, M Ali Darendeliler
BACKGROUND: Management of Class III malocclusion is one of the most challenging treatments in orthodontics, and several methods have been advocated for treatment of this condition. A new treatment protocol involves the use of an alternating rapid maxillary expansion and constriction (Alt-RAMEC) protocol, in conjunction with full-time Class III elastic wear and coupled with the use of temporary anchorage devices (TADs). The aim of this study was to evaluate the dento-skeletal and profile soft tissue effects of this novel protocol in growing participants with retrognathic maxilla...
December 11, 2017: Progress in Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217591/topologically-associating-domains-and-chromatin-loops-depend-on-cohesin-and-are-regulated-by-ctcf-wapl-and-pds5-proteins
#5
Gordana Wutz, Csilla Várnai, Kota Nagasaka, David A Cisneros, Roman R Stocsits, Wen Tang, Stefan Schoenfelder, Gregor Jessberger, Matthias Muhar, M Julius Hossain, Nike Walther, Birgit Koch, Moritz Kueblbeck, Jan Ellenberg, Johannes Zuber, Peter Fraser, Jan-Michael Peters
Mammalian genomes are spatially organized into compartments, topologically associating domains (TADs), and loops to facilitate gene regulation and other chromosomal functions. How compartments, TADs, and loops are generated is unknown. It has been proposed that cohesin forms TADs and loops by extruding chromatin loops until it encounters CTCF, but direct evidence for this hypothesis is missing. Here, we show that cohesin suppresses compartments but is required for TADs and loops, that CTCF defines their boundaries, and that the cohesin unloading factor WAPL and its PDS5 binding partners control the length of loops...
December 7, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216379/endothelial-cell-differentiation-is-encompassed-by-changes-in-long-range-interactions-between-inactive-chromatin-regions
#6
Henri Niskanen, Irina Tuszynska, Rafal Zaborowski, Merja Heinäniemi, Seppo Ylä-Herttuala, Bartek Wilczynski, Minna U Kaikkonen
Endothelial cells (ECs) differentiate from mesodermal progenitors during vasculogenesis. By comparing changes in chromatin interactions between human umbilical vein ECs, embryonic stem cells and mesendoderm cells, we identified regions exhibiting EC-specific compartmentalization and changes in the degree of connectivity within topologically associated domains (TADs). These regions were characterized by EC-specific transcription, binding of lineage-determining transcription factors and cohesin. In addition, we identified 1200 EC-specific long-range interactions (LRIs) between TADs...
December 4, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216246/draft-genome-sequence-of-actinotignum-schaalii-dsm-15541t-genetic-insights-into-the-lifestyle-cell-fitness-and-virulence
#7
Atteyet F Yassin, Stefan Langenberg, Marcel Huntemann, Alicia Clum, Manoj Pillay, Krishnaveni Palaniappan, Neha Varghese, Natalia Mikhailova, Supratim Mukherjee, T B K Reddy, Chris Daum, Nicole Shapiro, Natalia Ivanova, Tanja Woyke, Nikos C Kyrpides
The permanent draft genome sequence of Actinotignum schaalii DSM 15541T is presented. The annotated genome includes 2,130,987 bp, with 1777 protein-coding and 58 rRNA-coding genes. Genome sequence analysis revealed absence of genes encoding for: components of the PTS systems, enzymes of the TCA cycle, glyoxylate shunt and gluconeogensis. Genomic data revealed that A. schaalii is able to oxidize carbohydrates via glycolysis, the nonoxidative pentose phosphate and the Entner-Doudoroff pathways. Besides, the genome harbors genes encoding for enzymes involved in the conversion of pyruvate to lactate, acetate and ethanol, which are found to be the end products of carbohydrate fermentation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215042/a-plag1-mutation-contributed-to-stature-recovery-in-modern-cattle
#8
Yuri Tani Utsunomiya, Marco Milanesi, Adam Taiti Harth Utsunomiya, Rafaela Beatriz Pintor Torrecilha, Eui-Soo Kim, Márcio Silva Costa, Tamíris Sayuri Aguiar, Steven Schroeder, Adriana Santana do Carmo, Roberto Carvalheiro, Haroldo Henrique Rezende Neves, Romulo Cláudio Morozini Padula, Thayla Souza Sussai, Ludmilla Balbo Zavarez, Rafael Silva Cipriano, Maria Margareth Theodoro Caminhas, George Hambrecht, Licia Colli, Elisa Eufemi, Paolo Ajmone-Marsan, Deneb Cesana, Marco Sannazaro, Maurizio Buora, Michele Morgante, George Liu, Derek Bickhart, Curtis Paul Van Tassell, Johann Sölkner, Tad Stewart Sonstegard, José Fernando Garcia
The recent evolution of cattle is marked by fluctuations in body size. Height in the Bos taurus lineage was reduced by a factor of ~1.5 from the Neolithic to the Middle Ages, and increased again only during the Early Modern Ages. Using haplotype analysis, we found evidence that the bovine PLAG1 mutation (Q) with major effects on body size, weight and reproduction is a >1,000 years old derived allele that increased rapidly in frequency in Northwestern European B. taurus between the 16th and 18th centuries...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209372/heat-shock-protein-27-plays-a-protective-role-in-thoracic-aortic-dissection-by-promoting-cell-proliferation-and-inhibiting-apoptosis
#9
Sili Zou, Mingfang Liao, Junlin Yang, Tong Huang, Mark Green, Jianjin Wu, Lefeng Qu
Background: Thoracic aortic dissection (TAD) is one of the most severe aortic diseases. The study aimed to explore the potential role of heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) in the pathogenesis of TAD using an in vitro model of oxidative stress in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Methods: HSP27 was analyzed in aortic surgical specimens from 12 patients with TAD and 8 healthy controls. A lentiviral vector was used to overexpress HSP27 in rat aortic VSMCs. Cell proliferation and apoptosis were measured under oxidative stress induced by H2O2...
