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Growth Hormone Releasing Peptides

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321024/the-growth-hormone-secretagogue-hexarelin-protects-rat-cardiomyocytes-from-in-vivo-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-through-interleukin-1-signaling-pathway
#1
Jiannan Huang, Yi Li, Juan Zhang, Yusheng Liu, Qinghua Lu
Hexarelin, a synthetic growth hormone-releasing peptide, has been proven to possess cardioprotective actions through its binding to the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) 1a and the non-GHSR receptor CD36. However, its effect on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury has not been fully clarified in vivo. We aimed to determine whether hexarelin treatment could protect cardiomyocytes from I/R injury and to examine the underlying mechanisms. In vivo hearts of male SD rats underwent 30 minutes of ischemia by left coronary artery ligation followed by reperfusion...
March 17, 2017: International Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257082/the-effect-of-lupinus-albus-on-growth-performance-body-composition-and-satiety-hormones-of-male-pigs-immunized-against-gonadotrophin-releasing-factor
#2
Karen Moore, Bruce Mullan, Jae Cheol Kim, Frank Dunshea
Two hundred and ninety four pigs were used with the aim to develop a dietary management strategy using Lupinus albus L. (albus lupins) to reduce the increase in feed intake and subsequent increase in carcass fatness in pigs immunized against gonadotrophin releasing factor (immunocastrates; IC males) and entire male pigs in the late finishing stage. From day (d) 0 to 28, IC males fed the control diet grew faster (p = 0.009) than entire males fed the control diet but there was no difference in growth rate between sexes for pigs fed albus lupins for 14 days pre-slaughter (Albus 14) or pigs fed albus lupins for 28 days pre-slaughter (Albus 28)...
March 2, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249734/role-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-and-nerve-growth-factor-in-the-regulation-of-neuropeptide-w-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo
#3
Rikang Wang, Fengxia Yan, Rifang Liao, Pei Wan, Peter J Little, Wenhua Zheng
Nerve growth factor (NGF) and Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) are neurotrophic factors involved in the growth, survival and functioning of neurons. In addition, a possible role of neurotrophins, particularly BDNF, in HPA axis hyperactivation has recently been proposed. Neuropeptide W (NPW) is an endogenous peptide ligand for the GPR7 and GPR8 and a stress mediator in the hypothalamus. It activates the HPA axis by working on hypothalamic corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH). No information is available about the interrelationships between neurotrophines like NGF/BDNF and NPW...
February 27, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240193/crh-receptors-in-human-reproduction
#4
Antonis Makrigiannakis, Thomas Vrekoussis, Emmanouel Zoumakis, Iordanis Navrozoglou, Sophia Kalantaridou
Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), the main peptide-mediator of stress, has been found in the female reproductive system. Herein, the role of CRH receptors in the female reproductive sysem is presented. It is clear that CRH receptors are involved in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis, while locally are associated with decidualization, embryonic implantation, early fetal development and triggering of parturition. Abnormal CRH signalling may contribute to obstetrical pathophysiology, such as pre-eclampsia, abnormal placenta invasion, endometrial growth retardation and preterm delivery...
February 23, 2017: Current Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238732/ghrelin-and-cancer-progression
#5
REVIEW
Tsung-Chieh Lin, Michael Hsiao
Ghrelin is a small peptide with 28 amino acids, and has been characterized as the ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR). In addition to its original function in stimulating pituitary growth hormone release, ghrelin is multifunctional and plays a role in the regulation of energy balance, gastric acid release, appetite, insulin secretion, gastric motility and the turnover of gastric and intestinal mucosa. The discovery of ghrelin and GHSR expression beyond normal tissues suggests its role other than physiological function...
