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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068807/annals-express-measuring-cortisol-in-serum-urine-and-saliva-are-our-assays-good-enough
#1
Nadia El-Farhan, D Aled Rees, Carol Evans
Cortisol is a steroid hormone produced in response to stress. It is essential for maintaining health and well-being; and leads to significant morbidity when deficient or present in excess. It is lipophillic and is transported bound to cortisol-binding globulin (CBG) and albumin; a small fraction (~10%) of total serum cortisol is unbound and biologically active. Serum cortisol assays measure total cortisol and their results can be misleading in patients with altered serum protein concentrations. Automated immunoassays are used to measure cortisol but lack specificity and show significant interassay differences...
January 1, 2017: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063472/the-effect-of-free-and-carrier-bound-cortisol-on-equine-neutrophil-function
#2
Melanie A Fratto, Kelsey A Hart, Natalie A Norton, Michelle H Barton, Steeve Giguère, David J Hurley
Cortisol is a key anti-inflammatory hormone that increases in bacterial sepsis and circulates predominantly bound to cortisol binding globulin (CBG). Only unbound cortisol was believed to be biologically active, but recent evidence suggests that CBG-bound cortisol also regulates inflammation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of free and CBG-bound cortisol on equine neutrophil function ex vivo. We hypothesized that CBG would enhance cortisol-mediated suppression of neutrophil pro-inflammatory responses...
January 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063163/immediate-versus-modified-release-hydrocortisone-in-mitotane-treated-patients-with-adrenocortical-cancer
#3
Marianne Weigel, Stefanie Hahner, Mark Sherlock, Amar Agha, Lucy Ann Behan, Paul M Stewart, Wiebke Arlt, Daniela Beier, Kathrin Frey, Kathrin Zopf, Marcus Quinkler
OBJECTIVE: Mitotane induces hepatic CYP3A4 activity, resulting in accelerated cortisol inactivation, and also increases cortisol binding globulin (CBG). Therefore, higher hydrocortisone doses are required in patients with adrenocortical cancer (ACC) on mitotane treatment. Modified release hydrocortisone has not been used in mitotane-treated ACC patients yet. AIM: Case series to compare serum cortisol, calculated free serum cortisol and ACTH levels in ACC patients on mitotane treatment with immediate and modified release hydrocortisone...
January 7, 2017: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027946/how-serpins-transport-hormones-and-regulate-their-release
#4
REVIEW
Robin W Carrell, Randy J Read
The adaptation of the serpin framework and its mechanism to perform diverse functions is epitomised in the hormone carriers of the blood. Thyroxine and the corticosteroids are transported bound in a 1:1 ratio on almost identical sites in the two homologous binding-globulins, TBG and CBG. Recent structural findings show an equilibrated, rather than on-and-off, release of the hormones from the carriers, reflecting small reversible movements of the hinge region of the reactive loop that modify the conformational flexibility of the underlying hormone-binding site...
December 24, 2016: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024808/total-and-free-cortisol-responses-and-their-relation-to-outcomes-after-cardiopulmonary-bypass-in-infants
#5
Eric L Wald, Carl L Backer, Joseph A Dearani, Zhuo Li, William C Oliver, Sheri S Crow
BACKGROUND: Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction may be partially responsible for the hemodynamic instability experienced by infants after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). We report the full spectrum of the HPA response surrounding CPB for infant congenital cardiac surgery. METHODS: We enrolled 84 infants who received 1 mg/kg of dexamethasone before initiation of CPB. Total cortisol (TC), free cortisol (FC), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) were measured at 3 time points: immediately before CPB (TP1), on intensive care unit arrival (TP2), and at 24 hours after surgery (TP3)...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007663/dynamic-interactions-between-corticosterone-corticosteroid-binding-globulin-and-testosterone-in-response-to-capture-stress-in-male-breeding-eurasian-tree-sparrows
#6
Yaqing Li, Yanfeng Sun, Jesse S Krause, Mo Li, Xuelu Liu, Weiwei Zhu, Yao Yao, Yuefeng Wu, Dongming Li
In birds, corticosterone (CORT), testosterone (T), and corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG) are involved in modulating the trade-off between reproduction and survival. In response to acute stress, increased total plasma CORT is a ubiquitous phenomenon while T levels can decrease, or remain unchanged. Since CORT and T bind competitively with CBG in birds, the underlying regulatory mechanisms and consequences of their dynamic interactions remain largely unknown. Here, we studied the dynamic changes of total CORT, T, and CBG, and estimated free and bound CORT and T in response to capture stress in male Eurasian tree sparrows (Passer montanus) across the nest building, egg-laying, and nestling stages...
