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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350947/traumatic-spinal-cord-injury-repair-and-regeneration
#1
Christopher S Ahuja, Satoshi Nori, Lindsay Tetreault, Jefferson Wilson, Brian Kwon, James Harrop, David Choi, Michael G Fehlings
BACKGROUND: Traumatic spinal cord injuries (SCI) have devastating consequences for the physical, financial, and psychosocial well-being of patients and their caregivers. Expediently delivering interventions during the early postinjury period can have a tremendous impact on long-term functional recovery. PATHOPHYSIOLOGY: This is largely due to the unique pathophysiology of SCI where the initial traumatic insult (primary injury) is followed by a progressive secondary injury cascade characterized by ischemia, proapoptotic signaling, and peripheral inflammatory cell infiltration...
March 1, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350871/oxygen-tension-regulates-the-mirna-profile-and-bioactivity-of-exosomes-released-from-extravillous-trophoblast-cells-liquid-biopsies-for-monitoring-complications-of-pregnancy
#2
Grace Truong, Dominic Guanzon, Vyjayanthi Kinhal, Omar Elfeky, Andrew Lai, Sherri Longo, Zarin Nuzhat, Carlos Palma, Katherin Scholz-Romero, Ramkumar Menon, Ben W Mol, Gregory E Rice, Carlos Salomon
Our understanding of how cells communicate has undergone a paradigm shift since the recent recognition of the role of exosomes in intercellular signaling. In this study, we investigated whether oxygen tension alters the exosome release and miRNA profile from extravillous trophoblast (EVT) cells, modifying their bioactivity on endothelial cells (EC). Furthermore, we have established the exosomal miRNA profile at early gestation in women who develop pre-eclampsia (PE) and spontaneous preterm birth (SPTB). HTR-8/SVneo cells were used as an EVT model...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346799/activation-of-macrophages-by-lipopolysaccharide-for-assessing-the-immunomodulatory-property-of-biomaterials
#3
Shengwei Han, Zetao Chen, Pingping Han, Qingang Hu, Yin Xiao
The design paradigm of biomaterials has been changed to ones with favorable immunomodulatory effects, indicating the importance of accurately evaluating the immunomodulatory properties of biomaterials. Among all the immune cells macrophages receive most attention, due to their plasticity and multiple roles in the materials and host interactions, and thereby become model immune cells for the evaluation of immunomodulatory properties of biomaterials in many studies. Lipopolysaccharides (LPS), a polysaccharide in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, elicit strong immune responses, which was often applied to activate macrophages, resulting in a proinflammatory M1 phenotype, and the release of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), interleukin (IL)-1, and IL-6...
March 24, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346408/gut-microbial-metabolites-limit-the-frequency-of-autoimmune-t-cells-and-protect-against-type-1-diabetes
#4
Eliana Mariño, James L Richards, Keiran H McLeod, Dragana Stanley, Yu Anne Yap, Jacinta Knight, Craig McKenzie, Jan Kranich, Ana Carolina Oliveira, Fernando J Rossello, Balasubramanian Krishnamurthy, Christian M Nefzger, Laurence Macia, Alison Thorburn, Alan G Baxter, Grant Morahan, Lee H Wong, Jose M Polo, Robert J Moore, Trevor J Lockett, Julie M Clarke, David L Topping, Leonard C Harrison, Charles R Mackay
Gut dysbiosis might underlie the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes. In mice of the non-obese diabetic (NOD) strain, we found that key features of disease correlated inversely with blood and fecal concentrations of the microbial metabolites acetate and butyrate. We therefore fed NOD mice specialized diets designed to release large amounts of acetate or butyrate after bacterial fermentation in the colon. Each diet provided a high degree of protection from diabetes, even when administered after breakdown of immunotolerance...
March 27, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346354/anti-inflammatory-properties-of-irisin-mediator-of-physical-activity-are-connected-with-tlr4-myd88-signaling-pathway-activation
#5
Agnieszka Irena Mazur-Bialy, Ewa Pocheć, Marcin Zarawski
Irisin, an adipomiokine known as a mediator of physical activity, induces the browning of adipose tissue and it has potentially protective properties in the development of obesity-related states, such as insulin resistance, arteriosclerosis, and type 2 diabetes. Despite numerous studies conducted on this factor, still little is known about its impact on the functioning of immunocompetent cells, but its potential anti-inflammatory properties were previously suggested. In the current study we investigated the role of irisin (0-100 nM) in the downstream pathway activation of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in RAW 264...