February 24, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222044/endocrine-system-on-chip-for-a-diabetes-treatment-model
#6
Dao Thi Thuy Nguyen, Danny van Noort, In-Kyung Jeong, Sungsu Park
The endocrine system is a collection of glands producing hormones which, among others, regulates metabolism, growth and development. One important group of endocrine diseases is diabetes, which is caused by a deficiency or diminished effectiveness of endogenous insulin. By using a microfluidic perfused 3D cell-culture chip, we developed an 'endocrine system on chip' to potentially be able to screen drugs for the treatment of diabetes by measuring insulin release over time. Insulin-secreting β-cells are located in the pancreas, while L-cells, located in the small intestines, stimulate insulin secretion...
February 21, 2017: Biofabrication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150932/biomimetic-human-serum-albumin-nanoparticle-for-efficiently-targeting-therapy-to-metastatic-breast-cancers
#7
Lisha Liu, Yunke Bi, Muru Zhou, Xinli Chen, Xi He, Yujie Zhang, Tao Sun, Chunhui Ruan, Qingjun Chen, Hao Wang, Chen Jiang
Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs), devoid of hormone receptors and human epidermal growth-factor receptor-2/Neu expression, bring about poor prognosis and induce a high rate of systematic metastases. The ineffectiveness of current therapies on TNBCs could be attributed to the lack of efficient targeted therapy. Paclitaxel (PTX) is considered one of first-line chemotherapeutics for TNBC treatment but, due to its low aqueous solubility and nonspecific accumulation, results in poor antitumor efficacy. The present study is aimed at enhancing the chemotherapeutic potency of PTX by improving the stability and targeting efficiency of PTX-loaded nanoparticulate drug carriers...
March 1, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144395/new-therapeutic-approaches-to-metastatic-gastroenteropancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumors-a-glimpse-into-the-future
#8
REVIEW
Esther Una Cidon
Neuroendocrine (NE) gastroenteropancreatic tumors are a heterogeneous group of neoplasias arising from neuroendocrine cells of the embryological gut. Their incidence have increased significantly over the past 3 decades probably due to the improvements in imaging and diagnosis. The recent advances in molecular biology have translated into an expansion of therapeutic approaches to these patients. Somatostatin analogs, which initially were approved for control of hormonal syndromes, have recently been proven to inhibit tumor growth...
January 15, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090719/diversity-oriented-synthesis-of-cyclic-azapeptides-by-a-3-macrocyclization-provides-high-affinity-cd36-modulating-peptidomimetics
#9
Jinqiang Zhang, Mukandila Mulumba, Huy Ong, William D Lubell
Macrocyclization has enabled the use of peptides in drug discovery creating a need for methods to synthesize diverse peptide macrocycles. Azapeptides have advanced to clinically used drugs, however, few cyclic azapeptides have been studied. A multiple component "A(3) -macrocyclization" strategy is described for the preparation of diverse cyclic azapeptides and is demonstrated by the synthesis of 15 growth hormone releasing hormone-6 (GHRP-6) analogs. Certain cyclic aza-GHRP-6 analogs exhibited unprecedented affinity for the CD36 receptor, and capacity to modulate Toll-like receptor agonist-induced overproduction of nitric oxide, and reduce pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production in macrophages...
January 16, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011402/the-impact-of-the-appetite-regulating-orexigenic-peptide-ghrelin-on-alcohol-use-disorders-a-systematic-review-of-preclinical-and-clinical-data
#10
Anne Koopmann, Rilana Schuster, Falk Kiefer
Ghrelin, which is mainly released from the stomach, is the most important orexigenic regulator of food intake, inducing appetite, enhancing adiposity and releasing growth hormone. Besides the hypothalamus, ghrelin receptors (GHS-R1A) are also expressed in the mesolimbic dopaminergic system, which increases the possibility that ghrelin plays an important role in reward regulation for substance use disorders such as alcohol addiction, especially through activating the cholinergic-dopaminergic reward link. In this review we focus on the impact of ghrelin on the development and maintenance of alcohol addiction/dependence, alcohol consumption, alcohol craving and alcohol withdrawal, attempting to integrate preclinical and clinical studies concerning the intriguing relationship between appetite regulation, reward and alcohol addiction...
