keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Innate

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934421/a-zebrafish-model-of-mycobacterium-leprae-granulomatous-infection
#1
Cressida A Madigan, James Cameron, Lalita Ramakrishnan
Understanding the pathogenesis of leprosy granulomas has been hindered by a paucity of tractable experimental animal models. Mycobacterium leprae, which causes leprosy, grows optimally at approximately 30°C, so we sought to model granulomatous disease in the ectothermic zebrafish. We found that noncaseating granulomas develop rapidly and eventually eradicate infection. rag1 mutant zebrafish, which lack lymphocytes, also form noncaseating granulomas with similar kinetics, but these control infection more slowly...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934360/pkacs-attenuate-innate-antiviral-response-by-phosphorylating-visa-and-priming-it-for-march5-mediated-degradation
#2
Bing-Ru Yan, Lu Zhou, Ming-Ming Hu, Mi Li, Heng Lin, Yan Yang, Yan-Yi Wang, Hong-Bing Shu
Sensing of viral RNA by RIG-I-like receptors initiates innate antiviral response, which is mediated by the central adaptor VISA. How the RIG-I-VISA-mediated antiviral response is terminated at the late phase of infection is enigmatic. Here we identified the protein kinase A catalytic (PKAC) subunits α and β as negative regulators of RNA virus-triggered signaling in a redundant manner. Viral infection up-regulated cellular cAMP levels and activated PKACs, which then phosphorylated VISA at T54. This phosphorylation abrogated virus-induced aggregation of VISA and primed it for K48-linked polyubiquitination and degradation by the E3 ligase MARCH5, leading to attenuation of virus-triggered induction of downstream antiviral genes...
September 21, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934357/from-bacterial-killing-to-immune-modulation-recent-insights-into-the-functions-of-lysozyme
#3
REVIEW
Stephanie A Ragland, Alison K Criss
Lysozyme is a cornerstone of innate immunity. The canonical mechanism for bacterial killing by lysozyme occurs through the hydrolysis of cell wall peptidoglycan (PG). Conventional type (c-type) lysozymes are also highly cationic and can kill certain bacteria independently of PG hydrolytic activity. Reflecting the ongoing arms race between host and invading microorganisms, both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria have evolved mechanisms to thwart killing by lysozyme. In addition to its direct antimicrobial role, more recent evidence has shown that lysozyme modulates the host immune response to infection...
September 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934252/three-way-interaction-model-to-trace-the-mechanisms-involved-in-alzheimer-s-disease-transgenic-mice
#4
Nasibeh Khayer, Sayed-Amir Marashi, Mehdi Mirzaie, Fatemeh Goshadrou
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause for dementia in human. Currently, more than 46 million people in the world suffer from AD and it is estimated that by 2050 this number increases to more than 131 million. AD is considered as a complex disease. Therefore, understanding the mechanism of AD is a universal challenge. Nowadays, a huge number of disease-related high-throughput "omics" datasets are freely available. Such datasets contain valuable information about disease-related pathways and their corresponding gene interactions...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934246/discovery-of-pf-06928215-as-a-high-affinity-inhibitor-of-cgas-enabled-by-a-novel-fluorescence-polarization-assay
#5
Justin Hall, Amy Brault, Fabien Vincent, Shawn Weng, Hong Wang, Darren Dumlao, Ann Aulabaugh, Dikran Aivazian, Dana Castro, Ming Chen, Jeffrey Culp, Ken Dower, Joseph Gardner, Steven Hawrylik, Douglas Golenbock, David Hepworth, Mark Horn, Lyn Jones, Peter Jones, Eicke Latz, Jing Li, Lih-Ling Lin, Wen Lin, David Lin, Frank Lovering, Nootaree Niljanskul, Ryan Nistler, Betsy Pierce, Olga Plotnikova, Daniel Schmitt, Suman Shanker, James Smith, William Snyder, Timothy Subashi, John Trujillo, Edyta Tyminski, Guoxing Wang, Jimson Wong, Bruce Lefker, Leslie Dakin, Karen Leach
Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) initiates the innate immune system in response to cytosolic dsDNA. After binding and activation from dsDNA, cGAS uses ATP and GTP to synthesize 2', 3' -cGAMP (cGAMP), a cyclic dinucleotide second messenger with mixed 2'-5' and 3'-5' phosphodiester bonds. Inappropriate stimulation of cGAS has been implicated in autoimmune disease such as systemic lupus erythematosus, thus inhibition of cGAS may be of therapeutic benefit in some diseases; however, the size and polarity of the cGAS active site makes it a challenging target for the development of conventional substrate-competitive inhibitors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934165/salmonella-o48-serum-resistance-is-connected-with-the-elongation-of-the-lipopolysaccharide-o-antigen-containing-sialic-acid
#6
Aleksandra Pawlak, Jacek Rybka, Bartłomiej Dudek, Eva Krzyżewska, Wojciech Rybka, Anna Kędziora, Elżbieta Klausa, Gabriela Bugla-Płoskońska
Complement is one of the most important parts of the innate immune system. Some bacteria can gain resistance against the bactericidal action of complement by decorating their outer cell surface with lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) containing a very long O-antigen or with specific outer membrane proteins. Additionally, the presence of sialic acid in the LPS molecules can provide a level of protection for bacteria, likening them to human cells, a phenomenon known as molecular mimicry. Salmonella O48, which contains sialic acid in the O-antigen, is the major cause of reptile-associated salmonellosis, a worldwide public health problem...
