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Growth Hormone Releasing Peptides

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790049/hypermetabolic-conversion-of-plant-oil-into-water-endothermic-biochemical-process-stimulated-by-juvenile-hormone-in-the-european-firebug-pyrrhocoris-apterus-l
#1
Karel Sláma, Jan Lukáš
The physiological and biochemical mechanisms that enable insects to feed on dry food to secure enough water for larval growth were investigated. The study was carried out with a plethora of physiological methods, ranging from the simple volumetric determination of O2 consumption and water intake to more advanced methods such as scanning microrespirography and thermovision imaging of insect's body temperature. The experiments were done on the European firebug, Pyrrhocoris apterus, which feeds exclusively on dry linden seeds...
2016: International Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760455/orphan-adhesion-gpcr-gpr64-adgrg2-is-overexpressed-in-parathyroid-tumors-and-attenuates-calcium-sensing-receptor-mediated-signaling
#2
Nariman Balenga, Pedram Azimzadeh, Joyce A Hogue, Paul N Staats, Yuhong Shi, James Koh, Holly Dressman, John A Olson
Abnormal feedback of serum calcium to parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion is the hallmark of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). While the molecular pathogenesis of parathyroid neoplasia in PHPT has been linked to abnormal expression of genes involved in cell growth (i.e. cyclin D1, retinoblastoma and β catenin), the molecular basis of abnormal calcium sensing by calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) and PTH hypersecretion in PHPT are incompletely understood. Through gene expression profiling, we discovered that an orphan adhesion G protein-coupled receptor, GPR64/ADGRG2 is expressed in human normal parathyroid glands and is overexpressed in parathyroid tumors from patients with PHPT...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754186/sp-04-1-the-role-of-natriuretic-peptides-in-the-pathogenesis-of-cardiovascular-diseases
#3
Zhanna Kobalava
The burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in general and heart failure (HF) in particular continues to increase worldwide. CVD are major contributors to death and morbidity and recognized as important drivers of healthcare expenditure. Chronic overactivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a key role in human hypertension and HF pathophysiology. RAAS is fundamental in the overall regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis through the actions of hormones, which regulate vascular tone, and specifically blood pressure through vasoconstriction and renal sodium and water retention...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752928/ghrelin-induced-enhancement-of-vasopressin-and-oxytocin-secretion-in-rat-neurohypophyseal-cell-cultures
#4
M Gálfi, M Radács, Zs Molnár, I Budai, G Tóth, A Pósa, K Kupai, Z Szalai, R Szabó, H A Molnár, J Gardi, Ferenc A László, Cs Varga
The effects of ghrelin on vasopressin and oxytocin secretion were studied in 13-14-day cell cultures of isolated rat neurohypophyseal tissue. The vasopressin and oxytocin contents of the supernatant were determined by radioimmunoassay after a 1- or 2-h incubation. Significantly increased levels of vasopressin and oxytocin production were detected in the cell culture media following ghrelin administration, depending on the ghrelin doses. The oxytocin level proved to be more elevated than that of vasopressin...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697899/somatostatin-analogues-in-acromegaly-and-gastroenteropancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumours-past-present-and-future
#5
REVIEW
Kjell Öberg, Steven W J Lamberts
Acromegaly is a hormonal disorder that arises when the pituitary gland secretes excess growth hormone (GH), which in turn stimulates a concomitant increase in serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels. Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (GEP-NET) constitute a heterogeneous group of tumours that can secrete serotonin and a variety of peptide hormones that may cause characteristic symptoms known as carcinoid syndrome or other symptoms and hormonal hypersecretion syndromes depending on the tumour's site of origin...
December 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693991/simplifying-and-expanding-analytical-capabilities-for-various-classes-of-doping-agents-by-means-of-direct-urine-injection-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-high-resolution-high-accuracy-mass-spectrometry
#6
Christian Görgens, Sven Guddat, Andreas Thomas, Philipp Wachsmuth, Anne-Katrin Orlovius, Gerd Sigmund, Mario Thevis, Wilhelm Schänzer
So far, in sports drug testing compounds of different classes are processed and measured using different screening procedures. The constantly increasing number of samples in doping analysis, as well as the large number of substances with doping related, pharmacological effects require the development of even more powerful assays than those already employed in sports drug testing, indispensably with reduced sample preparation procedures. The analysis of native urine samples after direct injection provides a promising analytical approach, which thereby possesses a broad applicability to many different compounds and their metabolites, without a time-consuming sample preparation...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681427/direct-sensing-of-nutrients-via-a-lat1-like-transporter-in-drosophila-insulin-producing-cells
#7
Gérard Manière, Anna B Ziegler, Flore Geillon, David E Featherstone, Yael Grosjean
Dietary leucine has been suspected to play an important role in insulin release, a hormone that controls satiety and metabolism. The mechanism by which insulin-producing cells (IPCs) sense leucine and regulate insulin secretion is still poorly understood. In Drosophila, insulin-like peptides (DILP2 and DILP5) are produced by brain IPCs and are released in the hemolymph after leucine ingestion. Using Ca(2+)-imaging and ex vivo cultured larval brains, we demonstrate that IPCs can directly sense extracellular leucine levels via minidiscs (MND), a leucine transporter...
