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Growth Hormone Releasing Peptides

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791869/ghrelin-and-the-heart
#1
Takeshi Tokudome, Kentaro Otani, Mikiya Miyazato, Kenji Kangawa
Ghrelin, a growth hormone-releasing peptide that was first discovered in the stomach of rats in 1999, is an endogenous ligand of growth hormone secretagogue receptor. Ghrelin exerts its potent growth hormone-releasing and orexigenic activities by binding to specific receptors in the brain. Subsequent studies showed that ghrelin participates in the regulation of diverse processes, including energy balance, body weight maintenance, and glucose and fat metabolism, and demonstrated that ghrelin is beneficial for treatment of cardiac diseases...
May 20, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773976/facing-the-challenges-of-neuropeptide-gene-knockouts-why-do-they-not-inhibit-reproduction-in-adult-teleost-fish
#2
REVIEW
Vance L Trudeau
Genetic manipulation of teleost endocrine systems started with transgenic overexpression of pituitary growth hormone. Such strategies enhance growth and reduce fertility, but the fish still breed. Genome editing using transcription activator-like effector nuclease in zebrafish and medaka has established the role of follicle stimulating hormone for gonadal development and luteinizing hormone for ovulation. Attempts to genetically manipulate the hypophysiotropic neuropeptidergic systems have been less successful...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729230/role-of-hypothalamus-in-aging-and-its-underlying-cellular-mechanisms
#3
REVIEW
Keetae Kim, Han Kyoung Choe
Aging is characterized by a progressive loss of several physiological functions that can cause various age-related disorders. Several factors have been identified as causes of aging to elucidate the decline in functions. Various aspects of physiological deterioration are controlled by the hypothalamus, a critical brain region that connects the neuroendocrine system to physiological functions. In addition, functional alterations in a set of agouti-related peptide/neuropeptide Y (AgRP/NPY) and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons, a set of growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin (SST) neurons, a set of arginine vasopressin (AVP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) neurons, and a set of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and kisspeptin/neurokinin B/dynorphin (KNDy) neurons contribute to age-related physiological decline in energy metabolism, hormone regulation, circadian rhythm, and reproduction, respectively...
May 2, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680244/dynamical-behavior-of-somatostatin-14-and-its-cyclic-analogues-as-analyzed-in-bulk-and-on-plasmonic-silver-nanoparticles
#4
Belén Hernández, Yves-Marie Coïc, Eduardo López-Tobar, Santiago Sanchez-Cortes, Bruno Baron, Fernando Pflüger, Sergei G Kruglik, Régis Cohen, Mahmoud Ghomi
Primarily known as the inhibitor of growth hormone release, the role of somatostatin in many other inhibiting activities upon binding to its five G-protein-coupled receptors has been elucidated. Because of the short half-life of somatostatin, a number of synthetic analogues were elaborated for this peptide hormone. Herein, after recalling the main somatostatin therapeutic interests, we present the dynamical behavior of somatostatin-14 and its two currently used synthetic cyclic analogues, octreotide and pasireotide...
2018: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29624010/molecular-characterization-and-expression-patterns-of-ghrelin-in-the-reindeer-rangifer-tarandus
#5
M Zhang, X Zhu, X Xu, X Jin, H Bao, S Dugeer, C Du, G Cao, Y Yang
Ghrelin is a novel growth hormone (GH)-releasing peptide, which has been identified as an endogenous ligand for the GH-sretagogue receptor. The sequence and expression of ghrelin has been determined in many species. In this study, to reveal the molecular characterization and expression patterns of ghrelin in the reindeer (Rangifer tarandus), the full-length DNA and cDNA encoding ghrelin were cloned from reindeer stomach using genome walking and rapid amplification of complementary deoxyribonucleic acid ends (RACE)...
