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pediatric cognitive dysfunction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089557/lower-total-and-regional-grey-matter-brain-volumes-in-youth-with-perinatally-acquired-hiv-infection-associations-with-hiv-disease-severity-substance-use-and-cognition
#1
C Paula Lewis-De Los Angeles, Paige L Williams, Yanling Huo, Shirlene D Wang, Kristina A Uban, Megan M Herting, Kathleen Malee, Ram Yogev, John G Csernansky, Sharon Nichols, Russell B Van Dyke, Elizabeth R Sowell, Lei Wang
Despite improved survival due to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), youth with perinatally-acquired HIV (PHIV) show cognitive deficits and developmental delay at increased rates. HIV affects the brain during critical periods of development, and the brain may be a persistent reservoir for HIV due to suboptimal blood brain barrier penetration of cART. We conducted structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) and cognitive testing in 40 PHIV youth (mean age=16.7 years) recruited from the NIH Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study (PHACS) who are part of the first generation of PHIV youth surviving into adulthood...
January 9, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039052/a-holistic-approach-to-anesthesia-induced-neurotoxicity-and-its-implications-for-future-mechanistic-studies
#2
Christine N Zanghi, Vesna Jevtovic-Todorovic
The year 2016 marked the 15th anniversary since anesthesia-induced developmental neurotoxicity and its resulting cognitive dysfunction were first described. Since that time, multiple scientific studies have supported these original findings and investigated possible mechanisms behind anesthesia-induced neurotoxicity. This paper reviews the existing mechanistic literature on anesthesia-induced neurotoxicity in the context of a holistic approach that emphasizes the importance of both neuronal and non-neuronal cells during early postnatal development...
December 28, 2016: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993231/neural-markers-in-pediatric-bipolar-disorder-and-familial-risk-for-bipolar-disorder
#3
Jillian Lee Wiggins, Melissa A Brotman, Nancy E Adleman, Pilyoung Kim, Caroline G Wambach, Richard C Reynolds, Gang Chen, Kenneth Towbin, Daniel S Pine, Ellen Leibenluft
OBJECTIVE: Bipolar disorder (BD) is highly heritable. Neuroimaging studies comparing unaffected youth at high familial risk for BD (i.e., those with a first-degree relative with the disorder; termed "high-risk" [HR]) to "low-risk" (LR) youth (i.e., those without a first-degree relative with BD) and to patients with BD may help identify potential brain-based markers associated with risk (i.e., regions where HR+BD≠LR), resilience (HR≠BD+LR), or illness (BD≠HR+LR). METHOD: During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 99 youths (i...
January 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989331/juvenile-fibromyalgia-a-primary-pain-or-pain-processing-disorder
#4
REVIEW
Lawrence Zemel, Peter R Blier
Juvenile fibromyalgia (JFM), a chronic disorder of widespread musculoskeletal pain in combination with autonomic, sensory, and cognitive dysfunction, is responsible for considerable morbidity and impaired quality of life in affected patients and their families. Historically, fibromyalgia has been incorrectly characterized as a psychosomatic or psychogenic disorder, but new understanding of the science of pain has demonstrated unambiguously that it is an organic disorder of the pain processing system itself...
August 2016: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924149/differences-in-real-world-executive-function-between-children-with-pediatric-bipolar-disorder-and-children-with-adhd
#5
Alessandra M Passarotti, Nidhi Trivedi, Liza Dominguez-Colman, Manharkumar Patel, Scott A Langenecker
BACKGROUND: Recent research evidence suggests that executive function (EF) is impaired in both pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), although the underlying cognitive mechanisms are still unclear. In this study we examined EF, including cognitive and emotional control, in three pediatric groups with overlapping symptoms. METHODS: Sixteen children and adolescents with PBD, 17 children and adolescents with ADHD, Type Combined, and 13 children and adolescents with PBD and comorbid ADHD (PBD+ADHD) (mean age=12...
