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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535390/spatial-memory-mice-quickly-learn-a-safe-haven
#1
S E Roian Egnor
New work on innate escape behavior shows that mice spontaneously form a spatially precise memory of the location of shelter, which is laid down quickly and updated continuously.
May 22, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535304/the-interplay-of-micrornas-in-the-inflammatory-mechanisms-following-ischemic-stroke
#2
Seyed Esmaeil Khoshnam, William Winlow, Maryam Farzaneh
Immunity and inflammation are important parameters of the pathophysiology of stroke, a destructive illness that is the second most common cause of death worldwide. Following ischemic stroke, neuroinflammation plays a critical role in neurodegeneration and brain injury. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of endogenously expressed, noncoding RNA molecules that function to inhibit mRNA translation. Recent studies demonstrate that miRNAs are key regulators of inflammatory processes contributing to ischemic stroke injuries...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535034/p450-mediated-non-natural-cyclopropanation-of-dehydro-alanine-containing-thiopeptides
#3
Joshua G Gober, Swapnil V Ghodge, Jonathan W Bogart, Walter J Wever, Richard R Watkins, Eric M Brustad, Albert A Bowers
Thiopeptides are a growing class of ribosomally synthesized and posttranslationally modified peptide (RiPP) natural products. Many biosynthetic enzymes for RiPPs, especially thiopeptides, are promiscuous and can accept a wide range of peptide substrates with different amino acid sequence; thus, these enzymes have been used as tools to generate new natural product derivatives. Here, we explore an alternative route to molecular complexity by engineering thiopeptide tailoring enzymes to do new or non-native chemistry...
May 23, 2017: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534493/usp13-negatively-regulates-antiviral-responses-by-deubiquitinating-sting
#4
He Sun, Qiang Zhang, Ying-Ying Jing, Man Zhang, Hai-Ying Wang, Zeng Cai, Tianzi Liuyu, Zhi-Dong Zhang, Tian-Chen Xiong, Yan Wu, Qi-Yun Zhu, Jing Yao, Hong-Bing Shu, Dandan Lin, Bo Zhong
STING (also known as MITA) is critical for host defence against viruses and the activity of STING is regulated by ubiquitination. However, the deubiquitination of STING is not fully understood. Here, we show that ubiquitin-specific protease 13 (USP13) is a STING-interacting protein that catalyses deubiquitination of STING. Knockdown or knockout of USP13 potentiates activation of IRF3 and NF-κB and expression of downstream genes after HSV-1 infection or transfection of DNA ligands. USP13 deficiency results in impaired replication of HSV-1...
May 23, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534310/combination-immunotherapy-for-type-1-diabetes
#5
REVIEW
Robert N Bone, Carmella Evans-Molina
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease marked by β-cell destruction. Immunotherapies for T1D have been investigated since the 1980s and have focused on restoration of tolerance, T cell or B cell inhibition, regulatory T cell (Treg) induction, suppression of innate immunity and inflammation, immune system reset, and islet transplantation. The purpose of this review is to provide an overview and lessons learned from single immunotherapy trials, describe recent and ongoing combination immunotherapy trials, and provide perspectives on strategies for future combination clinical interventions aimed at preserving insulin secretion in T1D...
July 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534222/identification-of-innate-lymphoid-cells-in-single-cell-rna-seq-data
#6
Madeleine Suffiotti, Santiago J Carmona, Camilla Jandus, David Gfeller
Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) consist of natural killer (NK) cells and non-cytotoxic ILCs that are broadly classified into ILC1, ILC2, and ILC3 subtypes. These cells recently emerged as important early effectors of innate immunity for their roles in tissue homeostasis and inflammation. Over the last few years, ILCs have been extensively studied in mouse and human at the functional and molecular level, including gene expression profiling. However, sorting ILCs with flow cytometry for gene expression analysis is a delicate and time-consuming process...
May 22, 2017: Immunogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534113/cysteine-rich-low-molecular-weight-antimicrobial-peptides-from-brevibacillus-and-related-genera-for-biotechnological-applications
#7
REVIEW
Piyush Baindara, Anoop Kapoor, Suresh Korpole, Vishakha Grover
The production of natural antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) is an innate immunity trait of all life forms including eukaryotes and prokaryotes. While these AMPs are usually called as defensins in eukaryotes, they are known as bacteriocins in prokaryotes. Bacteriocins are more diverse AMPs considering their varied composition and posttranslational modifications. Accordingly, this review is focused on cysteine-rich AMPs resembling eukaryotic defensins such as laterosporulin from Brevibacillus spp. and associated peptides secreted by the members of related genera...
June 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534076/serum-prolidase-activity-in-systemic-sclerosis
#8
Ahmet Celik, Muhammed Nur Birer, Metin Kilinc
Systemic sclerosis, also known as scleroderma, is a complex systemic inflammatory autoimmune disease that targets the vasculature and connective tissue-producing cells and components of the innate and adaptive immune systems. The disease is characterized by a hardening of the skin and an increased synthesis of collagen . Prolidase is a specific imidodipeptidase involved in collagen degradation. The aim of this study was to search the serum prolidase activity (SPA) in the two subtypes of systemic sclerosis: diffuse and limited cutaneous systemic sclerosis...