December 21, 2016: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008585/glucagon-like-peptide-1-analogues-inhibit-proliferation-and-increase-apoptosis-of-human-prostate-cancer-cells-in-vitro
#11
X-N Li, H-M Bu, X-H Ma, Sh Lu, Sh Zhao, Y-L Cui, J Sun
Background: Research has shown that the incidence of prostate cancer is increased in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) 1. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a gastrointestinal hormone that enhances glucose-dependent insulin secretion and suppresses glucagon release. Method: Here, we examined the effect of exenatide and liraglutide, 2 types of GLP-1 analogues, on prostate cancer cells growth by CCK-8 assay, Hoechst33258 staining assay, and western blot analysis of apoptosis-related proteins Bax and Bcl-2...
February 2017: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974199/glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-signaling-in-acinar-cells-causes-growth-dependent-release-of-pancreatic-enzymes
#12
Nicolai J Wewer Albrechtsen, Reidar Albrechtsen, Lasse Bremholm, Berit Svendsen, Rune E Kuhre, Steen S Poulsen, Charlotte B Christiansen, Elisa P Jensen, Charlotte Janus, Linda Hilsted, Carolyn F Deacon, Bolette Hartmann, Jens J Holst
Incretin-based therapies are widely used for type 2 diabetes and now also for obesity, but they are associated with elevated plasma levels of pancreatic enzymes and perhaps a modestly increased risk of acute pancreatitis. However, little is known about the effects of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) on the exocrine pancreas. Here, we identify GLP-1 receptors on pancreatic acini and analyze the impact of receptor activation in humans, rodents, isolated acini, and cell lines from the exocrine pancreas...
December 13, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974185/models-of-gh-deficiency-in-animal-studies
#13
REVIEW
Manuel D Gahete, Raul M Luque, Justo P Castaño
Growth hormone (GH) is a peptide hormone released from pituitary somatotrope cells that promotes growth, cell division and regeneration by acting directly through the GH receptor (GHR), or indirectly via hepatic insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) production. GH deficiency (GHD) can cause severe consequences, such as growth failure, changes in body composition and altered insulin sensitivity, depending of the origin, time of onset (childhood or adulthood) or duration of GHD. The highly variable clinical phenotypes of GHD can now be better understood through research on transgenic and naturally-occurring animal models, which are widely employed to investigate the origin, phenotype, and consequences of GHD, and particularly the underlying mechanisms of metabolic disorders associated to GHD...
December 2016: Best Practice & Research. Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790049/hypermetabolic-conversion-of-plant-oil-into-water-endothermic-biochemical-process-stimulated-by-juvenile-hormone-in-the-european-firebug-pyrrhocoris-apterus-l
#14
Karel Sláma, Jan Lukáš
The physiological and biochemical mechanisms that enable insects to feed on dry food to secure enough water for larval growth were investigated. The study was carried out with a plethora of physiological methods, ranging from the simple volumetric determination of O2 consumption and water intake to more advanced methods such as scanning microrespirography and thermovision imaging of insect's body temperature. The experiments were done on the European firebug, Pyrrhocoris apterus, which feeds exclusively on dry linden seeds...