2016: Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27851909/systemic-cisplatin-exposure-during-infancy-and-adolescence-causes-impaired-cognitive-function-in-adulthood
#6
Tami John, Naomi Lomeli, Daniela A Bota
Cancer survivors diagnosed during infancy and adolescence may be at risk for chemotherapy-related cognitive impairments (CRCI), however the effects of pediatric chemotherapy treatment on adulthood cognitive function are not well understood. Impairments in memory, attention and executive function affect 15-50% of childhood leukemia survivors related to methotrexate exposure. Systemic cisplatin is used to treat a variety of childhood and adult cancers, yet the risk and extent of cognitive impairment due to platinum-based chemotherapy in pediatric patients is unknown...
February 15, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829127/sex-dependent-changes-in-neuronal-morphology-and-psychosocial-behaviors-after-pediatric-brain-injury
#7
Bridgette D Semple, Shilpi Dixit, Sandy R Shultz, Wah Chin Boon, Terence J O'Brien
Chronic social behavior problems after pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) significantly contribute to poor quality of life for survivors. Using a well-characterized mouse model of early childhood TBI, we have previously demonstrated that young brain-injured mice develop social deficits by adulthood. As biological sex may influence both normal and aberrant social development, we here evaluated potential sex differences in post-TBI psychosocial deficits by comparing the behavior of male and female mice at adulthood (8 weeks post-injury)...
February 15, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824638/autism-spectrum-disorder-and-avoidant-restrictive-food-intake-disorder
#8
Jennifer Lucarelli, Demetra Pappas, Leah Welchons, Marilyn Augustyn
Kendra is a 4-year-old girl with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who presents for follow-up of feeding problems to her pediatric clinician. She is an only child in a family where both parents are scientists. Feeding concerns date to infancy, when she was diagnosed with Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) associated with persistent bottle refusal and the acceptance of few pureed foods. At 13 months, milk and peanut allergies were diagnosed. Following a feeding clinic evaluation at 24 months, she was prescribed a soy milk supplement and an H2 blocker...
January 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737310/development-of-the-brazilian-version-of-the-child-hayling-test
#9
Larissa de Souza Siqueira, Hosana Alves Gonçalves, Lilian Cristine Hübner, Rochele Paz Fonseca
Introduction: The Hayling Test assesses the components of initiation, inhibition, cognitive flexibility and verbal speed by means of a sentence completion task. This study presents the process of developing the Brazilian version of the Child Hayling Test (CHT) and reports evidence of its content validity. Methods: 139 people took part in the study. The adaptation was performed by seven translators and 12 specialist judges. An initial sample of 92 healthy children was recruited to test a selection of sentences adapted from previous adult and pediatric versions of the instrument, and a sample of 28 healthy children was recruited for pilot testing of the final version...
July 2016: Trends in Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27678103/long-term-outcomes-of-children-treated-for-cushing-s-disease-a-single-center-experience
#10
Galina Yordanova, Lee Martin, Farhad Afshar, Ian Sabin, Ghassan Alusi, Nicholas P Plowman, Fiona Riddoch, Jane Evanson, Matthew Matson, Ashley B Grossman, Scott A Akker, John P Monson, William M Drake, Martin O Savage, Helen L Storr
PURPOSE: Pediatric Cushing's disease (CD) is rare and there are limited data on the long-term outcomes. We assessed CD recurrence, body composition, pituitary function and psychiatric comorbidity in a cohort of pediatric CD patients. METHODS: Retrospective review of 21 CD patients, mean age at diagnosis 12.1 years (5.7-17.8), managed in our center between 1986 and 2010. Mean follow-up from definitive treatment was 10.6 years (2.9-27.2). RESULTS: Fifteen patients were in remission following transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) and 5 were in remission following TSS + external pituitary radiotherapy (RT)...
