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pediatric cognitive dysfunction

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655455/attention-processing-speed-and-executive-functioning-in-pediatric-brain-tumor-survivors-treated-with-proton-beam-radiation-therapy
#1
Tanya N Antonini, M Douglas Ris, David R Grosshans, Anita Mahajan, M Fatih Okcu, Murali Chintagumpala, Arnold Paulino, Amanda E Child, Jessica Orobio, Heather H Stancel, Lisa S Kahalley
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This study examines attention, processing speed, and executive functioning in pediatric brain tumor survivors treated with proton beam radiation therapy (PBRT). MATERIAL AND METHODS: We examined 39 survivors (age 6-19years) who were 3.61years post-PBRT on average. Craniospinal (CSI; n=21) and focal (n=18) subgroups were analyzed. Attention, processing speed, and executive functioning scores were compared to population norms, and clinical/demographic risk factors were examined...
June 24, 2017: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649192/deleterious-effects-of-chronic-folate-deficiency-in-the-ts65dn-mouse-model-of-down-syndrome
#2
Susan Helm, Morgan Blayney, Taylor Whited, Mahjabin Noroozi, Sen Lin, Semira Kern, David Green, Ahmad Salehi
Folate is an important B vitamin naturally found in the human diet and plays a critical role in methylation of nucleic acids. Indeed, abnormalities in this major epigenetic mechanism play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of cognitive deficit and intellectual disability in humans. The most common cause of cognitive dysfunction in children is Down syndrome (DS). Since folate deficiency is very common among the pediatric population, we questioned whether chronic folate deficiency (CFD) exacerbates cognitive dysfunction in a mouse model of DS...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643997/brain-monitoring-in-adult-and-pediatric-ecmo-patients-the-importance-of-early-and-late-assessments
#3
Roberto Lorusso, Fabio S Taccone, Mirko Belliato, Thijs Delnoij, Paolo Zanatta, Mirjana Cvetkovic, Mark Davidson, Jan Belohlavek, Nashwa Matta, Carl Davis, Hanneke Ijsselstijn, Thomas Mueller, Ralf Muellenbach, Dirk Donker, Piero David, Matteo Di Nardo, Dirk Vlasselaers, Dinis Dos Reis Miranda, Aparna Hoskote
Monitoring brain integrity and neuro-cognitive function is a new and important target for the management of a patient treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), in particular because of the increasing awareness of cerebral abnormalities that may potentially occur in this setting. Continuous regular monitoring, as well as repeated assessment for cerebral complications has become an essential element of the ECMO patient management. Besides well-known complications, like bleeding, ischemic stroke, seizures, and brain hypoperfusion, other less defined yet relevant injury and clinical manifestations are increasingly reported and impacting on ECMO patient prognosis at short term...
June 22, 2017: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561815/effects-of-therapeutic-hypothermia-on-white-matter-injury-from-murine-neonatal-hypoxia-ischemia
#4
Elliot Koo, R Ann Sheldon, Byong Sop Lee, Zinaida S Vexler, Donna M Ferriero
BackgroundTherapeutic hypothermia (TH) is the standard of care for neonates with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, but it is not fully protective in the clinical setting. Hypoxia-ischemia (HI) may cause white matter injury (WMI), leading to neurological and cognitive dysfunction.MethodsP9 mice were subjected to HI as previously described. Pups underwent 3.5 h of systemic hypothermia or normothermia. Cresyl violet and Perl's iron staining for histopathological scoring of brain sections was completed blindly on all brains...
May 31, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492436/continuous-regional-anesthesia-and-inpatient-rehabilitation-for-pediatric-complex-regional-pain-syndrome
#5
Carolina Donado, Kimberly Lobo, María Fe Velarde-Álvarez, Joseph Kim, Anne Kenney, Deirdre Logan, Charles B Berde
BACKGROUND: Evidence supports treatment of pediatric complex regional pain syndromes (CRPS) with physical and occupational therapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy. Some patients have persistent pain and/or limb dysfunction despite these treatments. We performed a retrospective study of pediatric patients with CRPS treated by continuous epidural or peripheral perineural local anesthetic infusions along with inpatient rehabilitation at Boston Children's Hospital. METHODS: After approval from the institutional review board, electronic medical records were reviewed for patients treated between September 2003 and September 2014...
