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Daniel S Joyce, Beatrix Feigl, Andrew J Zele
Purpose: We determine the effect of short-term light adaptation on the pupil light reflex and the melanopsin mediated post-illumination pupil response (PIPR). Inner and outer retinal photoreceptor contributions to the dark-adapted pupil response were estimated. Methods: In Experiment A, light adaptation was studied using short wavelength lights ranging from subthreshold to suprathreshold irradiances for melanopsin signaling that were presented before (5-60 seconds) and after (30 seconds) a melanopsin-exciting stimulus pulse...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Katharina Koppe, Klaus Rothermund
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have demonstrated that clinging to unattainable goals is linked to the onset of depression. The present study investigated whether symptoms of a clinical depression are adaptive in that they facilitate disengagement from unattainable goals. METHODS: A group of depressive inpatients (n = 40) was compared to a non-depressive control group (n = 38) in regard to how much time they spent on unsolvable anagrams, while controlling for group differences in the time spent on solvable anagrams...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Tomasz Molcan, Sylwia Swigonska, Karina Orlowska, Kamil Myszczynski, Anna Nynca, Agnieszka Sadowska, Monika Ruszkowska, Jan Pawel Jastrzebski, Renata E Ciereszko
Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) are widespread by-products of human industrial activity. They accumulate in tissues of animals and humans, exerting numerous adverse effects on different systems. In living organisms, dioxins are metabolized by enzymes of the cytochrome P450 family, including CYP1A1. Particular dioxin congeners differ in their toxicity level and ability to undergo biodegradation. Since the molecular mechanisms underlying dioxin susceptibility or resistance to biodegradation are unknown, in the present study the molecular interactions between five selected dioxins and porcine CYP1A1 protein were investigated...
October 23, 2016: Chemosphere
Judd F Hultquist, Kathrin Schumann, Jonathan M Woo, Lara Manganaro, Michael J McGregor, Jennifer Doudna, Viviana Simon, Nevan J Krogan, Alexander Marson
New genetic tools are needed to understand the functional interactions between HIV and human host factors in primary cells. We recently developed a method to edit the genome of primary CD4(+) T cells by electroporation of CRISPR/Cas9 ribonucleoproteins (RNPs). Here, we adapted this methodology to a high-throughput platform for the efficient, arrayed editing of candidate host factors. CXCR4 or CCR5 knockout cells generated with this method are resistant to HIV infection in a tropism-dependent manner, whereas knockout of LEDGF or TNPO3 results in a tropism-independent reduction in infection...
October 25, 2016: Cell Reports
Alexandre Fisette, Stephanie Tobin, Léa Décarie-Spain, Khalil Bouyakdan, Marie-Line Peyot, S R Murthy Madiraju, Marc Prentki, Stephanie Fulton, Thierry Alquier
α/β-Hydrolase domain 6 (ABHD6) is a monoacylglycerol hydrolase that degrades the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). Although complete or peripheral ABHD6 loss of function is protective against diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance, the role of ABHD6 in the central control of energy balance is unknown. Using a viral-mediated knockout approach, targeted endocannabinoid measures, and pharmacology, we discovered that mice lacking ABHD6 from neurons of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH(KO)) have higher VMH 2-AG levels in conditions of endocannabinoid recruitment and fail to physiologically adapt to key metabolic challenges...
October 25, 2016: Cell Reports
Nuno Miguel Luis, Lifen Wang, Mauricio Ortega, Hansong Deng, Subhash D Katewa, Patrick Wai-Lun Li, Jason Karpac, Heinrich Jasper, Pankaj Kapahi
Dietary restriction (DR) is one of the most robust lifespan-extending interventions in animals. The beneficial effects of DR involve a metabolic adaptation toward increased triglyceride usage. The regulatory mechanism and the tissue specificity of this metabolic switch remain unclear. Here, we show that the IRE1/XBP1 endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling module mediates metabolic adaptation upon DR in flies by promoting triglyceride synthesis and accumulation in enterocytes (ECs) of the Drosophila midgut...
