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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088107/gaas-laser-therapy-reestablishes-the-morphology-of-the-nmj-and-nachrs-after-injury-due-to-bupivacaine
#1
Cristiane Neves Alessi Pissulin, Paula Aiello Tomé de Souza Castro, Flávio Codina, Carina Guidi Pinto, Ivan Jose Vechetti-Junior, Selma Maria Michelin Matheus
BACKGROUND: Local anesthetics are used to relieve pre- and postoperative pain, acting on both sodium channels and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Bupivacaine acts as a non-competitive antagonist and has limitations, such as myotoxicity, neurotoxicity, and inflammation. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has anti-inflammatory, regenerative, and analgesic effects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a gallium arsenide laser (GaAs) on the morphology of the NMJ and nAChRs after application of bupivacaine in the sternomastoid muscle...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088017/co-delivery-of-ibuprofen-and-gentamicin-from-nanoporous-anodic-titanium-dioxide-layers
#2
Anna Pawlik, Magdalena Jarosz, Karolina Syrek, Grzegorz D Sulka
Although single-drug therapy may prove insufficient in treating bacterial infections or inflammation after orthopaedic surgeries, complex therapy (using both an antibiotic and an anti-inflammatory drug) is thought to address the problem. Among drug delivery systems (DDSs) with prolonged drug release profiles, nanoporous anodic titanium dioxide (ATO) layers on Ti foil are very promising. In the discussed research, ATO samples were synthesized via a three-step anodization process in an ethylene glycol-based electrolyte with fluoride ions...
January 8, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087948/regulation-of-immunity-to-tuberculosis
#3
Susanna Brighenti, Diane J Ordway
Immunity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis requires a balance between adaptive immune responses to constrain bacterial replication and the prevention of potentially damaging immune activation. Regulatory T (Treg) cells express the transcription factor Foxp3+ and constitute an essential counterbalance of inflammatory Th1 responses and are required to maintain immune homeostasis. The first reports describing the presence of Foxp3-expressing CD4+ Treg cells in tuberculosis (TB) emerged in 2006. Different Treg cell subsets, most likely specialized for different tissues and microenvironments, have been shown to expand in both human TB and animal models of TB...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087941/interplay-between-myeloid-cells-and-humoral-innate-immunity
#4
Sébastien Jaillon, Eduardo Bonavita, Cecilia Garlanda, Alberto Mantovani
The innate immune system represents the first line of defense against pathogens and comprises both a cellular and a humoral arm. Fluid-phase pattern recognition molecules (PRMs), which include collectins, ficolins, and pentraxins, are key components of the humoral arm of innate immunity and are expressed by a variety of cells, including myeloid, epithelial, and endothelial cells, mainly in response to infectious and inflammatory conditions. Soluble PRMs share basic multifunctional properties including activation and regulation of the complement cascade, opsonization of pathogens and apoptotic cells, regulation of leukocyte extravasation, and fine-tuning of inflammation...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087938/the-role-and-function-of-fc%C3%AE-receptors-on-myeloid-cells
#5
Stylianos Bournazos, Taia T Wang, Jeffrey V Ravetch
A key determinant for the survival of organisms is their capacity to recognize and respond efficiently to foreign antigens. This is largely accomplished by the orchestrated activity of the innate and adaptive branches of the immune system. Antibodies are specifically generated in response to foreign antigens, facilitating thereby the specific recognition of antigens of almost infinite diversity. Receptors specific for the Fc domain of antibodies, Fc receptors, are expressed on the surface of the various myeloid leukocyte populations and mediate the binding and recognition of antibodies by innate leukocytes...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087931/evolution-of-cell-autonomous-effector-mechanisms-in-macrophages-versus-non-immune-cells
#6
Ryan G Gaudet, Clinton J Bradfield, John D MacMicking
Specialized adaptations for killing microbes are synonymous with phagocytic cells including macrophages, monocytes, inflammatory neutrophils, and eosinophils. Recent genome sequencing of extant species, however, reveals that analogous antimicrobial machineries exist in certain non-immune cells and also within species that ostensibly lack a well-defined immune system. Here we probe the evolutionary record for clues about the ancient and diverse phylogenetic origins of macrophage killing mechanisms and how some of their properties are shared with cells outside the traditional bounds of immunity in higher vertebrates such as mammals...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087925/host-responses-to-urinary-tract-infections-and-emerging-therapeutics-sensation-and-pain-within-the-urinary-tract
#7
Lori A Birder, David J Klumpp
Urinary tract infection (UTI) pathogenesis is understood increasingly at the level of the uropathogens and the cellular and molecular mediators of host inflammatory responses. However, little is known about the mediators of symptoms during UTI and what distinguishes symptomatic events from asymptomatic bacteriuria. Here, we review bladder physiology and sensory pathways in the context of an emerging literature from murine models dissecting the host and pathogen factors mediating pain responses during UTI. The bladder urothelium is considered a mediator of sensory responses and appears to play a role in UTI pain responses...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087917/-reasearch-progress-on-the-role-of-neutrophils-in-asthma
#8
Tingting Li, Yuehai Ke, Hongqiang Cheng
Asthma is a phenotypically heterogeneous chronic disease of the airways. Studies have found that neutrophils are crucial to airway inflammation in acute asthma, persistent asthma, particularly in asthma of poor response to glucocorticoid treatment. The role of neutrophils in development of bronchial asthma is complex, as they can release a potent source of cytokines and inflammatory mediators participating in asthma. Differing from eosinophilic inflammatory asthma, neutrophilic inflammatory asthma is not depend on helper T (Th)2 cells, but may be related to Th1 and Th17 cells...