July 2017: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483399/most-children-with-epilepsy-experience-postictal-phenomena-often-preventing-a-return-to-normal-activities-of-childhood
#6
Sarah J MacEachern, Sabrina D'Alfonso, Roman J McDonald, Nancy Thornton, Nils D Forkert, Jeffrey R Buchhalter
BACKGROUND: After a seizure, individuals with epilepsy have reported diverse symptoms in the postictal period, especially motor and cognitive dysfunction. However, these phenomena have not been well characterized in children, and their impact on patient well-being is not understood. We hypothesized that in a subset of epilepsy patients, postictal symptoms would affect their ability to return to normal childhood activities. METHODS: To test our hypothesis, a survey-based approach was used to characterize the type, frequency, and duration, as well as the impact of these symptoms on the ability of these children to return to their normal activities...
July 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447250/parent-reported-cognitive-function-is-associated-with-leukoencephalopathy-in-children-with-brain-tumors
#7
Jin-Shei Lai, Corey Bregman, Frank Zelko, Cindy Nowinski, David Cella, Jennifer J Beaumont, Stewart Goldman
PURPOSE: Cognitive dysfunction is a major concern for children with brain tumors. A valid, user-friendly screening tool could facilitate prompt referral for comprehensive neuropsychological assessments and therefore early intervention. Applications of the pediatric perceived cognitive function item bank (pedsPCF) such as computerized adaptive testing can potentially serve as such a tool given its brevity and user-friendly nature. This study aimed to evaluate whether pedsPCF was a valid indicator of cerebral compromise using the criterion of structural brain changes indicated by leukoencephalopathy grades...
April 26, 2017: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407726/complementary-features-of-attention-bias-modification-therapy-and-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-in-pediatric-anxiety-disorders
#8
Lauren K White, Stefanie Sequeira, Jennifer C Britton, Melissa A Brotman, Andrea L Gold, Erin Berman, Kenneth Towbin, Rany Abend, Nathan A Fox, Yair Bar-Haim, Ellen Leibenluft, Daniel S Pine
OBJECTIVE: In the treatment of anxiety disorders, attention bias modification therapy (ABMT) and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) may have complementary effects by targeting different aspects of perturbed threat responses and behaviors. ABMT may target rapid, implicit threat reactions, whereas CBT may target slowly deployed threat responses. The authors used amygdala-based connectivity during a threat-attention task and a randomized controlled trial design to evaluate potential complementary features of these treatments in pediatric anxiety disorders...
April 14, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394273/hippocampal-neuronal-loss-in-infant-macaques-orally-infected-with-virulent-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-siv
#9
Heather Carryl, Koen K A Van Rompay, Kristina De Paris, Mark W Burke
The neurological impact of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) on children includes loss of brain growth, motor abnormalities and cognitive dysfunction. Despite early antiretroviral treatment (ART) intervention to suppress viral load, neurological consequences of perinatal HIV-1 infection persist. Utilizing the pediatric simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) infection model, we tested the hypothesis that early-life SIV infection depletes neuronal population in the hippocampus. A total of 22 ART-naïve infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) from previous studies were retrospectively analyzed...
April 10, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377126/vascular-impairment-as-a-pathological-mechanism-underlying-long-lasting-cognitive-dysfunction-after-pediatric-traumatic-brain-injury
#10
REVIEW
Aleksandra Ichkova, Beatriz Rodriguez-Grande, Claire Bar, Frederic Villega, Jan Pieter Konsman, Jerome Badaut
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability in children. Indeed, the acute mechanical injury often evolves to a chronic brain disorder with long-term cognitive, emotional and social dysfunction even in the case of mild TBI. Contrary to the commonly held idea that children show better recovery from injuries than adults, pediatric TBI patients actually have worse outcome than adults for the same injury severity. Acute trauma to the young brain likely interferes with the fine-tuned developmental processes and may give rise to long-lasting consequences on brain's function...