September 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934123/the-innate-and-adaptive-immune-system-as-targets-for-biologic-therapies-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#7
REVIEW
Grainne Holleran, Loris Lopetuso, Valentina Petito, Cristina Graziani, Gianluca Ianiro, Deirdre McNamara, Antonio Gasbarrini, Franco Scaldaferri
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an immune-mediated inflammatory condition causing inflammation of gastrointestinal and systemic cells, with an increasing prevalence worldwide. Many factors are known to trigger and maintain inflammation in IBD including the innate and adaptive immune systems, genetics, the gastrointestinal microbiome and several environmental factors. Our knowledge of the involvement of the immune system in the pathophysiology of IBD has advanced rapidly over the last two decades, leading to the development of several immune-targeted treatments with a biological source, known as biologic agents...
September 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934122/invasion-of-dendritic-cells-macrophages-and-neutrophils-by-the-bordetella-adenylate-cyclase-toxin-a-subversive-move-to-fool-host-immunity
#8
REVIEW
Giorgio Fedele, Ilaria Schiavoni, Irena Adkins, Nela Klimova, Peter Sebo
Adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA) is released in the course of B. pertussis infection in the host's respiratory tract in order to suppress its early innate and subsequent adaptive immune defense. CD11b-expressing dendritic cells (DC), macrophages and neutrophils are professional phagocytes and key players of the innate immune system that provide a first line of defense against invading pathogens. Recent findings revealed the capacity of B. pertussis CyaA to intoxicate DC with high concentrations of 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), which ultimately skews the host immune response towards the expansion of Th17 cells and regulatory T cells...
September 21, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933920/multi-tissue-transcriptomics-delineates-the-diversity-of-airway-t-cell-functions-in-asthma
#9
Akul Singhania, Joshua C Wallington, Caroline G Smith, Daniel Horowitz, Karl J Staples, Peter H Howarth, Stephan D Gadola, Ratko Djukanović, Christopher H Woelk, Timothy Sc Hinks
Asthma arises from the complex interplay of inflammatory pathways in diverse cell types and tissues. We sought to undertake a comprehensive transcriptomic assessment of the epithelium and airway T cells that remain understudied in asthma, and investigate interactions between multiple cells and tissues. Epithelial brushings and flow-sorted CD3+ T cells from sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage were obtained from healthy subjects (N=19) and asthmatic patients (mild, moderate and severe asthma; N=46). Gene expression was assessed using Affymetrix HT HG-U133+ PM GeneChips and results were validated by real-time quantitative PCR...
September 21, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933875/-sex-differences-in-left-handedness-a-meta-analysis-of-144-studies-correction-to-papadatou-pastou-et-al-2008
#10
(no author information available yet)
Reports an error in "Sex differences in left-handedness: A meta-analysis of 144 studies" by Marietta Papadatou-Pastou, Maryanne Martin, Marcus R. Munafò and Gregory V. Jones (Psychological Bulletin, 2008[Sep], Vol 134[5], 677-699). In the article the statistical evidence is weaker than reported for the moderating effect of writing hand compared to all the other instruments (reported finding: Q(1) = 8.36, p = .02; corrected finding: Q(1) = 3.17, p = .075). While the statistical evidence is thus somewhat weaker on this particular point, the broad conclusions of the article remain unchanged...
