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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535280/invited-commentary-the-enduring-role-of-place-in-health-a-historic-perspective
#1
Yvette C Cozier
In public health, it has long been observed that "place"-specifically, where one lives-affects individual health, with the main research question distinguishing between the effects of "context" (defined as area characteristics) and "composition" (the characteristics of inhabitants) on health outcomes. There have been many studies in which the spatial patterning of disease has been explored, but they were often ecological in design, used broad census geographic levels, lacked individual-level data, or when available, did not simultaneously analyze community- and individual-level risk factors using appropriate modeling techniques...
May 23, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534860/hemophilia-care-in-the-pediatric-age
#2
REVIEW
Marta Bertamino, Francesca Riccardi, Laura Banov, Johanna Svahn, Angelo Claudio Molinari
Hemophilia is the most common of the severe bleeding disorders and if not properly managed since early infancy can lead to chronic disease and lifelong disabilities. However, it enjoys the most efficacious and safe treatment among the most prevalent monogenic disorders. Hemophilia should be considered in the neonatal period in the case of unusual bleeding or in the case of positive family history. Later, hemophilia should be suspected mainly in males because of abnormal bruising/bleeding or unusual bleeding following invasive procedures-for example, tonsillectomy or circumcision...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534451/genetic-moderation-of-multiple-pathways-linking-early-cumulative-socioeconomic-adversity-and-young-adults-cardiometabolic-disease-risk
#3
Kandauda A S Wickrama, Tae Kyoung Lee, Catherine Walker O'Neal
Recent research suggests that psychosocial resources and life stressors are mediating pathways explaining socioeconomic variation in young adults' health risks. However, less research has examined both these pathways simultaneously and their genetic moderation. A nationally representative sample of 11,030 respondents with prospective data collected over 13 years from the National Study of Adolescent to Adult Health was examined. First, the association between early cumulative socioeconomic adversity and young adults' (ages 25-34) cardiometabolic disease risk, as measured by 10 biomarkers, through psychosocial resources (educational attainment) and life stressors (accelerated transition to adulthood) was examined...
May 23, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534150/examining-the-contemporaneous-short-term-and-long-term-effects-of-secondary-exposure-to-violence-on-adolescent-substance-use
#4
Gregory M Zimmerman, Mackenzie Kushner
The relationship between secondary exposure to violence-defined as witnessing violence in the home, community, or school-and adolescent substance use is well-documented. Yet, multi-wave empirical studies examining this relationship are sparse. In addition, studies have only begun to examine whether this relationship varies by the situational components of the violent event. Using data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN), this study examines the contemporaneous, short-term, and long-term effects of secondary exposure to violence on substance use, and whether witnessing violence in which a weapon is present has a different impact on adolescent substance use than does witnessing violence without a weapon...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533890/effect-of-music-tempo-on-exercise-performance-and-heart-rate-among-young-adults
#5
Avinash E Thakare, Ranjeeta Mehrotra, Ayushi Singh
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Music captures attention, triggers a range of emotions, alters or regulates mood, increases work output, heightens arousal, induces states of higher functioning, reduces inhibitions and encourages rhythmic movement. Music has ergo-genic effect as well, it increases exercise performance, delays fatigue and increases performance and endurance, power and strength. Our study tried to evaluate the effect of music on exercise performance in young untrained subjects...
2017: International Journal of Physiology, Pathophysiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533360/female-peer-mentors-early-in-college-increase-women-s-positive-academic-experiences-and-retention-in-engineering
#6
Tara C Dennehy, Nilanjana Dasgupta
Scientific and engineering innovation is vital for American competitiveness, quality of life, and national security. However, too few American students, especially women, pursue these fields. Although this problem has attracted enormous attention, rigorously tested interventions outside artificial laboratory settings are quite rare. To address this gap, we conducted a longitudinal field experiment investigating the effect of peer mentoring on women's experiences and retention in engineering during college transition, assessing its impact for 1 y while mentoring was active, and an additional 1 y after mentoring had ended...
May 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533299/checks-and-balances-the-limits-of-%C3%AE-cell-endurance-to-er-stress
#7
Decio L Eizirik, Alexandra Coomans de Brachène
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533003/rectus-femoris-echo-intensity-correlates-with-muscle-strength-but-not-endurance-in-younger-and-older-men
#8
Jacob A Mota, Matt S Stock
We examined correlations between echo intensity and muscle strength and endurance. Rectus femoris echo intensity, maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force and time to task failure during a 50% MVC task were determined for 12 younger (mean age = 25 y) and 13 older (mean age = 74 y) men. Bivariate correlations between echo intensity and normalized MVC force were similar for younger and older men, but was only statistically significant for the latter (younger r = -0.559, p = 0.059; older r = -0.580, p = 0...