September 27, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27676309/ghrelin-accelerates-wound-healing-in-combined-radiation-and-wound-injury-in-mice
#8
Cong Liu, Yuhui Hao, Jiawei Huang, Hong Li, Zhangyou Yang, Yiping Zeng, Jing Liu, Rong Li
Impaired wound healing caused by radiation happens frequently in clinical practice and the exact mechanisms remain partly unclear. Various countermeasures have been taken to tackle with this issue. Ghrelin was considered as a potent endogenous growth hormone releasing peptide, its role in enhancing wound repair and regeneration was firstly investigated in whole body irradiated (γ ray) mice in this study. Collagen deposition and neovascularization were mostly discussed. The results demonstrated that ghrelin administration promoted cutaneous wound healing in irradiated mice, followed with reduced average wound closure time, increased spleen index (SI), and improved hematopoiesis...
September 27, 2016: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665924/neuroprotective-effect-of-epidermal-growth-factor-plus-growth-hormone-releasing-peptide-6-resembles-hypothermia-in-experimental-stroke
#9
N Subirós, H Pérez-Saad, L Aldana, C L Gibson, W S Borgnakke, D Garcia-Del-Barco
BACKGROUND: Combined therapy with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and growth hormone-releasing peptide 6 (GHRP-6) in stroke models has accumulated evidence of neuroprotective effects from several studies, but needs further support before clinical translation. Comparing EGF + GHRP-6 to hypothermia, a gold neuroprotection standard, may contribute to this purpose. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to compare the neuroprotective effects of a combined therapy based on EGF + GHRP-6 with hypothermia in animal models of (a) global ischemia representing myocardial infarction and (b) focal brain ischemia representing ischemic stroke...
September 26, 2016: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27664588/influence-of-glucagon-like-peptide-2-on-energy-homeostasis
#10
REVIEW
Sara Baldassano, Antonella Amato, Flavia Mulè
Glucagon like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is a gastrointestinal hormone released from enteroendocrine L-type cells together with glucagon like peptide-1 in response to dietary nutrients. GLP-2 acts through a specific receptor, the GLP-2 receptor, mainly located in the gut and in the brain. Classically, GLP-2 is considered a trophic hormone involved in the maintenance of intestinal epithelial morphology and function. This role has been targeted for therapies promoting repair and adaptive growth of the intestinal mucosa...
December 2016: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643143/sp-04-1-the-role-of-natriuretic-peptides-in-the-pathogenesis-of-cardiovascular-diseases
#11
Zhanna Kobalava
The burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in general and heart failure (HF) in particular continues to increase worldwide. CVD are major contributors to death and morbidity and recognized as important drivers of healthcare expenditure. Chronic overactivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a key role in human hypertension and HF pathophysiology. RAAS is fundamental in the overall regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis through the actions of hormones, which regulate vascular tone, and specifically blood pressure through vasoconstriction and renal sodium and water retention...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27619395/lanreotide-depot-an-antineoplastic-treatment-of-carcinoid-or-neuroendocrine-tumors
#12
REVIEW
Edward M Wolin, Amandine Manon, Christophe Chassaing, Andy Lewis, Laurent Bertocchi, Joel Richard, Alexandria T Phan
PURPOSE: Peptide drugs for antineoplastic therapies usually have low oral bioavailability and short in vivo half-lives, requiring less preferred delivery methods. Lanreotide depot is a sustained-release somatostatin analog (SSA) formulation produced via an innovative peptide self-assembly method. Lanreotide is approved in the USA and Europe to improve progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with unresectable gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) and also approved in Europe for symptom control in carcinoid syndrome associated with GEP-NETs...
December 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27591070/is-really-endogenous-ghrelin-a-hunger-signal-in-chickens-association-of-ghsr-snps-with-increase-appetite-growth-traits-expression-and-serum-level-of-ghrl-and-gh
#13
Mohammed Abu El-Magd, Ayman A Saleh, Tamer M Abdel-Hamid, Rasha M Saleh, Mohammed A Afifi
Chicken growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) is a receptor for ghrelin (GHRL), a peptide hormone produced by chicken proventriculus, which stimulates growth hormone (GH) release and food intake. The purpose of this study was to search for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in exon 2 of GHSR gene and to analyze their effect on the appetite, growth traits and expression levels of GHSR, GHRL, and GH genes as well as serum levels of GH and GHRL in Mandara chicken. Two adjacent SNPs, A239G and G244A, were detected in exon 2 of GHSR gene...
October 1, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27578785/the-lim-homeobox-transcription-factor-isl1-plays-crucial-roles-in-the-development-of-multiple-arcuate-nucleus-neurons
#14
Bora Lee, Seunghee Lee, Soo-Kyung Lee, Jae W Lee
Neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus relay and translate important cues from the periphery into the central nervous system. However, the gene regulatory program directing their development remains poorly understood. Here, we report that the LIM-homeodomain transcription factor Isl1 is expressed in several subpopulations of developing arcuate neurons and plays crucial roles in their fate specification. Mice with conditional deletion of the Isl1 gene in developing hypothalamus display severe deficits in both feeding and linear growth...
