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Mechanical properties, vagina

Michael T Cook, Marc B Brown
Intravaginal drug delivery can elicit a local effect, or deliver drugs systemically without hepatic first pass metabolism. There are a number of emerging areas in intravaginal drug delivery, but the vagina is a challenging route of administration, due to the clearance mechanisms present which result in poor retention of dosage forms, and the potential for irritation and other adverse reactions. Gel formulations are desirable due to the ease of application, spreading and that they cause little to no discomfort to the patient...
January 28, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Farhan Taherali, Felipe Varum, Abdul W Basit
The mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract, eyes, nose, lungs, cervix and vagina is lined by epithelium interspersed with mucus-secreting goblet cells, all of which contribute to their unique functions. This mucus provides an integral defence to the epithelium against noxious agents and pathogens. However, it can equally act as a barrier to drugs and delivery systems targeting epithelial passive and active transport mechanisms. This review highlights the various mucins expressed at different mucosal surfaces on the human body, and their role in creating a mucoid architecture to protect epithelia with specialized functions...
January 15, 2018: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
Adwoa Baah-Dwomoh, Raffaella De Vita
The cardinal ligament (CL) is one of the major pelvic ligaments providing structural support to the vagina/cervix/uterus complex. This ligament has been studied mainly with regards to its important function in the treatment of different diseases such as surgical repair for pelvic organ prolapse and radical hysterectomy for cervical cancer. However, the mechanical properties of the CL have not been fully determined, despite the important in vivo supportive role of this ligament within the pelvic floor. To advance our limited knowledge about the elastic and viscoelastic properties of the CL, we conducted three consecutive planar equi-biaxial tests on CL specimens isolated from swine...
October 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Tolga Sungur, Belma Aslim, Cagtay Karaaslan, Busra Aktas
Lactobacilli, commonly used as probiotics, have been shown to maintain vaginal health and contribute to host microbiota interaction. Exopolysaccharides (EPSs) produced by lactobacillus have been found to have an important role in probiotic activity; however, there is limited knowledge concerning their impact on cervical cancer and urogenital health. The objective of this study is to investigate and compare EPSs of L. gasseri strains (G10 and H15), isolated from a healthy human vagina, for their capability to inhibit cervical cancer cell (HeLa) growth and modulate immune response...
May 26, 2017: Anaerobe
Rita Rynkevic, Pedro Martins, Lucie Hympanova, Henrique Almeida, Antonio A Fernandes, Jan Deprest
Pelvic floor soft tissues undergo changes during the pregnancy. However, the degree and nature of this process is not completely characterized. This study investigates the effect of subsequent pregnancy on biomechanical and structural properties of ovine vagina. Vaginal wall from virgin, pregnant (in their third pregnancy) and parous (one year after third vaginal delivery) Swifter sheep (n=5 each) was harvested. Samples for biomechanics and histology, were cut in longitudinal axis (proximal and distal regions)...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
Tania Furst, George R Dakwar, Elisa Zagato, Anna Lechanteur, Katrien Remaut, Brigitte Evrard, Kevin Braeckmans, Geraldine Piel
Topical vaginal sustained delivery of siRNA presents a significant challenge due to the short residence time of formulations. Therefore, a drug delivery system capable to adhere to the vaginal mucosa is desirable, as it could allow a prolonged delivery and increase the effectiveness of the therapy. The aim of this project is to develop a polymeric solid mucoadhesive system, loaded with lipoplexes, able to be progressively rehydrated by the vaginal fluids to form a hydrogel and to deliver siRNA to vaginal tissues...
August 28, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Zhuo Yang, Jaclyn Hayes, Sundar Krishnamurty, Ian R Grosse
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is to develop a validated 3D finite element model of the pelvic floor system which can offer insights into the mechanics of anterior vaginal wall prolapse and have the ability to assess biomedical device treatment methods. The finite element results should accurately mimic the clinical findings of prolapse due to intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) and soft tissues impairment conditions. METHODS: A 3D model of pelvic system was created in Creo Parametric 2...