March 2018: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29520138/pharmacokinetics-distribution-and-anti-tumor-efficacy-of-liposomal-mitoxantrone-modified-with-a-luteinizing-hormone-releasing-hormone-receptor-specific-peptide
#6
Linhua Zhang, Yanqing Ren, Yong Wang, Yingna He, Wei Feng, Cunxian Song
Background: A previous study developed a novel luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) receptor-targeted liposome. The aim of this study was to further assess the pharmacokinetics, biodistribution, and anti-tumor efficacy of LHRH receptor-targeted liposomes loaded with the anticancer drug mitoxantrone (MTO). Methods: Plasma and tissue distribution profiles of LHRH receptor-targeted MTO-loaded liposomes (LHRH-MTO-LIPs) were quantified in healthy mice or a xenograft tumor nude mouse model of MCF-7 breast cancer, and were compared with non-targeted liposomes and a free-drug solution...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478970/dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibition-potentiates-stimulated-growth-hormone-secretion-and-vasodilation-in-women
#7
Jessica R Wilson, Nancy J Brown, Hui Nian, Chang Yu, Martin Bidlingmaier, Jessica K Devin
BACKGROUND: Diminished growth hormone (GH) is associated with impaired endothelial function and fibrinolysis. GH-releasing hormone is the primary stimulus for GH secretion and a substrate of dipeptidyl peptidase-4. We tested the hypothesis that dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibition with sitagliptin increases stimulated GH secretion, vasodilation, and tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) activity. METHODS AND RESULTS: Healthy adults participated in a 2-part double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study...
February 25, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464859/growth-hormone-releasing-peptide-6-prevents-cutaneous-hypertrophic-scarring-early-mechanistic-data-from-a-proteome-study
#8
Maday Fernández-Mayola, Lázaro Betancourt, Alicia Molina-Kautzman, Sucel Palomares, Yssel Mendoza-Marí, Dayana Ugarte-Moreno, Ana Aguilera-Barreto, Yilian Bermúdez-Álvarez, Vladimir Besada, Luis J González, Ariana García-Ojalvo, Ana J Mir-Benítez, Aleida Urquiza-Rodríguez, Jorge Berlanga-Acosta
Hypertrophic scars (HTS) and keloids are forms of aberrant cutaneous healing with excessive extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition. Current therapies still fall short and cause undesired effects. We aimed to thoroughly evaluate the ability of growth hormone releasing peptide 6 (GHRP6) to both prevent and reverse cutaneous fibrosis and to acquire the earliest proteome data supporting GHRP6's acute impact on aesthetic wound healing. Two independent sets of experiments addressing prevention and reversion effects were conducted on the classic HTS model in rabbits...
February 21, 2018: International Wound Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412824/ghrelin-regulation-of-glucose-metabolism
#9
Anne-Laure Poher, Matthias H Tschöp, Timo D Müller
The a 28-amino acid peptide ghrelin was discovered in 1999 as a growth hormone (GH) releasing peptide. Soon after its discovery, ghrelin was found to increase body weight and adiposity by acting on the hypothalamic melanocortinergic system. Subsequently, ghrelin was found to exert a series of metabolic effects, overall testifying ghrelin a pleiotropic nature of broad pharmacological interest. Ghrelin acts through the growth hormone secretagogue-receptor (GHS-R), a seven transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor with high expression in the anterior pituitary, pancreatic islets, thyroid gland, heart and various regions of the brain...
February 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29387897/-endocrine-paraneoplastic-syndromes
#10
REVIEW
N Reisch, M Reincke
Endocrine paraneoplastic syndromes result from the production of bioactive substances from neoplastic cells, of endocrine or neuroendocrine origin. Typically these are located in the lungs, the gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, thyroid gland, adrenal medulla, skin, prostate or breast. In endocrine paraneoplastic syndromes the secretion of peptides, amines or other bioactive substances is always ectopic and not related to the anatomical source. The clinical presentation, however, is indistinguishable from a suspected eutopic endocrine tumor posing a diagnostic challenge...
February 2018: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345190/magnetoelectric-nanoparticles-for-delivery-of-antitumor-peptides-into-glioblastoma-cells-by-magnetic-fields
#11
Tiffanie S Stewart, Abhignyan Nagesetti, Rakesh Guduru, Ping Liang, Emmanuel Stimphil, Ali Hadjikhani, Luis Salgueiro, Jeffrey Horstmyer, Renzhi Cai, Andrew Schally, Sakhrat Khizroev
AIM: We studied externally controlled anticancer effects of binding tumor growth inhibiting synthetic peptides to magnetoelectric nanoparticles (MENs) on treatment of glioblastomas. METHODS: Hydrothermally synthesized 30-nm MENs had the core-shell composition of CoFe2 O4 @BaTiO3 . Molecules of growth hormone-releasing hormone antagonist of the MIA class (MIA690) were chemically bound to MENs. In vitro experiments utilized human glioblastoma cells (U-87MG) and human brain microvascular endothelial cells...