December 19, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973029/stroke-treatment-cost-analysis-for-consideration-on-health-cost-determination-using-ina-cbg-s-indonesia-case-based-groups-in-indonesia-national-health-insurance-programme-2014
#7
I Hadning, F Fathurrohmah
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957741/quantitative-determination-of-cannabinoids-in-cannabis-and-cannabis-products-using-ultra-high-performance-supercritical-fluid-chromatography-and-diode-array-mass-spectrometric-detection
#8
Mei Wang, Yan-Hong Wang, Bharathi Avula, Mohamed M Radwan, Amira S Wanas, Zlatko Mehmedic, John van Antwerp, Mahmoud A ElSohly, Ikhlas A Khan
Ultra-high-performance supercritical fluid chromatography (UHPSFC) is an efficient analytical technique and has not been fully employed for the analysis of cannabis. Here, a novel method was developed for the analysis of 30 cannabis plant extracts and preparations using UHPSFC/PDA-MS. Nine of the most abundant cannabinoids, viz. CBD, ∆(8) -THC, THCV, ∆(9) -THC, CBN, CBG, THCA-A, CBDA, and CBGA, were quantitatively determined (RSDs < 6.9%). Unlike GC methods, no derivatization or decarboxylation was required prior to UHPSFC analysis...
December 13, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899456/free-and-glucuronide-whole-blood-cannabinoids-pharmacokinetics-after-controlled-smoked-vaporized-and-oral-cannabis-administration-in-frequent-and-occasional-cannabis-users-identification-of-recent-cannabis-intake
#9
Matthew N Newmeyer, Madeleine J Swortwood, Allan J Barnes, Osama A Abulseoud, Karl B Scheidweiler, Marilyn A Huestis
BACKGROUND: There is increasing interest in markers of recent cannabis use because following frequent cannabis intake, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) may be detected in blood for up to 30 days. The minor cannabinoids cannabidiol, cannabinol (CBN), and THC-glucuronide were previously detected for ≤2.1 h in frequent and occasional smokers' blood after cannabis smoking. Cannabigerol (CBG), Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THCV might also be recent use markers, but their blood pharmacokinetics have not been investigated...
December 2016: Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896444/is-all-hypoglycaemia-treated-as-equal-an-observational-study-of-how-the-type-of-diabetes-and-treatment-prescribed-prior-to-admission-influences-quality-of-treatment-of-inpatient-hypoglycaemia
#10
Gregory C Jones, Jansher Khan, Christopher A R Sainsbury
AIMS: Inpatient hypoglycaemia is common and associated with adverse outcomes. There is often increased vigilance of hypoglycaemia in inpatients with type 1 diabetes (T1DM) compared to type 2 diabetes (T2DM). We aimed to investigate this apparent discrepancy, utilising the time to repeat (TTR) capillary blood glucose (CBG) measurement as a surrogate for engagement with guidelines stating that CBG should be rechecked following intervention within 15 min of an initial CBG of <4 mmol/L...
November 28, 2016: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894091/preclinical-study-of-cinobufagin-as-a-promising-anti-colorectal-cancer-agent
#11
Xing-Sheng Lu, Yin-Biao Qiao, Ya Li, Bo Yang, Min-Bin Chen, Chun-Gen Xing
Here, we assessed the anti-colorectal cancer (CRC) cell activity of cinobufagin (CBG). We found that CBG exerted potent cytotoxic and anti-proliferative activity against CRC lines (HCT-116 and HT-29) and primary human CRC cells. Meanwhile, it activated apoptosis, and disrupted cell-cycle progression in the cells. At the signaling level, CBG treatment in CRC cells provoked endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress), the latter was evidenced by caspase-12 activation, CHOP expression, as well as PERK and IRE1 phosphorylations...
November 23, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887960/corticosteroid-binding-globulin-cleavage-may-be-pathogen-dependent-in-bloodstream-infection
#12
Marni A Nenke, John G Lewis, Wayne Rankin, David Shaw, David J Torpy
OBJECTIVE: The process of enzymatic cleavage of high- to low-affinity corticosteroid-binding globulin (haCBG to laCBG) by neutrophil elastase leads to local tissue release of cortisol. Recently Pseudomonas aeruginosa was shown to instigate CBG cleavage with release of free cortisol in vitro. Hence, CBG cleavage with release of anti-inflammatory cortisol in infection may be pathogen-dependent. Our objective was to determine whether haCBG and laCBG levels are altered in infected patients compared with controls, and whether these alterations were particular to causative bacteria...
January 2017: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774351/impact-of-a-10-minute-seated-yoga-practice-in-the-management-of-diabetes
#13
Rashmi S Mullur, Donna Ames
OBJECTIVE: We sought to prospectively evaluate the impact of a 10 minute seated yoga program added to standard comprehensive diabetes care on glucose control and cardiovascular health in the severely ill, medically complex diabetic population. METHOD: A total of 10 patients with type 2 diabetes, ages 49-77, with duration of diabetes >10 years and haemoglobin A1C >9% (75 mmol/mol) were included in the study. Patients randomized to a yoga intervention were taught a 10 minute seated yoga practice, were given an explanatory DVD and a fold-out pocket guide to encourage adherence at home, and were instructed to incorporate the practice as often as they could...