2017: Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203764/3d-genome-of-multiple-myeloma-reveals-spatial-genome-disorganization-associated-with-copy-number-variations
#10
Pengze Wu, Tingting Li, Ruifeng Li, Lumeng Jia, Ping Zhu, Yifang Liu, Qing Chen, Daiwei Tang, Yuezhou Yu, Cheng Li
The Hi-C method is widely used to study the functional roles of the three-dimensional (3D) architecture of genomes. Here, we integrate Hi-C, whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and RNA-seq to study the 3D genome architecture of multiple myeloma (MM) and how it associates with genomic variation and gene expression. Our results show that Hi-C interaction matrices are biased by copy number variations (CNVs) and can be used to detect CNVs. Also, combining Hi-C and WGS data can improve the detection of translocations...
December 5, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201376/quantifying-animal-movement-for-caching-foragers-the-path-identification-index-pii-and-cougars-puma-concolor
#11
Kirsten E Ironside, David J Mattson, Tad Theimer, Brian Jansen, Brandon Holton, Terence Arundel, Michael Peters, Joseph O Sexton, Thomas C Edwards
Background: Many studies of animal movement have focused on directed versus area-restricted movement, which rely on correlations between step-length and turn-angles and on stationarity through time to define behavioral states. Although these approaches might apply well to grazing in patchy landscapes, species that either feed for short periods on large, concentrated food sources or cache food exhibit movements that are difficult to model using the traditional metrics of turn-angle and step-length alone...
2017: Movement Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201018/prevalence-of-flp-pili-encoding-plasmids-in-cutibacterium-acnes-isolates-obtained-from-prostatic-tissue
#12
Sabina Davidsson, Jessica Carlsson, Paula Mölling, Natyra Gashi, Ove Andrén, Swen-Olof Andersson, Elzbieta Brzuszkiewicz, Anja Poehlein, Munir A Al-Zeer, Volker Brinkmann, Carsten Scavenius, Seven Nazipi, Bo Söderquist, Holger Brüggemann
Inflammation is one of the hallmarks of prostate cancer. The origin of inflammation is unknown, but microbial infections are suspected to play a role. In previous studies, the Gram-positive, low virulent bacterium Cutibacterium (formerly Propionibacterium) acnes was frequently isolated from prostatic tissue. It is unclear if the presence of the bacterium represents a true infection or a contamination. Here we investigated Cutibacterium acnes type II, also called subspecies defendens, which is the most prevalent type among prostatic C...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189754/microbial-insight-into-a-pilot-scale-enhanced-two-stage-high-solid-anaerobic-digestion-system-treating-waste-activated-sludge
#13
Jing Wu, Zhiping Cao, Yuying Hu, Xiaolu Wang, Guangqi Wang, Jiane Zuo, Kaijun Wang, Yi Qian
High solid anaerobic digestion (HSAD) is a rapidly developed anaerobic digestion technique for treating municipal sludge, and has been widely used in Europe and Asia. Recently, the enhanced HSAD process with thermal treatment showed its advantages in both methane production and VS reduction. However, the understanding of the microbial community is still poor. This study investigated microbial communities in a pilot enhanced two-stage HSAD system that degraded waste activated sludge at 9% solid content. The system employed process "thermal pre-treatment (TPT) at 70 °C, thermophilic anaerobic digestion (TAD), and mesophilic anaerobic digestion (MAD)"...
November 30, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178534/immune-checkpoint-pd-1-pd-l1-is-there-life-beyond-antibodies
#14
Alexander Doemling, Markella Konstantinidou, Tryfon Zarganes-Tzitzikas, Katarzyna Magiera, Tad A Holak
The PD-1/PD-L1 axis has emerged as a significant target in cancer immunotherapy. Current medications include monoclonal antibodies, which have shown impressive clinical results in the treatment of several types of tumors. The cocrystal structure of human PD-1 and PD-L1 is expected to be a valuable starting point for the design of novel inhibitors, alongside with the recent crystal structures with monoclonal antibodies, small molecules and macrocycles.
