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pediatric acute brain failure

Serdar Kula, Ayhan Pektaş
This study aims to review pediatric pulmonary hypertension (PH) by comparing the guidelines of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC)/European Respiratory Society (ERS), the American Heart Association (AHA)/American Thoracic Society (ATS), and the European Pediatric Pulmonary Vascular Disease Network (EPPVDN). All three sets of guidelines define PH as having a mean pulmonary artery pressure of ≥25 mmHg and accept the validity of the World Health Organization (WHO) classification system. Every child with a high index of suspicion for PH should undergo an initial work-up of chest X-rays, electrocardiography, and echocardiography...
April 18, 2017: Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences
Giulia Longoni, Robert A Brown, Parya MomayyezSiahkal, Colm Elliott, Sridar Narayanan, Amit Bar-Or, Ruth Ann Marrie, E Ann Yeh, Massimo Filippi, Brenda Banwell, Douglas L Arnold
Most children who experience an acquired demyelinating syndrome of the central nervous system will have a monophasic disease course, with no further clinical or radiological symptoms. A subset will be diagnosed with multiple sclerosis, a life-long disorder. Using linear mixed effects models we examined longitudinal diffusion properties of normal-appearing white matter in 505 serial scans of 132 paediatric participants with acquired demyelinating syndromes followed for a median of 4.4 years, many from first clinical presentation, and 106 scans of 80 healthy paediatric participants...
March 14, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Marie-Philippine Clair, Jérôme Rambaud, Adrien Flahault, Romain Guedj, Julia Guilbert, Isabelle Guellec, Amélie Durandy, Maryne Demoulin, Sandrine Jean, Delphine Mitanchez, François Chalard, Chiara Sileo, Ricardo Carbajal, Sylvain Renolleau, Pierre-Louis Léger
OBJECTIVES: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support is indicated in severe and refractory respiratory or circulatory failures. Neurological complications are typically represented by acute ischemic or hemorrhagic lesions, which induce higher morbidity and mortality. The primary goal of this study was to assess the prognostic value of cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (StcO2) on mortality in neonates and young infants treated with ECMO. A secondary objective was to evaluate the association between StcO2 and the occurrence of cerebral lesions...
2017: PloS One
Abdussamet Batur, Muhammed Alpaslan, Alpaslan Yavuz, Aydın Bora, Mehmet Deniz Bulut
BACKGRUND: Hemolytic uremic syndrome is a disease characterized by hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and acute renal failure with multiple organ involvement. Central nervous system involvement is detected in 20-50% of the patients and this leads to increased morbidity and mortality. CASE REPORT: We report the neuroimaging findings in a four-month-old male with hemolytic uremic syndrome. The cerebral cortex and white matter showed mild signal intensity on T2-weighted images...
2016: Polish Journal of Radiology
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2016: Annals of Intensive Care
Joana Faleiro Oliveira, Susana Rebelo Pacheco, Marta Moniz, Pedro Nunes, Clara Abadesso, Mónica Rebelo, Helena Loureiro, Helena Almeida
Takotsubo syndrome (TTS) is an acquired transient type of systolic dysfunction which mimics myocardial infarction clinically and electrocardiographically. TTS is also known as stress cardiomyopathy, broken heart syndrome, apical ballooning, reversible acute heart failure, neurogenic stunned myocardium or acute catecholamine cardiomyopathy. This case report describes an uncommon presentation of myocardial stunning after an anesthetic procedure. A 14-year-old girl with a history of pineal cyst and hemiplegic migraine was admitted for control brain magnetic resonance imaging...
June 2016: Portuguese Journal of Cardiology: An Official Journal of the Portuguese Society of Cardiology
John K Yue, Ethan A Winkler, John F Burke, Andrew K Chan, Sanjay S Dhall, Mitchel S Berger, Geoffrey T Manley, Phiroz E Tarapore
OBJECTIVE Traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children is a significant public health concern estimated to result in over 500,000 emergency department (ED) visits and more than 60,000 hospitalizations in the United States annually. Sports activities are one important mechanism leading to pediatric TBI. In this study, the authors characterize the demographics of sports-related TBI in the pediatric population and identify predictors of prolonged hospitalization and of increased morbidity and mortality rates. METHODS Utilizing the National Sample Program of the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB), the authors retrospectively analyzed sports-related TBI data from children (age 0-17 years) across 5 sports categories: fall or interpersonal contact (FIC), roller sports, skiing/snowboarding, equestrian sports, and aquatic sports...