March 25, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345602/a-primary-human-macrophage-enteroid-co-culture-model-to-investigate-mucosal-gut-physiology-and-host-pathogen-interactions
#6
Gaelle Noel, Nicholas W Baetz, Janet F Staab, Mark Donowitz, Olga Kovbasnjuk, Marcela F Pasetti, Nicholas C Zachos
Integration of the intestinal epithelium and the mucosal immune system is critical for gut homeostasis. The intestinal epithelium is a functional barrier that secludes luminal content, senses changes in the gut microenvironment, and releases immune regulators that signal underlying immune cells. However, interactions between epithelial and innate immune cells to maintain barrier integrity and prevent infection are complex and poorly understood. We developed and characterized a primary human macrophage-enteroid co-culture model for in-depth studies of epithelial and macrophage interactions...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345393/inhibitory-effects-of-3%C3%AE-hydroxy-lup-20-29-en-23-28-dioic-acid-on-lipopolysaccharide-induced-tnf-%C3%AE-il-1%C3%AE-and-the-high-mobility-group-box-1-release-in-macrophages
#7
Xiang-Qian Liu, Qin-Peng Zou, Jian-Jun Huang, Chang-Soo Yook, Wan-Kyunn Whang, Hyeong-Kyu Lee, Ok-Kyoung Kwon
We investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of 3α-hydroxy-lup-20(29)-en-23, 28-dioic acid (HLEDA)-a lupane-type triterpene isolated from leaves of Acanthopanax gracilistylus W. W.Smith (AGS), as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 cells. Our results demonstrated that HLEDA concentration-dependently reduced the production of nitric oxide (NO), significantly suppressed LPS-induced expression of TNF-α and IL-1β at the mRNA and protein levels in RAW264...
March 27, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345149/t-vaginalis-exosome-like-vesicles-modify-the-cytokine-profile-and-reduce-inflammation-in-parasite-infected-mice
#8
Luis Mario Olmos-Ortiz, Marco Barajas-Mendiola, Miriam Barrios-Rodiles, Laura E Castellano, Sergio Arias-Negrete, Eva E Avila, Patricia Cuéllar-Mata
Trichomonas vaginalis (Tv) is a flagellated parasite commonly spread through sexual transmission. This protozoan initiates a severe inflammatory process, inducing nitric oxide, interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, IL-10, IL-17, and IL-22 production by host immune cells. The parasites elicit these responses by releasing surface lipophosphoglycan, small extracellular vesicles (exosomes) and other factors. Tv exosomes are similar to mammalian exosomes and have been implicated in the modulation of IL-8 secretion by epithelial cells...
March 27, 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344808/safety-tumor-trafficking-and-immunogenicity-of-chimeric-antigen-receptor-car-t-cells-specific-for-tag-72-in-colorectal-cancer
#9
Kristen M Hege, Emily K Bergsland, George A Fisher, John J Nemunaitis, Robert S Warren, James G McArthur, Andy A Lin, Jeffrey Schlom, Carl H June, Stephen A Sherwin
BACKGROUND: T cells engineered to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) have established efficacy in the treatment of B-cell malignancies, but their relevance in solid tumors remains undefined. Here we report results of the first human trials of CAR-T cells in the treatment of solid tumors performed in the 1990s. METHODS: Patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) were treated in two phase 1 trials with first-generation retroviral transduced CAR-T cells targeting tumor-associated glycoprotein (TAG)-72 and including a CD3-zeta intracellular signaling domain (CART72 cells)...
2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344752/involvement-of-cbl-b-mediated-macrophage-inactivation-in-insulin-resistance
#10
REVIEW
Tomoki Abe, Katsuya Hirasaka, Takeshi Nikawa
Aging and overnutrition cause obesity in rodents and humans. It is well-known that obesity causes various diseases by producing insulin resistance (IR). Macrophages infiltrate the adipose tissue (AT) of obese individuals and cause chronic low-level inflammation associated with IR. Macrophage infiltration is regulated by the chemokines that are released from hypertrophied adipocytes and the immune cells in AT. Saturated fatty acids are recognized by toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and induce inflammatory responses in AT macrophages (ATMs)...