October 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933757/the-mechanisms-for-within-host-influenza-virus-control-affect-model-based-assessment-and-prediction-of-antiviral-treatment
#11
Pengxing Cao, James M McCaw
Models of within-host influenza viral dynamics have contributed to an improved understanding of viral dynamics and antiviral effects over the past decade. Existing models can be classified into two broad types based on the mechanism of viral control: models utilising target cell depletion to limit the progress of infection and models which rely on timely activation of innate and adaptive immune responses to control the infection. In this paper, we compare how two exemplar models based on these different mechanisms behave and investigate how the mechanistic difference affects the assessment and prediction of antiviral treatment...
July 26, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933579/innate-immune-cells-for-immunotherapy-of-autoimmune-and-cancer-disorders
#12
Carolina Schäfer, Gabriel Ascui, Carolina H Ribeiro, Mercedes López, Rafael Prados-Rosales, Pablo A González, Susan M Bueno, Claudia A Riedel, Andrés Baena, Alexis M Kalergis, Leandro J Carreño
Modulation of the immune system has been widely targeted for the treatment of several immune-related diseases, such as autoimmune disorders and cancer, due to its crucial role in these pathologies. Current available therapies focus mainly on symptomatic treatment and are often associated with undesirable secondary effects. For several years, remission of disease and subsequently recovery of immune homeostasis has been a major goal for immunotherapy. Most current immunotherapeutic strategies are aimed to inhibit or potentiate directly the adaptive immune response by modulating antibody production and B cell memory, as well as the effector potential and memory of T cells...
September 21, 2017: International Reviews of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933101/-discussion-on-relevant-theories-of-qi-blood-shen-and-formula-implication-of-guan-xin-jing-capsule
#13
Rui-Ping Li, Guo-Hua Yu, Jun-Fang Li, Shi-Huan Tang
In the field of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM),the definition of "Shen" contains a broad concept and a narrow concept. Broad "Shen" is the dominator and administrator of human vital movement,while narrow "Shen" means spirit, consciousness, thinking and emotions of human. "Shen" originates from innate essence of parents, and survives on acquired essence of water and food as well as the nutrition of its metaplastic Qi-Blood-Body fluid. Qi-Blood,the most precious asset of human body, is a quite important section of one person and the central material basis of "Shen-Zhi"...
November 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933050/toll-like-receptor-4-signaling-mediates-inflammation-and-tissue-injury-in-diabetic-nephropathy
#14
REVIEW
Giacomo Garibotto, Annalisa Carta, Daniela Picciotto, Francesca Viazzi, Daniela Verzola
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a class of receptors of the innate immune system which detect pathogen-associated and danger-associated molecular patterns in order to initiate an inflammatory response. TLR2 and TLR4 downward signaling causes the production of proinflammatory cytokines that can induce insulin resistance and cardiovascular damage in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In diabetic nephropathy, TLR4, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 2 (NOD2), and NLRP3 inflammasome are involved in the production and persistence of inflammation...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932817/designing-biomaterials-with-immunomodulatory-properties-for-tissue-engineering-and-regenerative-medicine
#15
REVIEW
James I Andorko, Christopher M Jewell
Recent research in the vaccine and immunotherapy fields has revealed that biomaterials have the ability to activate immune pathways, even in the absence of other immune-stimulating signals. Intriguingly, new studies reveal these responses are influenced by the physicochemical properties of the material. Nearly all of this work has been done in the vaccine and immunotherapy fields, but there is tremendous opportunity to apply this same knowledge to tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. This review discusses recent findings that reveal how material properties-size, shape, chemical functionality-impact immune response, and links these changes to emerging opportunities in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine...