October 25, 2016: Cell Reports
Rene Daer, Josh P Cutts, David A Brafman, Karmella A Haynes
In order to efficiently edit eukaryotic genomes, it is critical to test the impact of chromatin dynamics on CRISPR/Cas9 function and develop strategies to adapt the system to eukaryotic contexts. So far, research has extensively characterized the relationship between the CRISPR endonuclease Cas9 and the composition of the RNA-DNA duplex that mediates the system's precision. Evidence suggests that chromatin modifications and DNA packaging can block eukaryotic genome editing by custom-built DNA endonucleases like Cas9; however, the underlying mechanism of Cas9 inhibition is unclear...
October 26, 2016: ACS Synthetic Biology
Patrick T Walsh, Padraic G Fallon
The recently discovered interleukin (IL)-36 family of cytokines form part of the broader IL-1 family and are emerging as important mediators of inflammatory disease. The IL-36 subfamily consists of three ligands-IL-36α, IL-36β, and IL-36γ-and the natural antagonist IL-36Ra. The cytokines exert their effects through a specific IL-36 receptor consisting of IL-36R and IL-1RAcP chains. IL-36 cytokines can direct both innate and adaptive immune responses by acting on parenchymal, stromal, and specific immune cell subsets...
October 26, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Barbara J Daley, Sarah Morgan, Sarah Beman Black
BACKGROUND: Although concept mapping was created in the early 1980s, research in nursing education first appeared in 1992. This literature review analyzes the impact of concept mapping in nursing education. METHOD: A total of 221 articles, books, and book chapters were reviewed on the topic of concept mapping in nursing education. RESULTS: Results indicate that concept-mapping research progressed from the emergence state, to an expansion and adaptation stage, to an established stage...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Nursing Education
Joan Maria Estrada-Masllorens, Eva Maria Guix-Comellas, Sandra Cabrera-Jaime, Jordi Galimany-Masclans, Juan Roldán-Merino, Teresa Lluch-Canut
BACKGROUND: The nursing education program framework in Spain has recently been adapted and modified. This study aimed to analyze university postgraduate master'slevel nursing education during the past 21 years in Spain in terms of educational supply and demand. METHOD: A retrospective, longitudinal, descriptive, and observational design was used. The educational offerings at 15 university nursing schools in Spain were examined. The target population was 7,871 registered and licensed nurses who had completed postgraduate education...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Nursing Education
Maysa Ferreira Martins Ribeiro, Luc Vandenberghe, Cejane Oliveira Martins Prudente, Vanessa da Silva Carvalho Vila, Celmo Celeno Porto
The aim of the study was to comprehend how the age group and the severity of the motor impairment of children with cerebral palsy modify the mothers' experiences of stress and to understand the coping strategies they use. A qualitative approach was used, with the method framed on Grounded Theory Analysis. Nineteen mothers of children and adolescents with different degrees of motor impairment participated in individual semi-structured interviews. A lack of support and increased time and effort invested in parenting, at the cost of other areas of life threaten participants' physical and emotional health...
October 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Bruna Rafaela de Batista, Márcia Duarte, Fabiana Cia
The presence of a disabled person causes transformations in the family that demand a redefinition of the role of each member. Siblings, like all other members, experience frustration, acceptance, guilt and adaptation. In this respect, an attempt was made to; (a) analyze the interaction between a sibling with standard development and a sibling with Down syndrome; (b) identify what information and reaction the siblings with standard development have regarding the diagnosis of Down syndrome; (c) verify whether or not there were changes in the family context and also changes in their own lives after the birth of the sibling with Down syndrome...
October 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Silvana Aparecida de Lucca, Eucia Beatriz Lopes Petean
This study's aim was to understand the experience of being the father of a boy diagnosed with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD). Eight fathers of 10-year-old or older boys diagnosed with DMD, living in RibeirãoPreto and surrounding cities participated in the study. Interviews included a semi-structured script and data were analyzed according to thematic content analysis. The results show that the confirmation of a DMD diagnosis shocked fathers and was mixed with sorrow, helplessness and hopelessness. Most fathers considered the illness of their child to be a mission sent by God, which helps to alleviate the pain and anguish caused by the disease...
