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Endosomal lysis

Valérie Poirier, Yossef Av-Gay
The ability of intracellular pathogens to subvert the host response, to facilitate invasion and subsequent infection, is the hallmark of microbial pathogenesis. Bacterial pathogens produce and secrete a variety of effector proteins, which are the primary means by which they exert control over the host cell. Secreted effectors work independently, yet in concert with each other, to facilitate microbial invasion, replication, and intracellular survival in host cells. In this review we focus on defined host cell processes targeted by bacterial pathogens...
December 2015: Microbiology Spectrum
A Kashiwada, M Mizuno, J Hashimoto
We developed a membrane-lytic peptide (LP) having 26 amino acid residues composed of a helix-promoting hydrophobic segment (Leu-Ala repetitive sequence) and a cationic segment from melittin. In the presence of liposomes, LP interacts with liposomal surfaces to form a hydrophobic helix in the lipid bilayer in a wide pH range. In order to provide LP with a weakly acidic (endosomal) pH-controlled membrane-lytic activity, we have designed an LPE peptide series (a typical peptide, LPE3-1) with a hydrophobic segment in which Leu (L) residues are replaced by acidic Glu (E) residues...
July 14, 2016: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Innocenzo Caruso, Salvatore Santandrea, Mariarita Gismondo, Alessandra Lombardi, Franco Montrone, Enzo Massimo Caruso, Piercarlo Sarzi Puttini
BACKGROUND: Our previous results showed that intrasynovial Rifamycin SV caused the lysis of synoviocites and freed the autoantigens which in turn stimulated the immunoregulatory rather than autoreactive T cell response in rheumatoid patients. Here, we hypothesize that disruption in vitro of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, by freeze/thawing or by lytic action of Rifamycin SV, would induce the release of endosomal pathogenic autoantigens from APCs present in the circulation, which could then be isolated from degrading enzymes by ultrafiltration...
2016: Journal of Translational Medicine
Qixin Leng, A James Mixson
BACKGROUND: Promising plasmid-based treatments have limited value without an effective delivery system. Recently, the linear H2K with a repeating -KHHK- pattern was determined to be an effective plasmid carrier to tumor xenografts in vivo. Although unpacking of the H2K polyplex within the tumor may have a role, the mechanism for the enhanced efficacy remains unclear. METHODS: After solid-phase synthesis of linear and branched histidine-lysine (HK) peptide carriers of plasmids, the peptides were compared for their ability to lyse endosomes with a red blood cell model and to transfect MDA-MB-435 xenografts in the presence or absence of neuropilin-1 receptor (NRP-1) antibodies...
July 2016: Journal of Gene Medicine
Raphael Wolfisberg, Christoph Kempf, Carlos Ros
UNLABELLED: Although the mechanism is not well understood, growing evidence indicates that the nonenveloped parvovirus minute virus of mice (MVM) may actively egress before passive release through cell lysis. We have dissected the late maturation steps of the intranuclear progeny with the aims of confirming the existence of active prelytic egress and identifying critical capsid rearrangements required to initiate the process. By performing anion-exchange chromatography (AEX), we separated intranuclear progeny particles by their net surface charges...
June 1, 2016: Journal of Virology
Masashi Maekawa, Yanbo Yang, Gregory D Fairn
Cholesterol is an essential structural component of cellular membranes in eukaryotes. Cholesterol in the exofacial leaflet of the plasma membrane is thought to form membrane nanodomains with sphingolipids and specific proteins. Additionally, cholesterol is found in the intracellular membranes of endosomes and has crucial functions in membrane trafficking. Furthermore, cellular cholesterol homeostasis and regulation of de novo synthesis rely on transport via both vesicular and non-vesicular pathways. Thus, the ability to visualize and detect intracellular cholesterol, especially in the plasma membrane, is critical to understanding the complex biology associated with cholesterol and the nanodomains...
March 2016: Toxins
Hiroshi Nakashima, Johanna K Kaufmann, Pin-Yi Wang, Tran Nguyen, Maria-Carmela Speranza, Kazue Kasai, Kazuo Okemoto, Akihiro Otsuki, Ichiro Nakano, Soledad Fernandez, William F Goins, Paola Grandi, Joseph C Glorioso, Sean Lawler, Timothy P Cripe, E Antonio Chiocca
Oncolytic viral (OV) therapy, which uses genetically engineered tumor-targeting viruses, is being increasingly used in cancer clinical trials due to the direct cytolytic effects of this treatment that appear to provoke a robust immune response against the tumor. As OVs enter tumor cells, intrinsic host defenses have the potential to hinder viral replication and spread within the tumor mass. In this report, we show that histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) in tumor cells appears to alter the trafficking of post-entry OVs from the nucleus toward lysosomes...