December 2016: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638585/clinical-electrophysiological-and-biochemical-markers-of-peripheral-and-central-nervous-system-disease-in-canine-globoid-cell-leukodystrophy-krabbe-s%C3%A2-disease
#11
Allison M Bradbury, Jessica H Bagel, Xuntian Jiang, Gary P Swain, Maria L Prociuk, Caitlin A Fitzgerald, Patricia A O'Donnell, Kyle G Braund, Daniel S Ory, Charles H Vite
Globoid cell leukodystrophy (GLD), or Krabbe's disease, is a debilitating and always fatal pediatric neurodegenerative disease caused by a mutation in the gene encoding the hydrolytic enzyme galactosylceramidase (GALC). In the absence of GALC, progressive loss of myelin and accumulation of a neurotoxic substrate lead to incapacitating loss of motor and cognitive function and death, typically by 2 years of age. Currently, there is no cure. Recent convincing evidence of the therapeutic potential of combining gene and cell therapies in the murine model of GLD has accelerated the requirement for validated markers of disease to evaluate therapeutic efficacy...
November 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27603573/uncovering-cortico-striatal-correlates-of-cognitive-fatigue-in-pediatric-acquired-brain-disorder-evidence-from-traumatic-brain-injury
#12
Nicholas P Ryan, Miriam H Beauchamp, Richard Beare, Lee Coleman, Michael Ditchfield, Michael Kean, Timothy J Silk, Sila Genc, Cathy Catroppa, Vicki A Anderson
Cognitive fatigue is among the most profound and disabling sequelae of pediatric acquired brain disorders, however the neural correlates of these symptoms in children remains unexplored. One hypothesis suggests that cognitive fatigue may arise from dysfunction of cortico-striatal networks (CSNs) implicated in effort output and outcome valuation. Using pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) as a model, this study investigated (i) the sub-acute effect of brain injury on CSN volume; and (ii) potential relationships between cognitive fatigue and sub-acute volumetric abnormalities of the CSN...
October 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27599728/impact-of-miglustat-on-evolution-of-atypical-presentation-of-late-infantile-onset-niemann-pick-disease-type-c-with-early-cognitive-impairment-behavioral-dysfunction-epilepsy-ophthalmoplegia-and-cerebellar-involvement-a-case-report
#13
Jean-Marie Cuisset, S Sukno, A Trauffler, P Latour, D Dobbelaere, L Michaud, L Vallée
BACKGROUND: Niemann-Pick disease type C is a rare inherited neurodegenerative disease involving impaired intracellular lipid trafficking and accumulation of glycolipids in various tissues, including the brain. Miglustat, a reversible inhibitor of glucosylceramide synthase, has been shown to be effective in the treatment of progressive neurological manifestations in pediatric and adult patients with Niemann-Pick disease type C, and has been used in that indication in Europe since 2010...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27448239/executive-function-and-health-related-quality-of-life-in-pediatric-epilepsy
#14
William A Schraegle, Jeffrey B Titus
Children and adolescents with epilepsy often show higher rates of executive functioning deficits and are at an increased risk of diminished health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The purpose of the current study was to determine the extent to which executive dysfunction predicts HRQOL in youth with epilepsy. Data included parental ratings on the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF) and the Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy (QOLCE) questionnaire for 130 children and adolescents with epilepsy (mean age=11years, 6months; SD=3years, 6months)...
September 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27447980/systematic-evidence-based-review-of-exercise-physical-activity-and-physical-fitness-effects-on-cognition-in-persons-with-multiple-sclerosis
#15
Brian M Sandroff, Robert W Motl, Mark R Scudder, John DeLuca
Cognitive dysfunction is highly prevalent, disabling, and poorly-managed in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). Recent evidence suggests that exercise might have beneficial effects on cognition in this population. The current systematic, evidence-based review examined the existing literature on exercise, physical activity, and physical fitness effects on cognition in MS to accurately describe the current status of the field, offer recommendations for clinicians, and identify study-specific and participant-specific characteristics for providing future direction for ongoing MS research...