October 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Fátima Gonçalves Cavalcante, Luciana Ferreira Lau, Gabriella Ferrarese Barbosa, Daniela Lima Gomes Berlim, Natasha Coelho Menezes, Daniela de Carvalho Braga, Annibal Coelho de Amorim, Yuri Cavalcante Amorim
The article analyzes the impact of a documentary on the daily lives of mothers and children with disabilities, exhibited at conferences, festivals, universities and schools in Brazil, Colombia and Japan. Produced by film and health professionals, social scientists and a women's network, the feature film "A special day" was awarded at Assim Vivemos VI International Disability Film Festival (2013-2014). The objective is to analyze the impact of the film and its diffusion among professionals and students from health and education areas...
October 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Keroulay Estebanez Roque, Teresa Tonini, Enirtes Caetano Prates Melo
This study sought to evaluate the occurrence of adverse events and their impacts on length of stay and mortality in an intensive care unit (ICU). This is a prospective study carried out in a teaching hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The cohort included 355 patients over 18 years of age admitted to the ICU between August 1, 2011 and July 31, 2012. The process we used to identify adverse events was adapted from the method proposed by the Institute for Healthcare Improvement. We used a logistical regression to analyze the association between adverse event occurrence and death, adjusted by case severity...
October 20, 2016: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
Juliana de Oliveira Freitas Miranda, Climene Laura de Camargo, Carlito Lopes Nascimento, Daniel Sales Portela, Alan Monaghan, Katia Santana Freitas, Renata Fonseca Mendoza
Objective: to translate and adapt the BPEWS for the Portuguese language, with the purpose of verifying its applicability in the Brazilian context studied. Method: methodological study guided by international and nationally accepted recommendations for translation and adaptation of health measurement instruments. Stages of conceptual, item, semantic, operational and pre-test equivalence are described for obtaining the BPEWS Portuguese version to be used in Brazil...
September 2016: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
Ana Paula Morais de Carvalho Macedo, Clara Maria Faria Simães Mendes, Analisa Lia Silva Candeias, Marco Paulo Rodrigues Sousa, Louíse Viecili Hoffmeister, Maria Isabel Gomes Sousa Lage
Objective: to describe the process of adaptation and validation of the Nursing Activities Score to the Portuguese context. Method: this was a pilot study of adaptation and validation of the Nursing Activities Score with a sample consisting of 67 patients hospitalized in the intensive care units of three Portuguese hospitals. The construct validity was assessed through factor analysis procedures and the internal consistency of the items was measured through the Cronbach's alpha coefficient...
September 2016: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
Ariane Cristina Barboza Zanetti, Carmen Silvia Gabriel, Andrea Bernardes, Leonardo Régis Leira Pereira
Objective: To describe the translation into Portuguese and cultural adaptation of a Questionnaire addressing High-Alert Medications to the Brazilian context. Methods: Methodological study comprising the translation from Chinese to Brazilian Portuguese, synthesis of translations, back translation, panel of experts, and pretest to obtain the final version of the questionnaire. Results: <inor lexical variations were resolved after obtaining consensus between the translators...
October 24, 2016: Revista Gaúcha de Enfermagem
Lauren S Mogil, Nicole A Becker, L James Maher
DNA-protein loops can be essential for gene regulation. The Escherichia coli lactose (lac) operon is controlled by DNA-protein loops that have been studied for decades. Here we adapt this model to test the hypothesis that negative superhelical strain facilitates the formation of short-range (6-8 DNA turns) repression loops in E. coli. The natural negative superhelicity of E. coli DNA is regulated by the interplay of gyrase and topoisomerase enzymes, adding or removing negative supercoils, respectively. Here, we measured quantitatively DNA looping in three different E...
2016: PloS One
James Weger-Lucarelli, Claudia Rückert, Nunya Chotiwan, Chilinh Nguyen, Selene M Garcia Luna, Joseph R Fauver, Brian D Foy, Rushika Perera, William C Black, Rebekah C Kading, Gregory D Ebel
In 2015, Zika virus (ZIKV; Flaviviridae; Flavivirus) emerged in the Americas, causing millions of infections in dozens of countries. The rapid spread of the virus and the association with disease outcomes such as Guillain-Barré syndrome and microcephaly make understanding transmission dynamics essential. Currently, there are no reports of vector competence (VC) of American mosquitoes for ZIKV isolates from the Americas. Further, it is not clear whether ZIKV strains from other genetic lineages can be transmitted by American Aedes aegypti populations, and whether the scope of the current epidemic is in part facilitated by viral factors such as enhanced replicative fitness or increased vector competence...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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