December 2016: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering
Katrina M Knight, Pamela A Moalli, Alexis Nolfi, Stacy Palcsey, William R Barone, Steven D Abramowitch
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Parity is the leading risk factor for the development of pelvic organ prolapse. To assess the impact of pregnancy and delivery on vaginal tissue, researchers commonly use nonhuman primate (NHP) and rodent models. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ewe as an alternative model by investigating the impact of parity on the ewe vaginal mechanical properties and collagen structure. METHODS: Mechanical properties of 15 nulliparous and parous ewe vaginas were determined via uniaxial tensile tests...
August 2016: International Urogynecology Journal
Jing Ding, Mou Deng, Xiao-Chen Song, Chun Chen, Kui-Lin Lai, Guo-Shuai Wang, Yu-Yu Yuan, Tao Xu, Lan Zhu
BACKGROUND: Implantation of nonabsorbable polypropylene (PP) mesh in the vagina is the main surgical treatment for pelvic organ prolapse (POP); however, clinical outcomes remain controversial and far from satisfactory. In particular, reducing the exposure or erosion of vaginal implants to obtain improved functional reconstruction is challenging. There is an urgent need for the development of new materials and/or products for POP treatment. A nanofibrous biomimetic mesh was recently developed to address this issue...
August 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Rui Liang, Katrina Knight, Alexis Nolfi, Steven Abramowitch, Pamela A Moalli
OBJECTIVE: Some selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) have been associated with increased incidence of urinary incontinence and pelvic organ prolapse. This study explored the effects of five SERMs on the function and matrix components of the vagina and its supportive tissues. METHODS: Fifty-six rats were administered SERMs by oral gavage for 8 weeks (n = 8 for each SERM): raloxifene, tamoxifen, idoxifene, bazedoxifene at three different doses, and bazedoxifene with conjugated estrogens...
February 2016: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
Daniela Ulrich, Sharon L Edwards, David L J Alexander, Anna Rosamilia, Jerome A Werkmeister, Caroline E Gargett, Vincent Letouzey
BACKGROUND: Pelvic organ prolapse (POP) is a multifactorial disease that manifests as the herniation of the pelvic organs into the vagina. Surgical methods for prolapse repair involve the use of a synthetic polypropylene mesh. The use of this mesh has led to significantly higher anatomical success rates compared with native tissue repairs, and therefore, despite recent warnings by the Food and Drug Administration regarding the use of vaginal mesh, the number of POP mesh surgeries has increased over the last few years...
February 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
M M Coman, M C Verdenelli, C Cecchini, S Silvi, C Orpianesi, M Caspani, F Mondello, A Cresci
AIMS: To characterize in vitro the ability of human Lactobacillus strains to inhibit the adhesion, to displace and to compete with clinically isolated Candida strains. METHODS AND RESULTS: Three types of assays were performed to determine the inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus plantarum 319, Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501, Lactobacillus paracasei IMC 502 and a specific probiotic combination (SYNBIO) on adhesion of Candida pathogens to HeLa cells: blockage by exclusion (lactobacilli and HeLa followed by pathogens), competition (lactobacilli, HeLa and pathogens together) and displacement (pathogens and HeLa followed by the addition of lactobacilli)...
November 2015: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Siwen Yang, Gregor Reid, John R G Challis, Sung O Kim, Gregory B Gloor, Alan D Bocking
Preterm birth (PTB) continues to be a global health challenge. An over-production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, as well as an altered maternal vaginal microbiome has been implicated in the pathogenesis of inflammation/infection-associated PTB. Lactobacillus represents the dominant species in the vagina of most healthy pregnant women. The depletion of Lactobacillus in women with bacterial vaginosis (BV) has been associated with an increased risk of PTB. It remains unknown at what point an aberrant vaginal microbiome composition specifically induces the cascade leading to PTB...
2015: Frontiers in Immunology
Rebeca Martín, Borja Sánchez, Maria C Urdaci, Philippe Langella, Juan E Suárez, Luis G Bermúdez-Humarán
The vaginal microbiota of healthy, fertile women is dominated by lactobacilli. As a defence mechanism, these bacteria produce H₂O₂ to discourage colonization of the vagina by undesirable micro-organisms. In particular, Lactobacillus jensenii CECT 4306 is a strong producer of H₂O₂ and has been found to protect itself from the bactericidal effects of this compound through the activity of extracellular peroxidases. However, this peroxidase activity is dependent on the presence of Fe(3+), which is found in elevated concentrations in the vaginal mucosa as a consequence of the menstrual discharge...