November 2, 2015: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Daniele R Nogueira, Laís E Scheeren, M Pilar Vinardell, Montserrat Mitjans, M Rosa Infante, Clarice M B Rolim
The pH-responsive delivery systems have brought new advances in the field of functional nanodevices and might allow more accurate and controllable delivery of specific cargoes, which is expected to result in promising applications in different clinical therapies. Here we describe a family of chitosan-TPP (tripolyphosphate) nanoparticles (NPs) for intracellular drug delivery, which were designed using two pH-sensitive amino acid-based surfactants from the family N(α),N(ε)-dioctanoyl lysine as bioactive compounds...
December 1, 2015: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Špela Magister, Han-Ching Tseng, Vickie T Bui, Janko Kos, Anahid Jewett
Freshly isolated human primary NK cells induce preferential lysis of Oral Squamous Carcinoma Stem Cells (OSCSCs) when compared to differentiated Oral Squamous Carcinoma Cells (OSCCs), while anti-CD16 antibody and monocytes induce functional split anergy in primary NK cells by decreasing the cytotoxic function of NK cells and increasing the release of IFN-γ. Since NK92 cells have relatively lower levels of cytotoxicity when compared to primary NK cells, and have the ability to increase secretion of regulatory cytokines IL-10 and IL-6, we used these cells as a model of NK cell anergy to identify and to study the upstream regulators of anergy...
September 8, 2015: Oncotarget
Gareth L Evans, Laura G Caller, Victoria Foster, Colin M Crump
BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) is a member of a family of potentially oncogenic viruses, whose reactivation can cause severe pathological conditions in transplant patients, leading to graft rejection. As with many non-enveloped viruses, it is assumed that virus release occurs through lysis of the host cell. We now show the first evidence for a non-lytic release pathway for BKPyV and that this pathway can be blocked by the anion channel inhibitor DIDS. Our data show a dose-dependent effect of DIDS on the release of BKPyV virions...
August 2015: Open Biology
Jean-Mathieu Bart, Carlos Cordon-Obras, Isabel Vidal, Jennifer Reed, Esperanza Perez-Pastrana, Laureano Cuevas, Mark C Field, Mark Carrington, Miguel Navarro
African trypanosomes infect a broad range of mammals, but humans and some higher primates are protected by serum trypanosome lytic factors that contain apolipoprotein L1 (ApoL1). In the human-infective subspecies of Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, a gene product derived from the variant surface glycoprotein gene family member, serum resistance-associated protein (SRA protein), protects against ApoL1-mediated lysis. Protection against trypanosome lytic factor requires the direct interaction between SRA protein and ApoL1 within the endocytic apparatus of the trypanosome, but some uncertainty remains as to the precise mechanism and location of this interaction...
October 2015: Cellular Microbiology
Russell Thomson, Alan Finkelstein
Apolipoprotein L-1 (APOL1), the trypanolytic factor of human serum, can lyse several African trypanosome species including Trypanosoma brucei brucei, but not the human-infective pathogens T. brucei rhodesiense and T. brucei gambiense, which are resistant to lysis by human serum. Lysis follows the uptake of APOL1 into acidic endosomes and is apparently caused by colloid-osmotic swelling due to an increased ion permeability of the plasma membrane. Here we demonstrate that nanogram quantities of full-length recombinant APOL1 induce ideally cation-selective macroscopic conductances in planar lipid bilayers...
March 3, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Bijay Singh, Sushila Maharjan, Tae-Eun Park, Tao Jiang, Sang-Kee Kang, Yun-Jaie Choi, Chong-Su Cho
Endosomal escape is a major bottleneck for efficient non-viral gene delivery. This paper presents the development of two novel non-viral vectors by cross-linking glycerol molecules with low molecular weight polyethylenimine (PEI). The vectors, namely, HG-PEI (45 mol% glycerol content) and LG-PEI (9 mol% glycerol content) have apparently similar DNA binding, DNA unpacking and cellular uptake abilities but differ in buffering capacity. The cellular uptake and subsequent transfection efficiency of LG-PEI is superior to commercially available PEI 25 k...
May 2015: Macromolecular Bioscience
Ruben Martinez, Pascale Schellenberger, Daven Vasishtan, Cindy Aknin, Sisley Austin, Denis Dacheux, Fabienne Rayne, Alistair Siebert, Zsolt Ruzsics, Kay Gruenewald, Harald Wodrich
UNLABELLED: Nuclear delivery of the adenoviral genome requires that the capsid cross the limiting membrane of the endocytic compartment and traverse the cytosol to reach the nucleus. This endosomal escape is initiated upon internalization and involves a highly coordinated process of partial disassembly of the entering capsid to release the membrane lytic internal capsid protein VI. Using wild-type and protein VI-mutated human adenovirus serotype 5 (HAdV-C5), we show that capsid stability and membrane rupture are major determinants of entry-related sorting of incoming adenovirus virions...