April 1, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335872/cognitive-impairment-in-euthymic-pediatric-bipolar-disorder-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
REVIEW
Liana R Elias, Kamilla W Miskowiak, Antônio M O Vale, Cristiano A Köhler, Hanne L Kjærstad, Brendon Stubbs, Lars V Kessing, Eduard Vieta, Michael Maes, Benjamin I Goldstein, André F Carvalho
OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies investigating neurocognition in euthymic youths with bipolar disorder (BD) compared to healthy controls (HCs). METHOD: A systematic literature search was conducted in the PubMed/MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and EMBASE databases from inception up until March 23, 2016, for original peer-reviewed articles that investigated neurocognition in euthymic youths with BD compared to HCs. Effect sizes (ES) for individual tests were extracted...
April 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319548/tanshinone-iia-attenuates-sevoflurane-neurotoxicity-in-neonatal-mice
#12
Yimeng Xia, Heng Xu, Chenfei Jia, Xiaodong Hu, Yu Kang, Xiaoxuan Yang, Qingsheng Xue, Guorong Tao, Buwei Yu
BACKGROUND: Sevoflurane is the most widely used inhalational anesthetic in pediatric medicine. Despite this, sevoflurane has been reported to exert potentially neurotoxic effects on the developing brain. Clinical interventions and treatments for these effects are limited. Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA), extracted from Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen), has been documented to alleviate cognitive decline in traditional applications. Therefore, we hypothesized that preadministration of Tan IIA may attenuate sevoflurane-induced neurotoxicity, suggesting that Tan IIA is a new and promising drug capable of counteracting the effects of cognitive dysfunction produced by general anesthetics...
April 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274677/pediatric-irritability-a-systems-neuroscience-approach
#13
REVIEW
Ellen Leibenluft
Irritability, defined as an increased propensity to exhibit increased anger relative to one's peers, is a common clinical problem in youth. Irritability can be conceptualized as aberrant responses to frustration (where frustration is the emotional response to blocked goal attainment) and/or aberrant 'approach' responses to threat. Irritable youth show hyper-reactivity to threat mediated by dysfunction in amygdala, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), insula, striatum, and association cortex...
April 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238157/cognitive-remediation-in-pediatric-chronic-kidney-disease-and-end-stage-kidney-disease-rationale-candidate-interventions-and-applicability
#14
Karina Javalkar, Maria E Ferris, Jessica Cuttance, Stephen R Hooper
The purpose of this paper is to address the potential use of cognitive remediation interventions for children and adolescents with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). The prevalence and risk for neurocognitive dysfunction in children with this condition remains high, but, to date, interventions targeting these challenges have not been attempted either individually or as part of a larger treatment program. This is the next logical step in addressing the neurocognitive dysfunction that can be present in pediatric CKD/ESKD, with the field needing to determine the efficacy of cognitive remediation approaches for this population...
February 25, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207506/higher-subcortical-and-white-matter-cerebral-blood-flow-in-perinatally-hiv-infected-children
#15
Charlotte Blokhuis, Henri J M M Mutsaerts, Sophie Cohen, Henriëtte J Scherpbier, Matthan W A Caan, Charles B L M Majoie, Taco W Kuijpers, Peter Reiss, Ferdinand W N M Wit, Dasja Pajkrt
This study aimed to evaluate cerebral blood flow (CBF) in pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infection, and its role in HIV-related cerebral injury and cognitive impairment.This cross-sectional observational study compared 28 perinatally HIV-infected children (8-18 years) to 34 healthy controls matched for age, sex, ethnicity, and socio-economic status. All participants underwent 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging, using arterial spin labeling to assess CBF in gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), basal ganglia, and thalamus...