May 25, 2016: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087913/-cigarette-smoking-in-different-manners-induces-acute-lung-injury-in-rats
#9
Weiqiang Xiao, Guojun Zhou, Chengyun Xu, Jian Xu, Fangfang Huang, Xinbo Lu, Xia Li, Ximei Wu
Objective: To investigate the effects of cigarette smoking in different manners on acute lung injury in rats. Methods: The commercially available cigarettes with tar of 1,5, 11 mg were smoked in Canada depth smoking (health canada method, HCM) manner, and those with tar of 11 mg were also smoked in international standard (ISO) smoking manner. Rats were fixed and exposed to mainstream in a manner of nose-mouth exposure. After 28 days, the bronchoalveolar lavage fluids from left lung were collected for counting and classification of inflammatory cells and determination of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α...
May 25, 2016: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087909/-tripotolide-ameliorates-inflammation-and-apoptosis-induced-by-focal-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-in-rats
#10
Shi Bai, Yayi Sun, Lijuan Wu, Zhongmin Wu, Marong Fang
Objective: To investigate the effects of triptolide on inflammation and apoptosis induced by focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in rats. Methods: The rat model of focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury was established according to Longa's method. A total of 80 SD rats were randomly divided into 5 groups:normal control, sham group, DMSO group, middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) group, and MCAO with tripolide treatment group. TTC staining was used to examine the site and volume of cerebral infarction, and Longa score was employed for neurological disorders measurement...
May 25, 2016: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087905/-inflammatory-cytokines-and-oxidative-stress-markers-in-the-inhibition-of-osteoarthritis-by-curcumin
#11
Jun Liu, Xiaole He, Ping Zhen, Shenghu Zhou, Xusheng Li
Objective: To observe the influence of matrix metalloproteinases-2 (MMP-2), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), CD47, L-selectin and advanced oxidation proteinproducts (AOPP) in osteoarthritis and the intervention of curcumin. Methods: A total of 20 male C57BL/6 mice (10.05-15.00 g) were randomly divided into control group, OA group, Cur25 group and Cur50 group (intraperitoneal injected 25 μmol/L or 50 μmol/L of curcumin everyday after modeling). After 4 weeks treatment, we observed the morphological changes of the gross specimen by immunohistochemical method, and observed the ultrastructure of cartilage tissue under electron microscope...
May 25, 2016: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087888/simulated-microgravity-decreases-circulating-iron-in-rats-role-of-inflammation-induced-hepcidin-upregulation
#12
Thibault Cavey, Nicolas Pierre, Kévin Nay, Coralie Allain, Martine Ropert, Olivier Loréal, Frédéric Derbré
During spaceflight, humans exposed to microgravity exhibit an increase of iron storage and a reduction of circulating iron. Such perturbations could promote oxidative stress and anemia in astronauts. The mechanism by which microgravity modulates iron metabolism is still unknown. Herein, we hypothesized that microgravity up-regulates hepcidin, a hormone produced by the liver that is the main controller of iron homeostasis. To test this hypothesis, rats were submitted to hindlimb unloading (HU), the reference model to mimic the effects of microgravity in rodents...
January 13, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087860/retraction-note-triptolide-contributes-to-decrease-in-tlr4-expression-by-upregulating-mir-224-3p-to-inhibit-the-inflammatory-reaction-in-diabetic-nephropathy
#13
Bei Sun, Shaolan Hu, Yongmei Li, Endong Zhu, Li Li, Fei Han, Chun-Jun Li, Liming Chen
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December 20, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087824/neuropathology-of-sudep-role-of-inflammation-blood-brain-barrier-impairment-and-hypoxia
#14
Zuzanna Michalak, Dima Obari, Matthew Ellis, Maria Thom, Sanjay M Sisodiya
OBJECTIVE: To seek a neuropathologic signature of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) in a postmortem cohort by use of immunohistochemistry for specific markers of inflammation, gliosis, acute neuronal injury due to hypoxia, and blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, enabling the generation of hypotheses about potential mechanisms of death in SUDEP. METHODS: Using immunohistochemistry, we investigated the expression of 6 markers (CD163, human leukocyte antigen-antigen D related, glial fibrillary acid protein, hypoxia-inducible factor-1α [HIF-1α], immunoglobulin G, and albumin) in the hippocampus, amygdala, and medulla in 58 postmortem cases: 28 SUDEP (definite and probable), 12 epilepsy controls, and 18 nonepileptic sudden death controls...
