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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927263/molecular-and-cellular-basis-of-neurodegeneration-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Sangyun Jeong
The most common form of senile dementia is Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is characterized by the extracellular deposition of amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta) plaques and the intracellular formation of neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) in the cerebral cortex. Tau abnormalities are commonly observed in many neurodegenerative diseases including AD, Parkinson's disease, and Pick's disease. Interestingly, tau-mediated formation of NFTs in AD brains shows better correlation with cognitive impairment than Abeta plaque accumulation; pathological tau alone is sufficient to elicit frontotemporal dementia, but it does not cause AD...
September 20, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927250/gut-microbiota-and-the-liver
#2
Alessandro Federico, Marcello Dallio, Giuseppe G Caprio, Vittorio M Ormando, Carmela Loguercio
Nowadays liver diseases represent one of major healthy problems in the world in terms of morbidity and mortality. The high prevalence of liver pathologies represents the key point to understand the necessity to identify the pathogenetic mechanisms that support these disorders in order to nurse them. Alterations of intestinal microbiota seem to play an important role in induction and promotion of liver damage progression, in addition to direct injury resulting from different causal agents. Gut microbiota is considered both as a promoting factor and as a potential therapeutic target of a large number of liver pathologies due to the connection between intestine and liver: the gut-liver axis...
December 2017: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927230/multi-azole-resistant-strains-of-cryptococcus-neoformans-var-grubii-isolated-from-a-flz-resistant-strain-by-culturing-in-medium-containing-voriconazole
#3
Rui Kano, Miki Okubo, Atsuhiko Hasegawa, Hiroshi Kamata
A Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii strain, NUBS14020, was the first fluconazole (FLZ)-resistant strain isolated from a feline cryptococcosis. Subsequent work demonstrated that multi-azole-resistant strains are readily isolated from FLZ-resistant strains by culturing in medium containing voriconazole (VRZ). The resulting clones were assessed for mutation and expression of known target genes, including the loci encoding lanosterol 14-α demethylase (ERG11), an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter (AFR1), or a multidrug efflux pump (MEP); mutation and/or overexpression of these genes is known to be associated with azole resistance...
September 11, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927229/creation-and-evaluation-of-a-laboratory-administration-curriculum-for-pathology-residents
#4
Jeannette Guarner, Charles E Hill, Timothy Amukele
Objectives: A clinical laboratory management (CLM) curriculum that can objectively assess the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education pathology systems-based practice milestones and can provide consistent resident training across institutions is needed. Methods: Faculty at Emory University created a curriculum that consists of assay verification exercises and interactive, case-based online modules. Beta testing was done at Emory University and Johns Hopkins...
September 11, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927207/surgical-approaches-to-the-temporal-horn-an-anatomic-analysis-of-white-matter-tract-interruption
#5
Paulo A S Kadri, Jean G de Oliveira, Niklaus Krayenbühl, Ugur Türe, Evandro P L de Oliveira, Ossama Al-Mefty, Guilherme C Ribas
BACKGROUND: Surgical access to the temporal horn is necessary to treat tumors and vascular lesions, but is used mainly in patients with mediobasal temporal epilepsy. The surgical approaches to this cavity fall into 3 primary categories: lateral, inferior, and transsylvian. The current neurosurgical literature has underestimated the interruption of involved fiber bundles and the correlated clinical manifestations. OBJECTIVE: To delineate the interruption of fiber bundles during the different approaches to the temporal horn...
April 1, 2017: Operative Neurosurgery (Hagerstown, Md.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927201/recognition-and-clinical-presentation-of-invasive-fungal-disease-in-neonates-and-children
#6
Jill King, Zoi-Dorothea Pana, Thomas Lehrnbecher, William J Steinbach, Adilia Warris
Invasive fungal diseases (IFDs) are devastating opportunistic infections that result in significant morbidity and death in a broad range of pediatric patients, particularly those with a compromised immune system. Recognizing them can be difficult, because nonspecific clinical signs and symptoms or isolated fever are frequently the only presenting features. Therefore, a high index of clinical suspicion is necessary in patients at increased risk of IFD, which requires knowledge of the pediatric patient population at risk, additional predisposing factors within this population, and the clinical signs and symptoms of IFD...