March 15, 2017: World Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344558/role-of-autonomic-nervous-system-and-orexinergic-system-on-adipose-tissue
#11
REVIEW
Giovanni Messina, Anna Valenzano, Fiorenzo Moscatelli, Monica Salerno, Antonio Lonigro, Teresa Esposito, Vincenzo Monda, Gaetano Corso, Antonietta Messina, Andrea Viggiano, Antonio I Triggiani, Sergio Chieffi, Giuseppe Guglielmi, Marcellino Monda, Giuseppe Cibelli
Adipose tissue, defined as white adipose tissue (WAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT), is a biological caloric reservoir; in response to over-nutrition it expands and, in response to energy deficit, it releases lipids. The WAT primarily stores energy as triglycerides, whereas BAT dissipates chemical energy as heat. In mammals, the BAT is a key site for heat production and an attractive target to promote weight loss. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) exerts a direct control at the cellular and molecular levels in adiposity...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344491/effect-of-aster-tataricus-on-production-of-inflammatory-mediators-in-lps-stimulated-rat-astrocytoma-cell-line-c6-and-thp-1-cells
#12
Hong-Tao Zhang, Miao Tian, Qiao-Wei He, Nan Chi, Chun-Ming Xiu, Yun-Bo Wang
Neuroinflammation is the commonest cause of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Present investigation evaluates the inhibitory effect of ethanolic root extract of Aster tataricus (AS) on inflammatory mediators production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated C6 cells. C6 cells were treated with AS (20 and 40 mg/kg) and nimesulide (NSL, 1.5 μg/ml) for 1 day. Thereafter various parameters such as production of ROS, release of nitrite, MDA, glutathione level and NF-κB translocation were estimated in C6 cell lines...
March 2017: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344354/hdac1-3-inhibitor-ms-275-enhances-il10-expression-in-raw264-7-macrophages-and-reduces-cigarette-smoke-induced-airway-inflammation-in-mice
#13
Niek G J Leus, Thea van den Bosch, Petra E van der Wouden, Kim Krist, Maria E Ourailidou, Nikolaos Eleftheriadis, Loes E M Kistemaker, Sophie Bos, Rutger A F Gjaltema, Solomon A Mekonnen, Rainer Bischoff, Reinoud Gosens, Hidde J Haisma, Frank J Dekker
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) constitutes a major health burden. Studying underlying molecular mechanisms could lead to new therapeutic targets. Macrophages are orchestrators of COPD, by releasing pro-inflammatory cytokines. This process relies on transcription factors such as NF-κB, among others. NF-κB is regulated by lysine acetylation; a post-translational modification installed by histone acetyltransferases and removed by histone deacetylases (HDACs). We hypothesized that small molecule HDAC inhibitors (HDACi) targeting class I HDACs members that can regulate NF-κB could attenuate inflammatory responses in COPD via modulation of the NF-κB signaling output...
March 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343701/toll-like-receptor-8-agonist-nanoparticles-mimic-immunomodulating-effects-of-the-live-bcg-vaccine-and-enhance-neonatal-innate-and-adaptive-immune-responses
#14
David J Dowling, Evan A Scott, Annette Scheid, Ilana Bergelson, Sweta Joshi, Carlo Pietrasanta, Spencer Brightman, Guzman Sanchez-Schmitz, Simon D Van Haren, Jana Ninković, Dina Kats, Cristiana Guiducci, Alexandre de Titta, Daniel K Bonner, Sachiko Hirosue, Melody A Swartz, Jeffrey A Hubbell, Ofer Levy
BACKGROUND: Newborns display distinct immune responses, leaving them vulnerable to infections and impairing immunization. Targeting newborn dendritic cells (DCs), which integrate vaccine signals into adaptive immune responses, might enable development of age-specific vaccine formulations to overcome suboptimal immunization. OBJECTIVE: Small-molecule imidazoquinoline Toll-like receptor (TLR) 8 agonists robustly activate newborn DCs but can result in reactogenicity when delivered in soluble form...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343448/hemoadsorption-by-cytosorb-in-septic-patients-a-case-series
#15
Klaus Kogelmann, Dominik Jarczak, Morten Scheller, Matthias Drüner
BACKGROUND: Septic shock, defined as life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection, is a highly lethal condition that causes substantial morbidity and mortality among critically ill patients. One of the hallmarks of sepsis is the excessive release of cytokines and other inflammatory mediators causing refractory hypotension, tissue damage, metabolic acidosis and ultimately multiple organ failure. In this context, cytokine reduction by hemoadsorption represents a new concept for blood purification, developed to attenuate the overwhelming systemic levels of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediators released in the early phase of sepsis...