May 22, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534038/analysis-of-mitochondrial-transfer-in-direct-co-cultures-of-human-monocyte-derived-macrophages-mdm-and-mesenchymal-stem-cells-msc
#9
Megan V Jackson, Anna D Krasnodembskaya
Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) are adult stem cells which have been shown to improve survival, enhance bacterial clearance and alleviate inflammation in pre-clinical models of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and sepsis. These diseases are characterised by uncontrolled inflammation often underpinned by bacterial infection. The mechanisms of MSC immunomodulatory effects are not fully understood yet. We sought to investigate MSC cell contact-dependent communication with alveolar macrophages (AM), professional phagocytes which play an important role in the lung inflammatory responses and anti-bacterial defence...
May 5, 2017: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533780/innate-immune-function-of-mitochondrial-metabolism
#10
REVIEW
David Sancho, Michel Enamorado, Johan Garaude
Sensing of microbe-associated molecular patterns or danger signals by innate immune receptors drives a complex exchange of information. Innate receptor signaling not only triggers transcriptional events but also induces profound changes in metabolic fluxes, redox balance, and metabolite abundance thereby influencing immune cell function. Mitochondria are at the core of metabolic adaptation to the changing environment. The close interaction between mitochondrial metabolism and immune signaling has emerged as a central regulator of innate sensing...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533775/the-role-of-microbiota-and-immunobiotics-in-granulopoiesis-of-immunocompromised-hosts
#11
REVIEW
Susana Salva, Susana Alvarez
The number of granulocytes is maintained by a regulated balance between granulopoiesis in the bone marrow and clearance and destruction in peripheral tissues. Granulopoiesis plays a fundamental role in the innate immune response. Therefore, factors affecting the normal granulopoiesis lead to alterations in innate defenses and reduce the resistance against infections. In this study, we give a description on recent advances regarding the molecular and cellular events that regulate steady-state and emergency granulopoiesis, which are crucial processes for the generation of protective innate immune responses...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533483/high-il-1r8-expression-in-breast-tumors-promotes-tumor-growth-and-contributes-to-impaired-antitumor-immunity
#12
Luis Felipe Campesato, Ana Paula M Silva, Luna Cordeiro, Bruna R Correa, Fabio C P Navarro, Rafael F Zanin, Marina Marçola, Lilian T Inoue, Mariana L Duarte, Martina Molgora, Fabio Pasqualini, Matteo Massara, Pedro Galante, Romualdo Barroso-Sousa, Nadia Polentarutti, Federica Riva, Erico T Costa, Alberto Mantovani, Cecilia Garlanda, Anamaria A Camargo
Tumors develop numerous strategies to fine-tune inflammation and avoid detection and eradication by the immune system. The identification of mechanisms leading to local immune dysregulation is critical to improve cancer therapy. We here demonstrate that Interleukin-1 receptor 8 (IL-1R8 - previously known as SIGIRR/TIR8), a negative regulator of Toll-Like and Interleukin-1 Receptor family signaling, is up-regulated during breast epithelial cell transformation and in primary breast tumors. IL-1R8 expression in transformed breast epithelial cells reduced IL-1-dependent NF-κB activation and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, inhibited NK cell activation and favored M2-like macrophage polarization...
May 9, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533472/yersinia-pestis-yopk-inhibits-bacterial-adhesion-to-host-cells-by-binding-to-the-extracellular-matrix-adaptor-protein-matrilin-2
#13
Yafang Tan, Wanbing Liu, Qingwen Zhang, Shiyang Cao, Haihong Zhao, Tong Wang, Zhizhen Qi, Yanping Han, Yajun Song, Xiaoyi Wang, Ruifu Yang, Zongmin Du
Pathogenic yersiniae harbor a type III secretion system (T3SS) that injects Yersinia outer protein (Yop) into host cells. YopK has been shown to control Yop translocation and prevent inflammasome recognition of T3SS by the innate immune system. Here, we demonstrate that YopK inhibits bacterial adherence to host cells by binding to the extracellular matrix adaptor protein matrilin-2 (MATN2). YopK binds to MATN2 and deleting the amino acids 91--124 disrupts binding of YopK to MATN2. A yopK null mutant exhibits hyper-adhesive phenotype, which could be responsible for the established Yop hyper-translocation phenotype of yopK mutant...
May 22, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533362/cgas-is-essential-for-cellular-senescence
#14
Hui Yang, Hanze Wang, Junyao Ren, Qi Chen, Zhijian J Chen
Cellular senescence is a natural barrier to tumorigenesis and it contributes to the antitumor effects of several therapies, including radiation and chemotherapeutic drugs. Senescence also plays an important role in aging, fibrosis, and tissue repair. The DNA damage response is a key event leading to senescence, which is characterized by the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) that includes expression of inflammatory cytokines. Here we show that cGMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS), a cytosolic DNA sensor that activates innate immunity, is essential for senescence...