September 1, 2017: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927118/mutations-in-braf-codons-594-and-596-predict-good-prognosis-in-melanoma
#7
Xiaowen Wu, Junya Yan, Jie Dai, Meng Ma, Huan Tang, Jiayi Yu, Tianxiao Xu, Huan Yu, Lu Si, Zhihong Chi, Xinan Sheng, Chuanliang Cui, Yan Kong, Jun Guo
B-Raf proto-oncogene serine/threonine kinase (BRAF) V600E is the most common kinase-activating mutation and is associated with poor prognosis in melanoma. However, the clinical significance of kinase-impairing mutations remains unclear. The present study aimed to analyze kinase-impairing mutations in BRAF codons 594 and 596 in non-Caucasian patients with melanoma and to investigate their possible clinical significance. To detect hotspot mutations, exon 15 of the BRAF gene was amplified using polymerase chain reaction in samples from 1,554 patients with melanoma...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927095/high-expression-of-mage-a9-is-associated-with-unfavorable-survival-in-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#8
Yu Qi, Ke Xin Cao, Fu Chen Xing, Chun Yang Zhang, Qi Huang, Kai Wu, Feng Biao Wen, Song Zhao, Xin Li
Melanoma-associated antigens (MAGEs) are a group of well-characterized members of the cancer/testis antigen family, which are expressed in a variety of malignant tumors. MAGE-A9, a subfamily of MAGE-As, has been studied in a number of types of cancer and have been associated with unfavorable survival outcome. However, the expression of MAGE-A9 in human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and association of MAGE-A9 with the clinicopathological characteristics of ESCC, particularly prognostic characteristics, remains unknown...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927093/detailed-analysis-of-a-superficial-cd34-positive-fibroblastic-tumor-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#9
Kensaku Yamaga, Akihiro Fujita, Mari Osaki, Satoshi Kuwamoto, Naoko Ishiguro, Tadahito Yamamoto, Hideki Nagashima
Superficial cluster of differentiation (CD)34-positive fibroblastic tumor (SCPFT) is a rare mesenchymal neoplasm of borderline malignancy. It is characterized by a superficial location, marked cellular pleomorphism, an extremely low incidence of mitotic figures, and strong CD34 immunohistochemical positivity. As SCPFT is a recently described neoplasm, its characteristics are yet to be fully elucidated. To the best of our knowledge, no detailed studies regarding the imaging findings and cytogenetic analyses of SCPFTs exist...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927056/membranous-type-matrix-metalloproteinase-16-induces-human-prostate-cancer-metastasis
#10
Chunwa Jiang, Juanjing Wang, Chen Dong, Wei Wei, Jiang Li, Xiaomeng Li
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of proteolytic enzymes, which perform a crucial role in the metastatic spread of cancer. MMP2 and MMP9 are important cancer-associated MMPs in the invasion and metastasis of the majority of carcinomas. As a new member of the membrane-type MMPs, the function of MMP16 associated with invasion and metastasis of cancer remains unclear. In the present study, MMP16 expression in prostate cancer (PCa) tissues and cells was examined, and the high expression of MMP16 was revealed to be associated with advanced prostate tumor stage and PCa cell metastasis...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927048/mucoepidermoid-carcinoma-of-the-sublingual-gland-harboring-a-translocation-of-the-maml2-gene-a-case-report
#11
Kiminobu Sato, Jun Akiba, Ken Nakamura, Hideyuki Abe, Akihiko Kawahara, Takeichiro Aso, Hirohito Umeno, Hiroshi Harada, Hirohisa Yano
Among tumors of the major salivary glands, tumors in the sublingual gland are rare. Although mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) represents a histological type of salivary gland tumor, it is occasionally difficult to diagnose due to its histological variation. The present study reports a case of MEC harboring a mastermind-like transcriptional coactivator 2 (MAML2) gene translocation in the sublingual gland. A 76-year-old Japanese woman with a mass in the left submandibular region was referred to Kurume University Hospital (Kurume, Japan)...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927010/the-role-of-oocyte-organelles-in-determining-developmental-competence
#12
REVIEW
Karen L Reader, Jo-Ann L Stanton, Jennifer L Juengel
The ability of an oocyte to undergo successful cytoplasmic and nuclear maturation, fertilization and embryo development is referred to as the oocyte's quality or developmental competence. Quality is dependent on the accumulation of organelles, metabolites and maternal RNAs during the growth and maturation of the oocyte. Various models of good and poor oocyte quality have been used to understand the essential contributors to developmental success. This review covers the current knowledge of how oocyte organelle quantity, distribution and morphology differ between good and poor quality oocytes...
September 18, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926993/satellite-dna-an-evolving-topic
#13
REVIEW
Manuel A Garrido-Ramos
Satellite DNA represents one of the most fascinating parts of the repetitive fraction of the eukaryotic genome. Since the discovery of highly repetitive tandem DNA in the 1960s, a lot of literature has extensively covered various topics related to the structure, organization, function, and evolution of such sequences. Today, with the advent of genomic tools, the study of satellite DNA has regained a great interest. Thus, Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS), together with high-throughput in silico analysis of the information contained in NGS reads, has revolutionized the analysis of the repetitive fraction of the eukaryotic genomes...
September 18, 2017: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926991/-found-performance-towards-a-musical-methodology-for-exploring-the-aesthetics-of-care
#14
Stuart Wood
Concepts of performance in fine art reflect key processes in music therapy. Music therapy enables practitioners to reframe patients as performers, producing new meanings around the clinical knowledge attached to medical histories and constructs. In this paper, music therapy practices are considered in the wider context of art history, with reference to allied theories from social research. Tracing a century in art that has revised the performativity of found objects (starting with Duchamp's "Fountain"), and of found sound (crystallised by Cage's 4' 33) this paper proposes that music therapy might be a pioneer methodology of "found performance"...