January 18, 2016: Journal of Yoga & Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756081/evidence-of-reduced-cbg-cleavage-in-abdominal-obesity-a-potential-factor-in-development-of-the-metabolic-syndrome
#14
M A Nenke, J G Lewis, W Rankin, D J Torpy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746527/impact-of-different-intravenous-fluids-on-blood-glucose-levels-in-nondiabetic-patients-undergoing-elective-major-noncardiac-surgeries
#15
Ranjana Khetarpal, Veena Chatrath, Jagjit Kaur, Anju Bala, Harjeet Singh
BACKGROUND: Intravenous (IV) fluids are an integral part of perioperative management. Intraoperative hyperglycemia is associated with poor clinical outcomes in patients undergoing major surgeries even in nondiabetics. AIM: This study was conducted to observe the effect of different maintenance fluid regimens on intraoperative blood glucose levels in nondiabetic patients undergoing major surgeries under general anesthesia. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Randomized double-blind study...
September 2016: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27730074/evaluation-of-accuracy-of-ambulatory-glucose-profile-in-an-outpatient-setting-in-children-with-type-1-diabetes
#16
Anjana Hulse, Suahma Rai, K M Prasanna Kumar
BACKGROUND: In children with type 1 diabetes, intensive diabetes management has been demonstrated to reduce long-term microvascular complications. At present, self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) by patients at home and glycated hemoglobin estimation every 3 months are used to monitor glycemic control in children. Recently, ambulatory glucose profile (AGP) is increasingly being used to study the glycemic patterns in adults. However, accuracy and reliability of AGP in children have not been evaluated yet...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722705/phytocannabinoids-a-unified-critical-inventory
#17
Lumír Ondřej Hanuš, Stefan Martin Meyer, Eduardo Muñoz, Orazio Taglialatela-Scafati, Giovanni Appendino
Covering up to January 2016Cannabis sativa L. is a prolific, but not exclusive, producer of a diverse group of isoprenylated resorcinyl polyketides collectively known as phytocannabinoids. The modular nature of the pathways that merge into the phytocannabinoid chemotype translates in differences in the nature of the resorcinyl side-chain and the degree of oligomerization of the isoprenyl residue, making the definition of phytocannabinoid elusive from a structural standpoint. A biogenetic definition is therefore proposed, splitting the phytocannabinoid chemotype into an alkyl- and a β-aralklyl version, and discussing the relationships between phytocannabinoids from different sources (higher plants, liverworts, fungi)...
October 10, 2016: Natural Product Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699579/postoperative-dysglycemia-in-elective-non-diabetic-surgical-patients-a-prospective-observational-study
#18
Michael Hang Yang, Melanie Jaeger, Michael Baxter, Elizabeth VanDenKerkhof, Janet van Vlymen
PURPOSE: Elevated glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) is often found in surgical patients with no history of diabetes. The purpose of this prospective observational study was to determine if elevated preoperative HbA1c is associated with postoperative hyperglycemia in non-diabetic surgical patients and to identify predictors of elevated HbA1c. METHODS: This study included 257 non-diabetic adults scheduled for inpatient surgery. Preoperatively, capillary blood glucose (CBG) and HbA1c were measured and patients completed the Canadian Diabetes Risk Questionnaire (CANRISK)...
December 2016: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664202/constitutive-heterochromatin-in-chromosomes-of-duck-hybrids-and-goose-hybrids
#19
E Wójcik, E Smalec
Constitutive heterochromatin is a highly condensed fraction of chromatin in chromosomes. It is characterized by a high degree of polymorphism. Heterochromatin is located in the centromeric, telomeric, and interstitial parts of chromosomes. We used the CBG ( C: banding using B: arium hydroxide by G: iemsa) staining technique to identify heterochromatin in chromosomes. Analysis of karyotypes of F1 hybrids resulting from intergeneric hybridization of ducks (A. platyrhynchos × C. moschata) and interspecific crosses of geese (A...
January 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27647820/cannabinoid-disposition-in-oral-fluid-after-controlled-smoked-vaporized-and-oral-cannabis-administration
#20
Madeleine J Swortwood, Matthew N Newmeyer, Maria Andersson, Osama A Abulseoud, Karl B Scheidweiler, Marilyn A Huestis
Oral fluid (OF) is an important matrix for monitoring drugs. Smoking cannabis is common, but vaporization and edible consumption also are popular. OF pharmacokinetics are available for controlled smoked cannabis, but few data exist for vaporized and oral routes. Frequent and occasional cannabis smokers were recruited as participants for four dosing sessions including one active (6.9% Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol, THC) or placebo cannabis-containing brownie, followed by one active or placebo cigarette, or one active or placebo vaporized cannabis dose...
September 19, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
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