February 2015: Journal of Virology
Wenfeng Zhang, Hongwei Shao, Hua Hel, Shulin Huang
The research on intracellular trafficking of adenovirus has been described mainly through observations of subgroup C adenoviruses in transformed cell lines. The basic elements of the trafficking pathway include binding to receptors at the cell surface, internalization by endocytosis, lysis of the endosomal membrane, escape to the cytosol, intracellular trafficking along microtubules, nuclear pore docking, and viral genome translocation into the nucleus. More than 80% of the adenovirus genome is delivered to the nucleus in a highly efficient manner in approximately 1 h...
June 2014: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
Marcela de Souza Santos, Kim Orth
UNLABELLED: Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a globally disseminated Gram-negative marine bacterium and the leading cause of seafood-borne acute gastroenteritis. Pathogenic bacterial isolates encode two type III secretion systems (T3SS), with the second system (T3SS2) considered the main virulence factor in mammalian hosts. For many decades, V. parahaemolyticus has been studied as an exclusively extracellular bacterium. However, the recent characterization of the T3SS2 effector protein VopC has suggested that this pathogen has the ability to invade, survive, and replicate within epithelial cells...
2014: MBio
J Malmevik, M-L Rogers, M Nilsson, Y Nakanishi, R A Rush, N R Sims, H Muyderman
There are currently few approaches to transiently manipulate the expression of specific proteins in microglia of the brain. An antibody directed against an extracellular epitope of scavenger receptor class B, type I (SR-BI) was found to be selectively taken up by these cells in the brain. Other antibodies tested were not internalised by microglia. A vector was produced by linking the SR-BI antibody to polyethyleneimine and binding a DNA plasmid encoding green fluorescent protein. Infusions of this vector into the hippocampus produced a widespread transfection of cells, more than 80% of which were immunoreactive for microglial/macrophage markers...
October 24, 2014: Brain Research
Astrid Subrizi, Elisa Toropainen, Eva Ramsay, Anu J Airaksinen, Kai Kaarniranta, Arto Urtti
PURPOSE: To measure the cytoprotective effects of rhHsp70 against oxidative stress and study its cellular uptake, intracellular and intraocular distribution in the retinal pigment epithelium. METHODS: Human retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19) were pre-treated with rhHsp70 for 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h before being exposed to 1.25 mM hydrogen peroxide. Non-treated cells served as control. We analysed interleukin 6 secretion, cell viability, and cytolysis. Uptake and intracellular distribution of fluorescently labelled rhHsp70 were investigated with flow cytometry and confocal microscopy, respectively...
January 2015: Pharmaceutical Research
Urška Repnik, Maruša Hafner Česen, Boris Turk
Late endocytic compartments include late endosomes, lysosomes and hybrid organelles. In the acidic lumen, cargo material derived from endocytosed and phagocytosed extracellular material and autophagy-derived intracellular material is degraded. In the event of lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP), the function of endo/lysosomal compartment is affected and the luminal contents are released into the cytosol to various extents. LMP can be a result of osmotic lysis or direct membranolytic activity of the compounds that accumulate in the lumen of endo/lysosomes...
November 2014: Mitochondrion
Erin N Guidry, Julie Farand, Arash Soheili, Craig A Parish, Nancy J Kevin, Brenda Pipik, Kathleen B Calati, Nori Ikemoto, Jacob H Waldman, Andrew H Latham, Bonnie J Howell, Anthony Leone, Robert M Garbaccio, Stephanie E Barrett, Rubina Giare Parmar, Quang T Truong, Bing Mao, Ian W Davies, Steven L Colletti, Laura Sepp-Lorenzino
Polymer based carriers that aid in endosomal escape have proven to be efficacious siRNA delivery agents in vitro and in vivo; however, most suffer from cytotoxicity due in part to a lack of selectivity for endosomal versus cell membrane lysis. For polymer based carriers to move beyond the laboratory and into the clinic, it is critical to find carriers that are not only efficacious, but also have margins that are clinically relevant. In this paper we report three distinct categories of polymer conjugates that improve the selectivity of endosomal membrane lysis by relying on the change in pH associated with endosomal trafficking, including incorporation of low pKa heterocycles, acid cleavable amino side chains, or carboxylic acid pH sensitive charge switches...
February 19, 2014: Bioconjugate Chemistry
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