September 2016: Neuropsychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27446243/magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-pediatric-sickle-cell-anemia
#16
Xinxian Zhang, Chenglong Li, Qiancheng Li
Sickle cell disease is the result of altered genetic make up due to hereditary encounter and its form as homozygous sickle cell anemia is the most common and severe. The disease is characterized by chronic anemia, recurrent pain crises and vascular occlusion. Neurologically, there is a high incidence of stroke in childhood, as well as cognitive dysfunction. Newborn screening programmes and preventative treatments have allowed a much longer lifespan. However, recently, neurological research has shifted to characterizing more subtle aspects of brain development and functioning that may be critically important to the individual's quality of life...
August 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27443555/reactive-oxygen-species-mediated-loss-of-phenotype-of-parvalbumin-interneurons-contributes-to-long-term-cognitive-impairments-after-repeated-neonatal-ketamine-exposures
#17
Hui Zhang, Xiao-Ru Sun, Jing Wang, Zhen-Zhen Zhang, Hong-Ting Zhao, Hui-Hui Li, Mu-Huo Ji, Kuan-Yu Li, Jian-Jun Yang
Ketamine, a common anesthetic used for pediatric patients, has been shown to induce neurotoxicity and alter adolescent behaviors in rats when administered during neonatal period. However, the mechanisms underlying this kind of neurotoxicity remain largely to be determined. Herein, we studied whether the reactive oxygen species (ROS) due to the increased NOX2 mediates loss of phenotype of PV interneurons and thus contributes to long-term cognitive impairments after repeated ketamine exposures. Sprague-Dawley male rat pups received a daily administration of ketamine intraperitoneally (75 mg/kg) from postnatal day 6 (P6) to P8 for three consecutive days...
November 2016: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27438979/quality-of-life-cognitive-level-and-school-performance-in-children-with-functional-lower-urinary-tract-dysfunction
#18
Lorenna Andrade Veloso, Maria Júlia Gonçalves de Mello, José Pacheco Martins Ribeiro Neto, Leopoldo Nelson Fernandes Barbosa, Eduardo Just da Costa E Silva
INTRODUCTION: Lower urinary tract dysfunction (LUTD) are voiding dysfunctions without anatomical or neurological defects. The diagnosis is primarily clinical, with symptoms standardized by the International Children's Continence Society. Few studies relate quality of life of patients with cognitive and school performance. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate milestones of bladder control, daily problems, quality of life (QoL), cognitive function and school performance of children with LUTD...
June 2016: Jornal Brasileiro de Nefrologia: ʹorgão Oficial de Sociedades Brasileira e Latino-Americana de Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27376046/neurological-outcome-after-arterial-ischemic-stroke-in-children
#19
Jafar Nasiri, Alireza Ariyana, Omid Yaghini, Mohammad Reza Ghazavi, Mojtaba Keikhah, Mehri Salari
BACKGROUND: Stroke is an important cause of disability in children. Pediatric stroke may be due to significant permanent cognitive and motor handicap in children. In this study, we evaluated long-term outcomes of stroke in pediatric patients who have been discharged with definite diagnosis of stroke in Tehran Mofid children's Hospital and Imam Hossein children's Hospital located in Isfahan, Iran, from 2005 to 2012. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 53 children with stroke were included in the study...
2016: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27346387/rethinking-cognition-and-behavior-in-the-new-classification-for-childhood-epilepsy-examples-from-frontal-lobe-and-temporal-lobe-epilepsies
#20
REVIEW
Mary Lou Smith
The new approach to classification of the epilepsies emphasizes the role of dysfunction in networks in defining types of epilepsies. This paper reviews the structural and neuropsychological deficits in two types of childhood epilepsy: frontal lobe and temporal lobe epilepsy. The evidence for and against a pattern of specificity of deficits in executive function and memory associated with these two types of epilepsies is presented. The evidence varies with the methodologies used in the studies, but direct comparison of the two types of epilepsies does not suggest a clear-cut mapping of function onto structure...
November 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
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