April 2016: Neurosurgical Focus
Aleksandra Biedrzycka, Romuald Lango
Conventional monitoring during surgery and intensive care is not sufficiently sensitive to detect acute changes in vital organs perfusion, while its good quality is critical for maintaining their function. Disturbed vital organ perfusion may lead to the development of postoperative complications, including neurological sequel and renal failure. Near-infra-red spectroscopy (NIRS) represents one of up-to-date techniques of patient monitoring which is commonly used for the assessment of brain oximetry in thoracic aorta surgery, and - increasingly more often -in open-heart surgery...
2016: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
Andrea Guardenier, Bradley Peterson, Mary Hilfiker, David Shellington
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2015: Critical Care Medicine
Shagun Sachdeva, Xiaoyan Song, Niti Dham, Deneen M Heath, Roberta L DeBiasi
Myocarditis causes significant morbidity and mortality in pediatric patients, with potential adverse outcomes including heart failure, transplantation requirement, and/or death. The objective of this study was to determine predictors of early and late poor outcomes, defined as requirement for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, ventricular assist device, transplantation, or death in pediatric myocarditis patients. A retrospective cohort study was conducted to evaluate pediatric myocarditis presenting over a 5-year period at a pediatric institution...
February 15, 2015: American Journal of Cardiology
George Sakellaris, Evangelos Blevrakis, Ioannis Petrakis, Anastasia Dimopoulou, Olga Dede, Nikolaos Partalis, Athanasios Alegakis, Chrysa Seremeti, Anna Maria Spanaki, George Briassoulis
BACKGROUND: Acute coagulopathy associated with trauma has been recognized for decades and is a constituent of the "triad of death" together with hypothermia and acidosis. STUDY OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine to what extent coagulopathy is already established upon emergency department (ED) admission and the association with the severity of injury, impaired outcome, and mortality. METHODS: Ninety-one injured children were admitted to the ED in our hospital...
November 2014: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Kristina M Haley, Thomas B Russell, Lynn Boshkov, Regina M Leger, George Garratty, Michael Recht, Kellie J Nazemi
Drug-induced immune hemolytic anemia (DIIHA) is an uncommon side effect of pharmacologic intervention. A rare mediator of DIIHA, carboplatin is an agent used to treat many pediatric cancers. We describe here, the first case of fatal carboplatin induced DIIHA in a pediatric patient and a brief review of the literature. Our patient developed acute onset of multi-organ failure with evidence of complement activation, secondary to a drug induced red cell antibody. Early recognition of the systemic insult associated with carboplatin induced hemolytic anemia may allow for future affected patients to receive plasmapheresis, a potentially effective therapy...
2014: Journal of Blood Medicine
Amit Mehta, Laura M Ibsen
Extracorporeal life support is used to support patients of all ages with refractory cardiac and/or respiratory failure. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) has been used to rescue patients whose predicted mortality would have otherwise been high. It is associated with acute central nervous system (CNS) complications and with long- term neurologic morbidity. Many patients treated with ECMO have acute neurologic complications, including seizures, hemorrhage, infarction, and brain death. Various pre-ECMO and ECMO factors have been found to be associated with neurologic injury, including acidosis, renal failure, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, and modality of ECMO used...
November 4, 2013: World Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Lotfi Hacein-Bey, Angelos Aristeidis Konstas, John Pile-Spellman
Dural arteriovenous fistulas (DAVFs) may occur anywhere there is a dural or meningeal covering around the brain or spinal cord. Clinical manifestations are mostly related to venous hypertension, and may be protean, acute or chronic, ranging from minor to severe, from non-disabling tinnitus to focal neurological deficits, seizures, hydrocephalus, psychiatric disturbances, and developmental delay in pediatric patients. Although low-grade lesions may have a benign course and spontaneous involution may occasionally occur (i...