March 27, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343072/ribonuclease-attenuates-hepatic-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-cognitive-impairment-through-the-inhibition-of-inflammatory-cytokines-in-aged-mice
#16
Gang Ma, Chan Chen, Haixia Jiang, Yanhua Qiu, Yansong Li, Xiaoqiang Li, Xiyang Zhang, Jin Liu, Tao Zhu
BACKGROUND: Elderly patients undergoing major surgery often develop cognitive dysfunction, and no optimum treatment exists for this postoperative complication. Ribonuclease, the counterpart of ribonucleic acid, has mostly been reported in terms of its use as a potential modality in anticancer therapy, and recent studies have demonstrated that ribonuclease can exert organ-protective effects in several pathological conditions. Our study also demonstrated that ribonuclease protects the liver against ischemia reperfusion injury...
March 23, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342757/role-of-enzymatic-free-radical-scavengers-in-management-of-oxidative-stress-and-autoimmune-disorders
#17
REVIEW
Shikha Srivastava, Deependra Singh, Satish Patel, Manju R Singh
Autoimmune disorders are distinct with over production and accumulation of free radicals due to its undisclosed genesis. The cause of numerous disorders as cancer, arthritis, psoriasis, diabetes, alzheimer's, cardiovascular disease, Parkinson's, respiratory distress syndrome, colitis, crohn's, pulmonary fibrosis, obesity and ageing have been associated with immune dysfunction and oxidative stress. In an oxidative stress, reactive oxygen species generally provoke the series of oxidation at cellular level. The buildup of free radicals in turn triggers various inflammatory cells causing release of various inflammatory interleukins, cytokines, chemokines, and tumor necrosis factors which mediate signal transduction and transcription pathways as nuclear factor- kappa B (NF-κB), signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1α) and nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2)...
March 22, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341815/tgf-%C3%AE-1-transduced-mesenchymal-stem-cells-have-profound-modulatory-effects-on-dcs-and-t-cells
#18
Saeed Daneshmandi, Mohammad Hossein Karimi, Ali Akbar Pourfathollah
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) molecules are well known for their immunomodulatory properties and their function in tissue regeneration and remodeling. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the interaction of TGF-β1 engineered MSCs with T cells and dendritic cells (DCs) and their modulatory effect on the immune response. METHODS: MSCs and DCs were generated from bone marrow of Balb/c mice and T cells were generated from mice lymph nodes...
March 2017: Iranian Journal of Immunology: IJI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341703/niacin-ameliorates-ulcerative-colitis-via-prostaglandin-d2-mediated-d-prostanoid-receptor-1-activation
#19
Juanjuan Li, Deping Kong, Qi Wang, Wei Wu, Yanping Tang, Tingting Bai, Liang Guo, Lumin Wei, Qianqian Zhang, Yu Yu, Yuting Qian, Shengkai Zuo, Guizhu Liu, Qian Liu, Sheng Wu, Yi Zang, Qian Zhu, Daile Jia, Yuanyang Wang, Weiyan Yao, Yong Ji, Huiyong Yin, Masataka Nakamura, Michael Lazarus, Richard M Breyer, Lifu Wang, Ying Yu
Niacin, as an antidyslipidemic drug, elicits a strong flushing response by release of prostaglandin (PG) D2 However, whether niacin is beneficial for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) remains unclear. Here, we observed niacin administration-enhanced PGD2 production in colon tissues in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-challenged mice, and protected mice against DSS or 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in D prostanoid receptor 1 (DP1)-dependent manner. Specific ablation of DP1 receptor in vascular endothelial cells, colonic epithelium, and myeloid cells augmented DSS/TNBS-induced colitis in mice through increasing vascular permeability, promoting apoptosis of epithelial cells, and stimulating pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion of macrophages, respectively...
March 24, 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341478/importance-of-major-histocompatibility-complex-of-class-i-mhc-i-expression-for-astroglial-reactivity-and-stability-of-neural-circuits-in-vitro
#20
André Luis Bombeiro, Rafaela Chitarra Rodrigues Hell, Gustavo Ferreira Simões, Mateus Vidigal de Castro, Alexandre Leite Rodrigues de Oliveira
MHC-I molecules are involved in the antigenic presentation of cytosol-derived peptides to CD8T lymphocytes. In the nervous system, MHC-I expression is low to absent, occurring only during certain phases of development and aging or after injuries. The involvement of MHC-I in synaptic plasticity has been reported and, following lesion, astrocytes become reactive, limiting tissue damage. Such cells also attempt to restore homeostasis by secreting cytokines and neurotrophic factors. Moreover, astrocytes modulate synapse function, by taking up and releasing neurotransmitters and by limiting the synaptic cleft...
March 21, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
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