May 19, 2017: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532279/the-effect-of-cold-ambient-temperatures-on-climbing-specific-finger-flexor-performance
#9
Kevin Phillips, Byungjoo Noh, Matthew Gage, Tejin Yoon
Different ambient temperatures are known to affect muscular performance based on the type of contraction. The effect of cold (10°C) and thermoneutral (TN) (24°C) ambient temperatures on finger flexor performance was examined in 12 rock climbers. After 30 min of seated rest in the designated temperature condition, participants completed maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) on a climbing-specific finger flexor assessment device equipped with a crimp grip hold. Participants then completed an intermittent fatiguing task until failure...
May 22, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532248/effects-of-drop-sets-with-resistance-training-on-increases-in-muscle-csa-strength-and-endurance-a-pilot-study
#10
Hayao Ozaki, Atsushi Kubota, Toshiharu Natsume, Jeremy P Loenneke, Takashi Abe, Shuichi Machida, Hisashi Naito
To investigate the effects of a single high-load (80% of one repetition maximum [1RM]) set with additional drop sets descending to a low-load (30% 1RM) without recovery intervals on muscle strength, endurance, and size in untrained young men. Nine untrained young men performed dumbbell curls to concentric failure 2-3 days per week for 8 weeks. Each arm was randomly assigned to one of the following three conditions: 3 sets of high-load (HL, 80% 1RM) resistance exercise, 3 sets of low-load [LL, 30% 1RM] resistance exercise, and a single high-load (SDS) set with additional drop sets descending to a low-load...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532107/comparison-of-electrospun-and-solvent-cast-polylactic-acid-pla-poly-vinyl-alcohol-pva-inserts-as-potential-ocular-drug-delivery-vehicles
#11
Rajan Sharma Bhattarai, Amitesh Das, Rami M Alzhrani, Dongjin Kang, Sarit B Bhaduri, Sai H S Boddu
PURPOSE: The purpose of this work was to develop, characterize and compare electrospun nanofiber inserts (ENIs) and solvent cast polymeric inserts (SCIs) for ocular drug delivery. METHODS: ENI and SCI of 1%, 5% and 10% w/w dexamethasone were fabricated using a blend of poly-lactic acid (PLA) and poly-vinyl alcohol (PVA). Inserts were characterized for morphology, thickness, pH, drug content, drug crystallinity, in vitro drug release, sterility, dimethylformamide (DMF) and chloroform content, and cytotoxicity...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530078/-athlete-s-heart-the-more-the-merrier
#12
REVIEW
Reut Shavit, Michael Glikson, Naama Constantini
Regular moderate exercise training is effective for the prevention and treatment of many common chronic diseases and improves cardiovascular health and life expectancy. However, long-term excessive endurance exercise may induce pathological structural remodeling of the heart. The athlete's heart is characterized by enlargement of cardiac chambers and eccentric hypertrophy with preserved myocardial function as normal physiological adaptations for prolonged and intense endurance physical stress. However, recent studies have demonstrated transient right ventricular dysfunction and elevation of cardiac biomarkers following intense endurance exercise...
September 2016: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529397/behavior-problems-and-children-s-academic-achievement-a-test-of-growth-curve-models-with-gender-and-racial-differences
#13
Kristen P Kremer, Andrea Flower, Jin Huang, Michael G Vaughn
The aim of this study was to examine the longitudinal association between externalizing and internalizing behavior and children's academic achievement, particularly in terms of whether these variables varied as a function of gender and race. Data pertaining to externalizing and internalizing behavior, academic achievement, gender, and race from three waves of the Child Development Supplement of the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (N = 2028) were used. Results indicate that behavior problems had a negative relationship with academic performance and some of these associations endured over time...
August 2016: Children and Youth Services Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528447/a-single-bout-of-endurance-exercise-modulates-eeg-microstates-temporal-features
#14
Jérôme N Spring, Miralena I Tomescu, Jérôme Barral
Electrical neuroimaging is a promising method to explore the spontaneous brain function after physical exercise. The present study aims to investigate the effect of acute physical exercise on the temporal dynamic of the resting brain activity captured by the four conventional map topographies (microstates) described in the literature, and to associate these brain changes with the post-exercise neuromuscular function. Twenty endurance-trained subjects performed a 30-min biking task at 60% of their maximal aerobic power followed by a 10 km all-out time trial...