2016: International Journal of Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760455/orphan-adhesion-gpcr-gpr64-adgrg2-is-overexpressed-in-parathyroid-tumors-and-attenuates-calcium-sensing-receptor-mediated-signaling
#15
Nariman Balenga, Pedram Azimzadeh, Joyce A Hogue, Paul N Staats, Yuhong Shi, James Koh, Holly Dressman, John A Olson
Abnormal feedback of serum calcium to parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion is the hallmark of primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). Although the molecular pathogenesis of parathyroid neoplasia in PHPT has been linked to abnormal expression of genes involved in cell growth (e.g., cyclin D1, retinoblastoma, and β-catenin), the molecular basis of abnormal calcium sensing by calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) and PTH hypersecretion in PHPT are incompletely understood. Through gene expression profiling, we discovered that an orphan adhesion G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), GPR64/ADGRG2, is expressed in human normal parathyroid glands and is overexpressed in parathyroid tumors from patients with PHPT...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754186/sp-04-1-the-role-of-natriuretic-peptides-in-the-pathogenesis-of-cardiovascular-diseases
#16
Zhanna Kobalava
The burden of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in general and heart failure (HF) in particular continues to increase worldwide. CVD are major contributors to death and morbidity and recognized as important drivers of healthcare expenditure. Chronic overactivity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a key role in human hypertension and HF pathophysiology. RAAS is fundamental in the overall regulation of cardiovascular homeostasis through the actions of hormones, which regulate vascular tone, and specifically blood pressure through vasoconstriction and renal sodium and water retention...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752928/ghrelin-induced-enhancement-of-vasopressin-and-oxytocin-secretion-in-rat-neurohypophyseal-cell-cultures
#17
M Gálfi, M Radács, Zs Molnár, I Budai, G Tóth, A Pósa, K Kupai, Z Szalai, R Szabó, H A Molnár, J Gardi, Ferenc A László, Cs Varga
The effects of ghrelin on vasopressin and oxytocin secretion were studied in 13-14-day cell cultures of isolated rat neurohypophyseal tissue. The vasopressin and oxytocin contents of the supernatant were determined by radioimmunoassay after a 1- or 2-h incubation. Significantly increased levels of vasopressin and oxytocin production were detected in the cell culture media following ghrelin administration, depending on the ghrelin doses. The oxytocin level proved to be more elevated than that of vasopressin...
December 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27697899/somatostatin-analogues-in-acromegaly-and-gastroenteropancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumours-past-present-and-future
#18
REVIEW
Kjell Öberg, Steven W J Lamberts
Acromegaly is a hormonal disorder that arises when the pituitary gland secretes excess growth hormone (GH), which in turn stimulates a concomitant increase in serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels. Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (GEP-NET) constitute a heterogeneous group of tumours that can secrete serotonin and a variety of peptide hormones that may cause characteristic symptoms known as carcinoid syndrome or other symptoms and hormonal hypersecretion syndromes depending on the tumour's site of origin...
December 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27693991/simplifying-and-expanding-analytical-capabilities-for-various-classes-of-doping-agents-by-means-of-direct-urine-injection-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-high-resolution-high-accuracy-mass-spectrometry
#19
Christian Görgens, Sven Guddat, Andreas Thomas, Philipp Wachsmuth, Anne-Katrin Orlovius, Gerd Sigmund, Mario Thevis, Wilhelm Schänzer
So far, in sports drug testing compounds of different classes are processed and measured using different screening procedures. The constantly increasing number of samples in doping analysis, as well as the large number of substances with doping related, pharmacological effects require the development of even more powerful assays than those already employed in sports drug testing, indispensably with reduced sample preparation procedures. The analysis of native urine samples after direct injection provides a promising analytical approach, which thereby possesses a broad applicability to many different compounds and their metabolites, without a time-consuming sample preparation...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681427/direct-sensing-of-nutrients-via-a-lat1-like-transporter-in-drosophila-insulin-producing-cells
#20
Gérard Manière, Anna B Ziegler, Flore Geillon, David E Featherstone, Yael Grosjean
Dietary leucine has been suspected to play an important role in insulin release, a hormone that controls satiety and metabolism. The mechanism by which insulin-producing cells (IPCs) sense leucine and regulate insulin secretion is still poorly understood. In Drosophila, insulin-like peptides (DILP2 and DILP5) are produced by brain IPCs and are released in the hemolymph after leucine ingestion. Using Ca(2+)-imaging and ex vivo cultured larval brains, we demonstrate that IPCs can directly sense extracellular leucine levels via minidiscs (MND), a leucine transporter...
September 27, 2016: Cell Reports
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