April 2015: Microbiology
Ting Tan, Frances M Davis, Daniel D Gruber, Jason C Massengill, John L Robertson, Raffaella De Vita
The focus of this study was to determine the structural and mechanical properties of two major ligaments that support the uterus, cervix, and vagina: the cardinal ligament (CL) and the uterosacral ligament (USL). The adult swine was selected as animal model. Histological analysis was performed on longitudinal and cross sections of CL and USL specimens using Masson׳s trichrome and Verhoeff-van Giesson staining methods. Scanning electron microscopy was employed to visualize the through-thickness organization of the collagen fibers...
February 2015: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Daniela Ulrich, Sharon L Edwards, Vincent Letouzey, Kai Su, Jacinta F White, Anna Rosamilia, Caroline E Gargett, Jerome A Werkmeister
OBJECTIVE: There are increasing numbers of reports describing human vaginal tissue composition in women with and without pelvic organ prolapse with conflicting results. The aim of this study was to compare ovine and human posterior vaginal tissue in terms of histological and biochemical tissue composition and to assess passive biomechanical properties of ovine vagina to further characterise this animal model for pelvic organ prolapse research. STUDY DESIGN: Vaginal tissue was collected from ovariectomised sheep (n = 6) and from postmenopausal women (n = 7) from the proximal, middle and distal thirds...
2014: PloS One
Franklin Yao, Melissa A Laudano, Stephan Seklehner, Bilal Chughtai, Richard K Lee
AIMS: The goal of this study is to develop an image-based model of urethral distention and resistance in women with and without SUI. METHODS: A biomechanical vector force model was created to simulate the mechanical deformation of pelvic floor structures during cough and Valsalva in order to measure urethral distension and predict flow resistance patterns. Dynamic MRI images were used to create a spatial model to construct an accurate representation of tissue thickness and location, which was combined with tissue property values (MATLAB 2011a, MathWorks, Natick, MA)...
September 2015: Neurourology and Urodynamics
O V Bukharin, E A Kremleva, A V Sgibnev, S V Cherkasov
AIM: Detection of properties of the dominant microsymbiont emerging in the course of interaction of associative symbiosis components and ensuring protection of vaginal mucosa from seeding by pathogens. MATERIALS AND METHODS: H202-producing Lactobacillus spp., Corynebacterium spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and primary epitheliocytes from lower reproductive tract of women were used. The ability of Lactobacillus spp. to influence changes of synthesis of catalase inhibitors by corynebacteria, bactericidal activity of lysozyme, lactoferrin and thrombocyte antimicrobial protein, antimicrobial activity of primary vaginal epitheliocytes was evaluated...
November 2013: Zhurnal Mikrobiologii, Epidemiologii, i Immunobiologii
Xuemei Fan, Yanzhou Wang, Yu Wang, Huicheng Xu
INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESES: Our aim was to compare histological and biomechanical effects of polypropylene (PP) mesh and porcine-derived, cross-linked urinary bladder matrix (cUBM) graft materials using a rabbit vaginal and abdominal model. METHODS: Forty rabbits were implanted with PP mesh (n = 20) or cUBM (n = 20) in the vagina and abdomen. Two grafts (PP or cUBM) of the same type were placed into each site, so each rabbit had four grafts. Grafts were harvested 12 weeks later and processed for histologic analysis and biomechanical testing...
May 2014: International Urogynecology Journal
Briana Nixon, Esra Fakioglu, Martha Stefanidou, Yanhua Wang, Monica Dutta, Harris Goldstein, Betsy C Herold
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies consistently demonstrate synergy between herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Higher HIV-1 loads are observed in coinfected individuals, and conversely, HIV-1 is associated with more-severe herpetic disease. A small animal model of coinfection would facilitate identification of the biological mechanisms underlying this synergy and provide the opportunity to evaluate interventions. METHODS: Mice transgenic for HIV-1 provirus and human cyclin T1 under the control of a CD4 promoter (JR-CSF/hu-cycT1) were intravaginally infected with HSV-2 and evaluated for disease progression, HIV shedding, and mucosal immune responses...
February 15, 2014: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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