February 2018: Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315139/-dtpa-pabn-leu5-des-acyl-ghrelin-1-5-as-a-new-carrier-of-radionuclides-and-potential-precursor-of-radiopharmaceuticals
#12
Grzegorz Wójciuk, Marcin Kruszewski
BACKGROUND: Ghrelin is a peptide consisting of 28 aminoacids and an octadecyl side chain (acyl group) binding to the growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1a (GHS-R1a). Its des-acylated form, des-acyl ghrelin (DAG) binds to the corticotropin releasing factor receptor type 2a (CRF2a) located on endocrine cancer cells such as the prostate carcinoma cell line DU 145. AIM: The aim of this study is to develop a new DAG-based carrier of radionuclides with potential application in therapy...
February 2018: Nuclear Medicine Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306967/identification-of-tarsal-less-peptides-from-the-silkworm-bombyx-mori
#13
Guangli Cao, Yongchang Gong, Xiaolong Hu, Min Zhu, Zi Liang, Lixu Huang, Lei Yu, Jian Xu, Kun Li, Mian Sahib Zar, Renyu Xue, Chengliang Gong
The polycistronic and non-canonical gene tarsal-less (tal, known as pri) was reported to be required for embryonic and imaginal development in Drosophila; however, there are few reports of the tal gene in the silkworm Bombyx mori. Here, we cloned a tal-like (Bmtal) gene, and a sequence analysis showed that the Bmtal cDNA (1661 bp) contains five small open reading frames (smORFs) (A1, A2, A3, A4, and B) that encode short peptides of 11-12 (A1-A4) amino acid residues containing an LDPTG(E)L(Q)(V)Y motif that is conserved in Drosophila Tal, as well as a 32-amino-acid B peptide...
February 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233536/leap2-is-an-endogenous-antagonist-of-the-ghrelin-receptor
#14
Xuecai Ge, Hong Yang, Maria A Bednarek, Hadas Galon-Tilleman, Peirong Chen, Michael Chen, Joshua S Lichtman, Yan Wang, Olivier Dalmas, Yiyuan Yin, Hui Tian, Lutz Jermutus, Joseph Grimsby, Cristina M Rondinone, Anish Konkar, Daniel D Kaplan
Ghrelin, an appetite-stimulatory hormone secreted by the stomach, was discovered as a ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR). Through GHSR, ghrelin stimulates growth hormone (GH) secretion, a function that evolved to protect against starvation-induced hypoglycemia. Though the biology mediated by ghrelin has been described in great detail, regulation of ghrelin action is poorly understood. Here, we report the discovery of liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 (LEAP2) as an endogenous antagonist of GHSR...
February 6, 2018: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166288/spirulina-platensis-affects-factors-involved-in-spermatogenesis-and-increases-ghrelin-receptors-in-testis-tissue-of-rats-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#15
O B B Esener, E Gurel-Gurevin, B Isbilen-Basok, F Yigit, T Bilal, A Altiner, N Yilmazer, E I Armutak
Ghrelin is a peptide hormone which plays important role in maintaining growth hormone release and energy homeostasis in vertebrates. Spirulina platensis (SP) has antioxidant and hypolipidemic effects due to its ingredients. In this study we aimed to investigate the effects of SP on the testicular structure and relation between ghrelin and testosterone in the testis of rats fed a high fat diet (HFD). Sixty four young adult male rats were used and divided to 8 equal groups. Experimental groups received addition of 10% cholesterol (CHL), 43% hydrogenated vegetable oil (HVO) and 3% SP alone or in combination to basal diet while the control group received only basal diet...