June 2014: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
D N Gera, S B Patil, A Iyer, V B Kute, S Gandhi, D Kumar, H L Trivedi
Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) is a clinic-radiographic entity of heterogeneous etiologies that are grouped together because of similar findings on neuro-imaging and associated symptom complex of headache, vision loss, altered mentation, and seizures. Although usually considered benign and reversible, characteristics of this syndrome in pediatric patients remain obscure. This case series included 11 patients (8 males, 3 females, age 3-15 years) of PRES during September 2010 to February 2012 out of a total 660 renal pediatric patients (1...
January 2014: Indian Journal of Nephrology
Gregory Hansen, Michele Grimason, James W Collins, Mark S Wainwright
BACKGROUND: Neurologic complications of pediatric acute liver failure (ALF) are a major determinant of outcome. Management of these complications, including increased intracranial pressure (ICP) is largely supportive. Although hypothermia is an effective treatment for perinatal asphyxia and is used to reduce ICP following traumatic brain injury, it has not been evaluated for neurologic complications of ALF in the newborn. METHODS: Case report. RESULTS: We present a case of neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV)-associated ALF with profound neurologic impairment and increased ICP...
2013: SpringerPlus
Vanessa Cristina Waetge Pires de Godoy, Nathalia Mendonça Zanetti, Cíntia Johnston
OBJECTIVE: To perform an assessment of the available literature on manual hyperinflation as a respiratory physical therapy technique used in pediatric patients, with the main outcome of achieving airway clearance. METHODS: We reviewed articles included in the Lilacs (Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences/Literatura Latino Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde), Cochrane Library, Medline (via Virtual Health Library and PubMed), SciELO (Scientific Electronic Library), and PEDro (Physiotherapy Evidence Database) databases from 2002 to 2013 using the following search terms: "physiotherapy (techniques)", "respiratory therapy", "intensive care", and "airway clearance"...
July 2013: Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva
Charlene M T Robertson, Irina A Dinu, Ari R Joffe, Gwen Y Alton, Jason Y K Yap, Sonel Asthana, Bryan V Acton, Reg S Sauve, Steven R Martin, Norman M Kneteman, Susan M Gilmour
This prospective inception cohort study determines kindergarten-entry neurocognitive abilities and explores their predictors following liver transplantation at age <3 yr. Of 52 children transplanted (1999-2008), 33 (89.2%) of 37 eligible survivors had psychological assessment at age 54.7 (8.4) months: 21 with biliary atresia, seven chronic cholestasis, and five acute liver failure. Neurocognitive scores (mean [s.d.], 100 [15]) as tested by a pediatric-experienced psychologist did not differ in relation to age group at transplant (≤12 months and >12 months): FSIQ, 93...
November 2013: Pediatric Transplantation
Uta Lichter-Konecki, Vinay Nadkarni, Asha Moudgil, Noah Cook, Johannes Poeschl, Michael T Meyer, David Dimmock, Stephen Baumgart
BACKGROUND: Children with urea cycle disorders (UCDs) or organic acidemias (OAs) and acute hyperammonemia and encephalopathy are at great risk for neurological injury, developmental delay, intellectual disability, and death. Nutritional support, intravenous alternative pathway therapy, and dialysis are used to treat severe hyperammonemia associated with UCDs and nutritional support and dialysis are used to treat severe hyperammonemia in OAs. Brain protective treatment while therapy is initiated may improve neurological and cognitive function for the lifetime of the child...
August 2013: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
Ting-Chong Zhang
Limb trauma is the most common among pediatric victims in earthquake. Compared with traumatic brain injury, which is frequent in earthquake, intracranial injury is rare, but it is the leading cause of death from trauma in earthquake. Thoracoabdominal crush injury, which often causes such crises as visceral hemorrhage, is also one of the main causes of death among pediatric victims in earthquake. Crush syndrome and osteofascial compartment syndrome are often complicated by acute renal failure. Because trauma is emergent in earthquake, the principle of "life-saving first, critical injury priority" should be complied with during on-site rescue...
June 2013: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
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