February 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089557/lower-total-and-regional-grey-matter-brain-volumes-in-youth-with-perinatally-acquired-hiv-infection-associations-with-hiv-disease-severity-substance-use-and-cognition
#16
C Paula Lewis-de Los Angeles, Paige L Williams, Yanling Huo, Shirlene D Wang, Kristina A Uban, Megan M Herting, Kathleen Malee, Ram Yogev, John G Csernansky, Sharon Nichols, Russell B Van Dyke, Elizabeth R Sowell, Lei Wang
Despite improved survival due to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), youth with perinatally-acquired HIV (PHIV) show cognitive deficits and developmental delay at increased rates. HIV affects the brain during critical periods of development, and the brain may be a persistent reservoir for HIV due to suboptimal blood brain barrier penetration of cART. We conducted structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) and cognitive testing in 40 PHIV youth (mean age=16.7years) recruited from the NIH Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study (PHACS) who are part of the first generation of PHIV youth surviving into adulthood...
May 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039052/a-holistic-approach-to-anesthesia-induced-neurotoxicity-and-its-implications-for-future-mechanistic-studies
#17
Christine N Zanghi, Vesna Jevtovic-Todorovic
The year 2016 marked the 15th anniversary since anesthesia-induced developmental neurotoxicity and its resulting cognitive dysfunction were first described. Since that time, multiple scientific studies have supported these original findings and investigated possible mechanisms behind anesthesia-induced neurotoxicity. This paper reviews the existing mechanistic literature on anesthesia-induced neurotoxicity in the context of a holistic approach that emphasizes the importance of both neuronal and non-neuronal cells during early postnatal development...
March 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993231/neural-markers-in-pediatric-bipolar-disorder-and-familial-risk-for-bipolar-disorder
#18
Jillian Lee Wiggins, Melissa A Brotman, Nancy E Adleman, Pilyoung Kim, Caroline G Wambach, Richard C Reynolds, Gang Chen, Kenneth Towbin, Daniel S Pine, Ellen Leibenluft
OBJECTIVE: Bipolar disorder (BD) is highly heritable. Neuroimaging studies comparing unaffected youth at high familial risk for BD (i.e., those with a first-degree relative with the disorder; termed "high-risk" [HR]) to "low-risk" (LR) youth (i.e., those without a first-degree relative with BD) and to patients with BD may help identify potential brain-based markers associated with risk (i.e., regions where HR+BD≠LR), resilience (HR≠BD+LR), or illness (BD≠HR+LR). METHOD: During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 99 youths (i...
January 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989331/juvenile-fibromyalgia-a-primary-pain-or-pain-processing-disorder
#19
REVIEW
Lawrence Zemel, Peter R Blier
Juvenile fibromyalgia (JFM), a chronic disorder of widespread musculoskeletal pain in combination with autonomic, sensory, and cognitive dysfunction, is responsible for considerable morbidity and impaired quality of life in affected patients and their families. Historically, fibromyalgia has been incorrectly characterized as a psychosomatic or psychogenic disorder, but new understanding of the science of pain has demonstrated unambiguously that it is an organic disorder of the pain processing system itself...
August 2016: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924149/differences-in-real-world-executive-function-between-children-with-pediatric-bipolar-disorder-and-children-with-adhd
#20
Alessandra M Passarotti, Nidhi Trivedi, Liza Dominguez-Colman, Manharkumar Patel, Scott A Langenecker
BACKGROUND: Recent research evidence suggests that executive function (EF) is impaired in both pediatric bipolar disorder (PBD) and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), although the underlying cognitive mechanisms are still unclear. In this study we examined EF, including cognitive and emotional control, in three pediatric groups with overlapping symptoms. METHODS: Sixteen children and adolescents with PBD, 17 children and adolescents with ADHD, Type Combined, and 13 children and adolescents with PBD and comorbid ADHD (PBD+ADHD) (mean age=12...
2016: Journal of the Canadian Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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