May 20, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527104/low-income-as-a-multiplicative-risk-factor-for-oral-pain-and-dental-problems-among-u-s-veteran-smokers
#15
Terrell A Hicks, Sarah M Wilson, Shaun P Thomas, Paul A Dennis, Julia M Neal, Patrick S Calhoun
PURPOSE: Compared to the United States (U.S.) general population, military veterans are at an increased risk of experiencing dental problems. This study documented associations between cigarette use and measures of dental/oral concern in a population of U.S. veterans who served in Iraq and Afghanistan. METHOD: A cross-sectional analysis of survey data from the Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) Veterans Health and Needs Study, a study of U...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526870/time-course-responses-of-circulating-micrornas-to-three-resistance-training-protocols-in-healthy-young-men
#16
Shufang Cui, Biao Sun, Xin Yin, Xia Guo, Dingming Chao, Chunni Zhang, Chen-Yu Zhang, Xi Chen, Jizheng Ma
Circulating microRNAs (c-miRNAs) in human plasma have been described as a potential marker of exercise. The present study investigated the effects of three acute resistance training (RT) protocols on the time-course changes of the c-miRNAs profiles in young males. The subjects (n = 45) were randomly divided into three groups: muscular strength endurance (SE), muscular hypertrophy (MH) and maximum strength (MS). Venous blood samples were obtained before exercise and immediately, 1 h and 24 h after each RT protocol to assess the following biological parameters: c-miRNAs, anabolic and catabolic hormones, inflammatory cytokines and muscle damage markers...
May 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526781/cd36-is-essential-for-endurance-improvement-changes-in%C3%A2-whole-body-metabolism-and-efficient-ppar-related-transcriptional-responses-in-the-muscle-with-exercise-training
#17
Mark Christian C Manio, Shigenobu Matsumura, Daisaku Masuda, Kazuo Inoue
Although circulating fatty acids are utilized as energy substrates, they also function as ligands to the peroxisome-proliferator activated receptors (PPARs), a family of fatty acid sensing transcription factors. Exercise training leads to various adaptations in the muscle such as elevation of glycogen content, mitochondrial number as well as upregulation of fatty acid uptake and utilization through downstream transcriptional adaptations. In line with this, CD36 has been shown to be critical in controlling fatty acid uptake and consequently, fatty acid oxidation...
May 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525355/does-body-fat-percentage-predict-post-exercise-heart-rate-response-in-non-obese-children-and-adolescents
#18
Tatjana Jezdimirovic, Valdemar Stajer, Sasa Semeredi, Julio Calleja-Gonzalez, Sergej M Ostojic
BACKGROUND: A correlation between adiposity and post-exercise autonomic regulation has been established in overweight and obese children. However, little information exists about this link in non-obese youth. The main purpose of this cross-sectional study was to describe the relationship between body fat percentage (BFP) and heart rate recovery after exercise [post-exercise heart rate (PEHR)], a marker of autonomic regulation, in normal-weight children and adolescents. METHODS: We evaluated the body composition of 183 children and adolescents (age 15...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524725/a-sport-education-fitness-season-s-impact-on-students-fitness-levels-knowledge-and-in-class-physical-activity
#19
Jeffery Kurt Ward, Peter A Hastie, Danielle D Wadsworth, Shelby Foote, Sheri J Brock, Nikki Hollett
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which a sport education season of fitness could provide students with recommended levels of in-class moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) while also increasing students' fitness knowledge and fitness achievement. METHOD: One hundred and sixty-six 5th-grade students (76 boys, 90 girls) participated in a 20-lesson season called "CrossFit Challenge" during a 4-week period. The Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run, push-ups, and curl-ups tests of the FITNESSGRAM® were used to assess fitness at pretest and posttest, while fitness knowledge was assessed through a validated, grade-appropriate test of health-related fitness knowledge (HRF)...
May 19, 2017: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524071/flexible-low-cost-sensor-based-on-electrolyte-gated-carbon-nanotube-field-effect-transistor-for-organo-phosphate-detection
#20
Vijay Deep Bhatt, Saumya Joshi, Markus Becherer, Paolo Lugli
A flexible enzymatic acetylcholinesterase biosensor based on an electrolyte-gated carbon nanotube field effect transistor is demonstrated. The enzyme immobilization is done on a planar gold gate electrode using 3-mercapto propionic acid as the linker molecule. The sensor showed good sensing capability as a sensor for the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, with a sensitivity of 5.7 μA/decade, and demonstrated excellent specificity when tested against interfering analytes present in the body. As the flexible sensor is supposed to suffer mechanical deformations, the endurance of the sensor was measured by putting it under extensive mechanical stress...
May 18, 2017: Sensors
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