June 2017: Bioengineering & Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932647/immunotherapy-with-listeria-reduces-metastatic-breast-cancer-in-young-and-old-mice-through-different-mechanisms
#16
Arthee Jahangir, Dinesh Chandra, Wilber Quispe-Tintaya, Manisha Singh, Benson Chellakkan Selvanesan, Claudia Gravekamp
Cancer immunotherapy is one of the most promising and benign therapies against metastatic cancer. However, most cancer patients are old and elderly react less efficient to cancer vaccines than young adults, due to T cell unresponsiveness. Here we present data of cancer vaccination in young and old mice with metastatic breast cancer (4T1 model). We tested adaptive and innate immune responses to foreign antigens (Listeria-derived) and self-antigens (tumor-associated antigens (TAA)) and their contribution to elimination of metastases at young and old age...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932081/-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-enhances-poly-i-c-induced-interferon-%C3%AE-1-production-and-inhibits-hepatitis-c-virus-replication-in-hepatocytes
#17
Yi-Zhong Wang, Jie-Liang Li, Xu Wang, Ting Zhang, Wen-Zhe Ho
AIM: To investigate the effect of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C)-triggered intracellular innate immunity against hepatitis C virus (HCV) in hepatocytes. METHODS: A cell culture model of HCV infection was generated by infecting a hepatoma cell line, Huh7, with HCV JFH-1 strain (JFH-1-Huh7). Poly I:C with a high molecular weight and EGCG were used to stimulate the JFH-1-Huh7 cells. Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to detect the expression levels of intracellular mRNAs and of intracellular and extracellular HCV RNA...
August 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931759/combination-immunotherapy-with-tlr-agonists-and-checkpoint-inhibitors-suppresses-head-and-neck-cancer
#18
Fumi Sato-Kaneko, Shiyin Yao, Alast Ahmadi, Shannon S Zhang, Tadashi Hosoya, Megan M Kaneda, Judith A Varner, Minya Pu, Karen S Messer, Cristiana Guiducci, Robert L Coffman, Kazutaka Kitaura, Takaji Matsutani, Ryuji Suzuki, Dennis A Carson, Tomoko Hayashi, Ezra Ew Cohen
Checkpoint inhibitors have demonstrated efficacy in patients with recurrent or metastatic head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). However, the majority of patients do not benefit from these agents. To improve the efficacy of checkpoint inhibitors, intratumoral (i.t.) injection with innate immune activators, TLR7 and TLR9 agonists, were tested along with programmed death-1 receptor (PD-1) blockade. The combination therapy suppressed tumor growth at the primary injected and distant sites in human papillomavirus-negative (HPV-negative) SCC7 and MOC1, and HPV-positive MEER syngeneic mouse models...
September 21, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931758/molecular-characterization-of-the-transition-from-acute-to-chronic-kidney-injury-following-ischemia-reperfusion
#19
Jing Liu, Sanjeev Kumar, Egor Dolzhenko, Gregory F Alvarado, Jinjin Guo, Can Lu, Yibu Chen, Meng Li, Mark C Dessing, Riana K Parvez, Pietro E Cippà, A Michaela Krautzberger, Gohar Saribekyan, Andrew D Smith, Andrew P McMahon
Though an acute kidney injury (AKI) episode is associated with an increased risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD), the mechanisms determining the transition from acute to irreversible chronic injury are not well understood. To extend our understanding of renal repair, and its limits, we performed a detailed molecular characterization of a murine ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) model for 12 months after injury. Together, the data comprising RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis at multiple time points, histological studies, and molecular and cellular characterization of targeted gene activity provide a comprehensive profile of injury, repair, and long-term maladaptive responses following IRI...
September 21, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931756/monocyte-dysregulation-and-systemic-inflammation-during-pediatric-falciparum-malaria
#20
Katherine R Dobbs, Paula Embury, John Vulule, Peter S Odada, Bruce A Rosa, Makedonka Mitreva, James W Kazura, Arlene E Dent
BACKGROUND: Inflammation and monocytes are thought to be important to human malaria pathogenesis. However, the relationship of inflammation and various monocyte functions to acute malaria, recovery from acute malaria, and asymptomatic parasitemia in endemic populations is poorly understood. METHODS: We evaluated plasma cytokine levels, monocyte subsets, monocyte functional responses, and monocyte inflammatory transcriptional profiles of 1- to 10-year-old Kenyan children at the time of presentation with acute uncomplicated malaria and at recovery 6 weeks later; these results were compared with analogous data from asymptomatic children and adults in the same community...
September 21, 2017: JCI Insight
keyword
keyword
29576
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"