September 26, 2017: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163019/bile-acid-signaling-pathways-from-the-enterohepatic-circulation-to-the-central-nervous-system
#16
REVIEW
Kim L Mertens, Andries Kalsbeek, Maarten R Soeters, Hannah M Eggink
Bile acids are best known as detergents involved in the digestion of lipids. In addition, new data in the last decade have shown that bile acids also function as gut hormones capable of influencing metabolic processes via receptors such as FXR (farnesoid X receptor) and TGR5 (Takeda G protein-coupled receptor 5). These effects of bile acids are not restricted to the gastrointestinal tract, but can affect different tissues throughout the organism. It is still unclear whether these effects also involve signaling of bile acids to the central nervous system (CNS)...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147558/discovery-and-design-of-self-assembling-peptides
#17
REVIEW
Shuguang Zhang
Peptides are ubiquitous in nature and useful in many fields, from agriculture as pesticides, in medicine as antibacterial and antifungal drugs founded in the innate immune systems, to medicinal chemistry as hormones. However, the concept of peptides as materials was not recognized until 1990 when a self-assembling peptide as a repeating segment in a yeast protein was serendipitously discovered. Peptide materials are so called because they have bona fide materials property and are made from simple amino acids with well-ordered nanostructures under physiological conditions...
December 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121520/effects-of-growth-hormone-releasing-hormone-gene-targeted-ablation-on-ghrelin-induced-feeding
#18
Lucia Recinella, Sheila Leone, Claudio Ferrante, Annalisa Chiavaroli, Rugia Shohreh, Chiara Di Nisio, Michele Vacca, Giustino Orlando, Roberto Salvatori, Luigi Brunetti
Impairment of growth hormone (GH) signaling has been associated with increased feeding and adiposity. The gastric hormone ghrelin, in addition to its GH-secretagogue effects, stimulates food intake after both central and peripheral administration. In the present study we further investigated the feeding regulatory role of the ghrelin-GH axis in a mouse model of isolated GH deficiency due to targeted ablation of the GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) gene [GHRH knockout (GHRHKO)]. We evaluated the effects of intracerebroventricular ghrelin administration on feeding behavior, related hypothalamic neuropeptides and neurotransmitters, and serum ghrelin levels in mice homozygous for GHRHKO allele (-/-) and heterozygous (+/-) control animals...
December 2017: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113826/ghrelin-suppresses-cardiac-fibrosis-of-post-myocardial-infarction-heart-failure-rats-by-adjusting-the-activin-a-follistatin-imbalance
#19
Chunyan Yang, Jinsha Liu, Kai Liu, Beibei Du, Kaiyao Shi, Mei Ding, Bing Li, Ping Yang
Ghrelin, a growth hormone-releasing peptide, potentially improves cardiac function, but the mechanisms remain unclear. In the study, the rat heart failure (HF) model was established by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) and treated with ghrelin (100μg/kg, subcutaneous injection, bid); neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were cultured and stimulated with Ang II (0.1μM) and ghrelin(0.1μM) to explore the underlying mechanism of ghrelin in myocardial remodeling. Hemodynamic changes and serum brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) concentrations were measured to assess cardiac function...
January 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112931/comparison-of-fusion-protein-and-dc-vaccine-in-inhibition-of-mouse-b16f10-melanoma-tumor
#20
Yan Zhang, Xiaoxin Liu, Rui Wang, Shujun Liu, Yiqin Wang, Liangliang Jing, Meko'o Didier Jean Louis, Rongyue Cao
Dendritic cell (DC) vaccine and fusion protein vaccine have been put into clinical use in cancer immunotherapy. This study compared DC vaccine and fusion protein vaccine directly in their capability of inducing specific immune response. We used mouse Granulocyte Macrophage-Colony Stimulating Factor (mGM-CSF) fused with gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) and Gonadotrophin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) respectively to obtain mGM-CSF/GRP6 (mG6) and mGM-CSF/mGGn (mGGn) fusion proteins. We prepared fusion protein vaccine and DC vaccine including mG6 protein vaccine (6P), mGGn protein vaccine (nP), mG6 DC vaccine (6D) and mGGn DC vaccine (nD), then the two proteins were mixed to prepare combination proteins vaccine (6nP) and DC vaccine (6nD)...
January 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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