October 15, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27569051/comparison-of-various-in-vitro-model-systems-of-the-metabolism-of-synthetic-doping-peptides-proteolytic-enzymes-human-blood-serum-liver-and-kidney-microsomes-and-liver-s9-fraction
#15
Irina Zvereva, Ekaterina Semenistaya, Grigory Krotov, Grigory Rodchenkov
: Small peptides with a molecular weight of <2kDa represent a performance-enhancing substances. However, in vivo studies with human volunteers are limited because most of these peptides are not approved for human consumption. Thus, relevant in vitro models are a basic tool to study their metabolism for anti-doping purposes. To choose the best in vitro model the biotransformation of growth hormone releasing peptides (GHRPs), Desmopressin and TB-500 was investigated using various in vitro systems...
August 25, 2016: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27558136/growth-coordination-during-drosophila-melanogaster-imaginal-disc-regeneration-is-mediated-by-signaling-through-the-relaxin-receptor-lgr3-in-the-prothoracic-gland
#16
Jacob S Jaszczak, Jacob B Wolpe, Rajan Bhandari, Rebecca G Jaszczak, Adrian Halme
Damage to Drosophila melanogaster imaginal discs activates a regeneration checkpoint that (1) extends larval development and (2) coordinates the regeneration of the damaged disc with the growth of undamaged discs. These two systemic responses to damage are both mediated by Dilp8, a member of the insulin/insulin-like growth factor/relaxin family of peptide hormones, which is released by regenerating imaginal discs. Growth coordination between regenerating and undamaged imaginal discs is dependent on Dilp8 activation of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the prothoracic gland (PG), which slows the growth of undamaged discs by limiting ecdysone synthesis...
October 2016: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27552171/effect-of-xiangbin-granules-on-post-operative-gastrointestinal-function-and-brain-gut-peptides-after-transabdominal-gynecological-surgery
#17
Si-Liang Wen, Xian Feng, Zhi-Qiang Chen, Jing Xiao, Wei-Xuan Zhang
OBJECTIVES: We conducted a prospective clinical randomized single-blind placebo-controlled trial (ChiCTR-TRC-14004156) to observe the effect of XiangBin granules on the recovery of gastrointestinal function and levels of brain-gut peptide motilin (MTL); vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP); growth hormone releasing peptide-ghrelin, GHRP-ghrelin, and corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), after transabdominal gynecological surgery. STUDY DESIGN: Patients undergoing gynecologic abdominal surgery were randomly divided in a 2:1 ratio (according to the data of pre-trial which was a small sample randomized trial in gynecology inpatient) into two groups: the larger treatment group taking XiangBin granules, and the smaller placebo group taking Chinese herbal placebo...
October 2016: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27548147/growth-hormone-releasing-peptide-2-attenuation-of-protein-kinase-c-induced-inflammation-in-human-ovarian-granulosa-cells
#18
Yi-Ning Chao, David Sun, Yen-Chun Peng, Yuh-Lin Wu
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) are two important inflammatory mediators in ovulation. Ghrelin may modulate inflammatory signaling via growth hormone secretagogue receptors. We investigated the role of ghrelin in KGN human ovarian granulosa cells using protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol 12, 13-didecanoate (PDD) and synthetic ghrelin analog growth hormone releasing peptide-2 (GHRP-2). GHRP-2 attenuated PDD-induced expression of protein and mRNA, the promoter activity of COX-2 and IL-8 genes, and the secretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE₂) and IL-8...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27546946/food-availability-energetic-constraints-and-reproductive-development-in-a-wild-seasonally-breeding-songbird
#19
Scott Davies, Thomas Cros, Damien Richard, Simone L Meddle, Kazuyoshi Tsutsui, Pierre Deviche
In many organisms, food availability is a proximate cue that synchronizes seasonal development of the reproductive system with optimal environmental conditions. Growth of the gonads and secondary sexual characteristics is orchestrated by the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. However, our understanding of the physiological mechanisms by which food availability modulates activity of the HPG axis is limited.It is thought that many factors, including energetic status, modulate seasonal reproductive activation...
November 2015: Functional Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27530317/ghrelin-gene-products-rescue-cultured-adult-rat-hippocampal-neural-stem-cells-from-high-glucose-insult
#20
Sehee Kim, Chanyang Kim, Seungjoon Park
Adult hippocampal neurogenesis is decreased in type 2 diabetes, and this impairment appears to be important in cognitive dysfunction. Previous studies suggest that ghrelin gene products (acylated ghrelin (AG), unacylated ghrelin (UAG) and obestatin (OB)) promote neurogenesis. Therefore, we hypothesize that ghrelin gene products may reduce the harmful effects of high glucose (HG) on hippocampal neural stem cells (NSCs). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of these peptides on the survival of cultured hippocampal NSCs exposed to HG insult...
October 2016: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
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