May 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533357/tlr9-expression-and-secretion-of-lif-by-prostate-cancer-cells-stimulates-accumulation-and-activity-of-polymorphonuclear-mdscs
#15
Haejung Won, Dayson Moreira, Chan Gao, Priyanka Duttagupta, Xingli Zhao, Edwin Manuel, Don Diamond, Yate-Ching Yuan, Zheng Liu, Jeremy Jones, Massimo D'Apuzzo, Sumanta Pal, Marcin Kortylewski
Proinflammatory signals promote prostate tumorigenesis and progression, but their origins and downstream effects remain unclear. We recently demonstrated that the expression of an innate immune receptor, TLR9, by prostate cancer cells is critical for their tumor-propagating potential. We investigated whether cancer cell-intrinsic TLR9 signaling alters composition of the prostate tumor microenvironment. We generated Ras/Myc (RM9) and Myc-driven (Myc-CaP) prostate cancer cells expressing the tetracycline-inducible gene Tlr9 (Tlr9(ON) ) or the control LacZ (LacZ(ON) )...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533309/aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-inhibition-promotes-hemato-lymphoid-development-from-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#16
Mathew G Angelos, Paige N Ruh, Beau R Webber, Robert H Blum, Caitlin D Ryan, Laura Bendzick, Seonhui Shim, Ashley M Yingst, Dejene M Tufa, Michael R Verneris, Dan S Kaufman
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) plays an important physiological role in hematopoiesis. AHR is highly expressed in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) and inhibition of AHR results in a marked expansion of human umbilical cord blood-derived HSPCs following cytokine stimulation. It is unknown whether AHR also contributes earlier in human hematopoietic development. To model hematopoiesis, human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) were allowed to differentiate in defined conditions in the presence of the AHR antagonist StemReginin-1 (SR-1) or AHR agonist 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)...
May 22, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533188/carbon-nanomaterials-as-versatile-platforms-for-theranostic-applications
#17
REVIEW
Mirae Kim, Jinhyeong Jang, Chaenyung Cha
Theranostic nanomedicine, utilizing state-of-the-art, multifaceted nanomaterials and devices with therapeutic and diagnostic dual functions, has emerged as a highly attractive and promising new field of medicine. The theory behind the use of nanomaterials for theranostic applications is to impart multifunctionality by applying various engineering strategies to combine different modalities on a nanoscale. Carbon nanomaterials, which have been a subject of intense scientific research and industrial applications in recent years, have also found their way into theranostic nanomedicine owing to their innate multifunctionality...
May 19, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532798/effects-of-intravaginal-lactic-acid-bacteria-on-bovine-endometrium-implications-in-uterine-health
#18
Sandra Genís, Àlex Bach, Anna Arís
Infection and inflammation of the endometrium after calving compromise uterine health, contributing to decreased reproductive efficiency in dairy cows. Twenty multiparous cows were distributed in two groups and treated intra-vaginally with a combination of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) composed by Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Pedioccocus acidilactici, and Lactobacillus reuteri, or with a sterile carrier (CON) twice per week during 3 wk. At the slaughterhouse, vaginal and endometrial swabs were taken for E. coli and Lactobacillus quantification...
May 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532674/cytokine-expression-levels-in-als-a-potential-link-between-inflammation-and-bmaa-triggered-protein-misfolding
#19
Nara Michaelson, Dominic Facciponte, Walter Bradley, Elijah Stommel
Recently, it has been shown that proinflammatory cytokines play a complex and important role in the pathogenesis of many neurological disorders, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). To help facilitate future discoveries and more effective treatment strategies, we highlight the role that both innate and adaptive immune systems play in ALS and summarize the main observations that relate to cytokine expression levels in this disease. Furthermore, we propose a mechanism by which a known neurotoxin, β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA), may trigger this cytokine expression profile through motor neuron protein misfolding and subsequent NLRP3 (nucleotide-binding domain (NOD)-like receptor protein 3) inflammasome activation...
May 10, 2017: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532666/transcription-of-immune-related-genes-in-solea-senegalensis-vaccinated-against-photobacterium-damselae-subsp-piscicida-identification-of-surrogates-of-protection
#20
J A Núñez-Díaz, I García de la Banda, C Lobo, M A Moriñigo, M C Balebona
Solea senegalensis is a flatfish with a great potential for aquaculture, but infectious diseases restrict its production, being this fish species highly susceptible to Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida (Phdp) infections. A better understanding of the mechanisms related to fish immune response is crucial for the development of effective approaches in disease management. In the present work, transcriptional changes of immune related genes have been evaluated in farmed S. senegalensis specimens vaccinated against Phdp by intraperitoneal injection (IP) and immersion (IM)...
May 19, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
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