November 27, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177754/a-review-of-biomarkers-in-peri-miniscrew-implant-crevicular-fluid-pmicf
#15
REVIEW
Avinash Kaur, Om P Kharbanda, Priyanka Kapoor, Dinesh Kalyanasundaram
BACKGROUND: The temporary anchorage devices (TADs) which include miniscrew implants (MSIs) have evolved as useful armamentarium in the management of severe malocclusions and assist in complex tooth movements. Although a multitude of factors is responsible for the primary and secondary stability of miniscrew implants, contemporary research highlights the importance of biological interface of MSI with bone and soft tissue in augmenting the success of implants. The inflammation and remodeling associated with MSI insertion or loading are reflected through biomarkers in peri-miniscrew implant crevicular fluid (PMICF) which is analogous to the gingival crevicular fluid...
November 27, 2017: Progress in Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175436/3d-chromatin-architecture-of-large-plant-genomes-determined-by-local-a-b-compartments
#16
Pengfei Dong, Xiaoyu Tu, Po-Yu Chu, Peitao Lü, Ning Zhu, Donald Grierson, Baijuan Du, Pinghua Li, Silin Zhong
The spatial organization of the genome plays an important role in the regulation of gene expression. However, the core structural features of animal genomes, such as topologically associated domains (TADs) and chromatin loops, are not prominent in the extremely compact Arabidopsis genome. In this study, we have examined the chromatin architecture, as well as their DNA methylation, histone modifications, accessible chromatin and gene expression, of maize, tomato, sorghum, foxtail millet and rice with genome sizes ranging from 0...
November 21, 2017: Molecular Plant
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173962/intraoperative-lateral-wall-fractures-during-dynamic-hip-screw-fixation-for-intertrochanteric-fractures-incidence-causative-factors-and-clinical-outcome
#17
Annur R Pradeep, Addala KiranKumar, Jayaramaraju Dheenadhayalan, Shanmuganathan Rajasekaran
INTRODUCTION: The intact lateral wall plays a key role in stabilization of trochanteric fracture. Hence extreme precaution should be taken to prevent lateral wall damage during DHS fixation. Present study is aimed at evaluating the determinants of lateral wall fracture and its effect on outcome in intertrochanteric fracture femur treated with DHS. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a prospective study involving intertrochanteric fractures treated with DHS fixation from July 2013 to June 2014...
November 21, 2017: Injury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170434/single-cell-absolute-contact-probability-detection-reveals-chromosomes-are-organized-by-multiple-low-frequency-yet-specific-interactions
#18
Diego I Cattoni, Andrés M Cardozo Gizzi, Mariya Georgieva, Marco Di Stefano, Alessandro Valeri, Delphine Chamousset, Christophe Houbron, Stephanie Déjardin, Jean-Bernard Fiche, Inma González, Jia-Ming Chang, Thomas Sexton, Marc A Marti-Renom, Frédéric Bantignies, Giacomo Cavalli, Marcelo Nollmann
At the kilo- to megabase pair scales, eukaryotic genomes are partitioned into self-interacting modules or topologically associated domains (TADs) that associate to form nuclear compartments. Here, we combine high-content super-resolution microscopies with state-of-the-art DNA-labeling methods to reveal the variability in the multiscale organization of the Drosophila genome. We find that association frequencies within TADs and between TAD borders are below ~10%, independently of TAD size, epigenetic state, or cell type...
November 24, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167281/polytene-chromosome-structure-and-somatic-genome-instability
#19
Allan C Spradling
Polytene chromosomes have for 80 years provided the highest resolution view of interphase genome structure in an animal cell nucleus. These chromosomes represent the normal genomic state of nearly all Drosophila larval and many adult cells, and a better understanding of their striking banded structure has been sought for decades. A more recently appreciated characteristic of Drosophila polytene cells is somatic genome instability caused by unfinished replication (UR). Repair of stalled forks generates enough deletions in polytene salivary gland cells to alter 10%-90% of the DNA strands within more than 100 UR regions comprising 20% of the euchromatic genome...
November 22, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162810/dna-methylation-signatures-follow-preformed-chromatin-compartments-in-cardiac-myocytes
#20
Stephan Nothjunge, Thomas G Nührenberg, Björn A Grüning, Stefanie A Doppler, Sebastian Preissl, Martin Schwaderer, Carolin Rommel, Markus Krane, Lutz Hein, Ralf Gilsbach
Storage of chromatin in restricted nuclear space requires dense packing while ensuring DNA accessibility. Thus, different layers of chromatin organization and epigenetic control mechanisms exist. Genome-wide chromatin interaction maps revealed large interaction domains (TADs) and higher order A and B compartments, reflecting active and inactive chromatin, respectively. The mutual dependencies between chromatin organization and patterns of epigenetic marks, including DNA methylation, remain poorly understood...
November 21, 2017: Nature Communications
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