January 13, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087808/identification-of-a-novel-liver-x-receptor-agonist-that-regulates-the-expression-of-key-cholesterol-homeostasis-genes-with-distinct-pharmacological-characteristics
#15
Ni Li, Xiao Wang, Yanni Xu, Yuan Lin, Ningyu Zhu, Peng Liu, Duo Lu, Shuyi Si
Activation of Liver X receptor (LXR) is associated with cholesterol metabolism and anti-inflammatory processes, which makes beneficial to anti-atherosclerosis. Nevertheless, existing agonists which target LXR, for example TO901317, are related to unwanted side-effects. In the present study, using a screening method we identified IMB-808, which displayed potent dual LXRα/β agonistic activity. In vitro, IMB-808 effectively increased the expressing quantity of genes related to reverse cholesterol transport process as well as those associated with cholesterol metabolism pathway in multiple cell lines...
January 13, 2017: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087694/iso-%C3%AE-acids-bitter-components-of-beer-prevent-inflammation-and-cognitive-decline-induced-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Yasuhisa Ano, Atsushi Dhata, Yoshimasa Taniguchi, Ayaka Hoshi, Kazuyuki Uchida, Akihiko Takashima, Hiroyuki Nakayama
Alongside the rapid growth in aging populations worldwide, prevention and therapy for age-related memory decline and dementia are in great demand to maintain a long healthy life. Here we found that iso-α-acids, hop-derived bitter compounds in beer, enhance microglial phagocytosis and suppress inflammation via activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-γ). In normal mice, oral administration of iso-α-acids led to a significant increase both in CD11b and CD206 double-positive anti-inflammatory type microglia (P<0...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087671/induction-and-differentiation-of-il-10-producing-regulatory-b-cells-from-healthy-blood-donors-and-rheumatoid-arthritis-patients
#17
Zsuzsanna Bankó, Judit Pozsgay, Dániel Szili, Mária Tóth, Tamás Gáti, György Nagy, Bernadette Rojkovich, Gabriella Sármay
The most important feature of B cells is the production of Abs upon activation; additionally, B cells produce pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in response to certain stimuli. IL-10-producing B cells represent a major subset of regulatory B cells (Bregs) that suppress autoimmune and inflammatory responses. B cells play a crucial role in the development and maintenance of the chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease rheumatoid arthritis (RA); however, controversial data are available on IL-10- producing Bregs in RA...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087670/plant-lectins-activate-the-nlrp3-inflammasome-to-promote-inflammatory-disorders
#18
Tao Gong, Xiaqiong Wang, Yanqing Yang, Yiqing Yan, Chenggong Yu, Rongbin Zhou, Wei Jiang
Plant-derived dietary lectins have been reported to be involved in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and celiac disease, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying lectin-induced inflammation. In this study, we showed that plant lectins can induce caspase-1 activation and IL-1β secretion via the NLRP3 inflammasome. Lectins were internalized and subsequently escaped from the lysosome and then translocated to the endoplasmic reticulum...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087667/prmt5-selective-inhibitors-suppress-inflammatory-t-cell-responses-and-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#19
Lindsay M Webb, Stephanie A Amici, Kyle A Jablonski, Himanshu Savardekar, Amanda R Panfil, Linsen Li, Wei Zhou, Kevin Peine, Vrajesh Karkhanis, Eric M Bachelder, Kristy M Ainslie, Patrick L Green, Chenglong Li, Robert A Baiocchi, Mireia Guerau-de-Arellano
In the autoimmune disease multiple sclerosis and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), expansion of pathogenic, myelin-specific Th1 cell populations drives active disease; selectively targeting this process may be the basis for a new therapeutic approach. Previous studies have hinted at a role for protein arginine methylation in immune responses, including T cell-mediated autoimmunity and EAE. However, a conclusive role for the protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) enzymes that catalyze these reactions has been lacking...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087651/frontline-science-multiple-cathepsins-promote-inflammasome-independent-particle-induced-cell-death-during-nlrp3-dependent-il-1%C3%AE-activation
#20
Gregory M Orlowski, Shruti Sharma, Jeff D Colbert, Matthew Bogyo, Stephanie A Robertson, Hiroshi Kataoka, Francis K Chan, Kenneth L Rock
Sterile particles cause several chronic, inflammatory diseases, characterized by repeating cycles of particle phagocytosis and inflammatory cell death. Recent studies have proposed that these processes are driven by the NLRP3 inflammasome, a platform activated by phagocytosed particles, which controls both caspase-1-dependent cell death (pyroptosis) and mature IL-1β secretion. After phagocytosis, particles can disrupt lysosomes, and inhibitor studies have suggested that the resulting release of a lysosomal protease-cathepsin B-into the cytosol somehow activates NLRP3...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
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