September 18, 2017: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926955/identification-of-novel-bisbenzimidazole-derivatives-as-anticancer-vacuolar-h%C3%A2-%C2%BA-atpase-inhibitors
#15
Renukadevi Patil, Arpita Kulshrestha, Anjali Tikoo, Sara Fleetwood, Gajendra Katara, Bala Kolli, William Seibel, Alice Gilman-Sachs, Shivaputra A Patil, Kenneth D Beaman
The vacuolar (H⁺)-ATPases (V-ATPases) are a family of ATP-driven proton pumps and they have been associated with cancer invasion, metastasis, and drug resistance. Despite the clear involvement of V-ATPases in cancer, the therapeutic use of V-ATPase-targeting small molecules has not reached human clinical trials to date. Thus, V-ATPases are emerging as important targets for the identification of potential novel therapeutic agents. We identified a bisbenzimidazole derivative (V) as an initial hit from a similarity search using four known V-ATPase inhibitors (I-IV)...
September 16, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926951/insights-into-the-hexose-liver-metabolism-glucose-versus-fructose
#16
REVIEW
Bettina Geidl-Flueck, Philipp A Gerber
High-fructose intake in healthy men is associated with characteristics of metabolic syndrome. Extensive knowledge exists about the differences between hepatic fructose and glucose metabolism and fructose-specific mechanisms favoring the development of metabolic disturbances. Nevertheless, the causal relationship between fructose consumption and metabolic alterations is still debated. Multiple effects of fructose on hepatic metabolism are attributed to the fact that the liver represents the major sink of fructose...
September 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926856/positive-effects-of-promoting-physical-activity-and-balanced-diets-in-a-primary-school-setting-with-a-high-proportion-of-migrant-school-children
#17
Katharina S Weber, Olaf Spörkel, Melina Mertens, Alem Freese, Klaus Strassburger, Boris Kemper, Clemens Bachmann, Knut Diehlmann, Theodor Stemper, Anette E Buyken, Kerstin Ketelhut, Karsten Müssig
Background Children with migration background are at particular risk for overweight. We assessed the effects of a primary school-based initiative targeted at enhancing physical activity and dietary education among children with a high proportion of migration background. Methods Four 3(rd) and 4(th) grade classes (n=70 children, 77% with migration background) participated in a 10-months intervention comprising 2 additional exercise lessons weekly and 10 nutrition lessons per school year. 6 school classes (n=125 children, 65% with migration background) served as control...
September 2017: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926820/guided-university-debate-effect-of-a-new-teaching-learning-strategy-for-undergraduate-nursing-students
#18
Marta Arrue, Saloa Unanue, David Merida
BACKGROUND: A number of studies have shown that the traditional lecture suffers from limitations in the development of many important competencies such as reasoning ability for nursing professionals. OBJECTIVES: In view of this issue, the authors present a promising alternative to the traditional lecture: the Guided University Debate (GUD). With regard to this aim a teaching-learning sequence of schizophrenia is described based on the GUD. Next, the improvement in the argumentative and declarative knowledge of the students who have participated in the said methodology is demonstrated...
September 5, 2017: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926784/synthesis-of-thiobarbituric-acid-derivatives-in-vitro-%C3%AE-glucosidase-inhibition-and-molecular-docking-studies
#19
Assem Barakat, M Ali, Abdullah Mohammed Al-Majid, Sammer Yousuf, M Iqbal Choudhary, Ruqaiya Khalil, Zaheer Ul-Haq
Synthesis, structure, and evaluation of in vitro α-glucosidase enzyme inhibition of a new class of diethylammonium salts of aryl substituted thiobarbituric acid is described. This protocol is straight, environmentally benign and efficient, involving Aldol-Michael addition reaction in one pot fashion. The 3D chemical structures of the synthesized compounds were assigned based on spectroscopic methods and X-ray single crystal diffraction analyses. All synthesized compounds 3a-3n were evaluated for their in vitro α-glucosidase enzyme inhibitory activity, whereas acarbose was used as the standard drug (IC50=840±1...
September 12, 2017: Bioorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926777/experience-as-knowledge-disability-distillation-and-reprogenetic-decision-making
#20
Felicity K Boardman
'Experiential knowledge' is increasingly recognised as an important influence on reproductive decision-making. 'Experiential knowledge of disability' in particular is a significant resource within prenatal testing/screening contexts, enabling prospective parents to imagine and appraise future lives affected by disability. However, the concept of 'experiential knowledge' has been widely critiqued for its idiosyncrasy, its impermanence and consequently its perceived inferiority to (medical) knowledge. This paper explores some of these key critiques of experiential knowledge through an analysis of its constitution and uses in the context of reproductive decision-making...
September 8, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
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