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GHRP-6

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894854/decreased-level-of-endogenous-ghrelin-is-involved-in-the-progression-of-lung-injury-induced-by-oleic-acid
#1
Zhijun Liu, Ting Yu, Haitao Yang, Xiuli Tian, Linlin Feng
AIMS: Acute lung injury (ALI) is associated with excessive mortality and lacks appropriate therapy. Ghrelin is a novel peptide that protects the lung against ALI. This study aimed to investigate the role of endogenous ghrelin in the pathogenesis of ALI. MAIN METHODS: We used a rat oleic acid (OA)-induced ALI model. Pulmonary impairment was detected by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, lung mechanics, wet/dry weight ratio, and arterial blood gas analysis. Plasma and lung content of ghrelin was examined by ELISA, and mRNA expression of ghrelin was measured by quantitative real-time PCR...
November 25, 2016: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665924/neuroprotective-effect-of-epidermal-growth-factor-plus-growth-hormone-releasing-peptide-6-resembles-hypothermia-in-experimental-stroke
#2
N Subirós, H Pérez-Saad, L Aldana, C L Gibson, W S Borgnakke, D Garcia-Del-Barco
BACKGROUND: Combined therapy with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and growth hormone-releasing peptide 6 (GHRP-6) in stroke models has accumulated evidence of neuroprotective effects from several studies, but needs further support before clinical translation. Comparing EGF + GHRP-6 to hypothermia, a gold neuroprotection standard, may contribute to this purpose. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to compare the neuroprotective effects of a combined therapy based on EGF + GHRP-6 with hypothermia in animal models of (a) global ischemia representing myocardial infarction and (b) focal brain ischemia representing ischemic stroke...
September 26, 2016: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27631466/use-of-ultraviolet-photodissociation-coupled-with-ion-mobility-mass-spectrometry-to-determine-structure-and-sequence-from-drift-time-selected-peptides-and-proteins
#3
Alina Theisen, Bin Yan, Jeffery M Brown, Michael Morris, Bruno Bellina, Perdita E Barran
We demonstrate the capabilities of a laser-coupled ion mobility mass spectrometer for analysis of peptide sequence and structure showing ultraviolet photodissociation (UVPD) spectra of mass and mobility selected ions. A Synapt G2-S mass spectrometer has been modified to allow photointeraction of ions post the mobility cell. For this work, we have employed a single wavelength laser, which irradiates at 266 nm. We present the unique capabilities of this instrument and demonstrate several key features. Irradiation of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH), growth hormone releasing hexapeptide (GHRP-6), and TrpCage (sequence NLYIQWLKDGGPSSGRPPPS) yields extensive b- and y-type fragmentation as well as a- and c-type ions...
October 3, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27523747/ginkgoghrelins-unique-acylated-flavonoid-diglycosides-in-folium-ginkgo-stimulate-growth-hormone-secretion-via-activation-of-the-ghrelin-receptor
#4
Sheng-Kuo Hsieh, Tse-Yu Chung, Yue-Chiun Li, Yuan-Hao Lo, Nan-Hei Lin, Ping-Chung Kuo, Wen-Ying Chen, Jason Tc Tzen
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Folium Ginkgo, the dried leaf of Ginkgo biloba L. is a traditional Chinese medicine listed in the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China with several therapeutic effects, including prevention of aging. It is used as herbal medicine for the treatment of several aging-related diseases. The therapeutic effects of Folium Ginkgo on aging-related diseases are suspected to be similar to the anti-aging effects of growth hormone release induced by ghrelin...
August 11, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27474249/study-on-the-molecular-mechanism-of-antinociception-induced-by-ghrelin-in-acute-pain-in-mice
#5
Fu-Yan Liu, Min-Min Zhang, Ping Zeng, Wen-Wen Liu, Jing-Lei Wang, Bei Yang, Qun Dai, Jie Wei
Ghrelin has been identified as the endogenous ligand for the GHS-R1α (growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1 alpha). Our previous experiments have indicated that ghrelin (i.c.v.) induces antinociceptive effects in acute pain in mice, and the effects were mediated through the central opioid receptors and GHS-R1α. However, which opioid receptor (OR) mediates the antinociceptive effects and the molecular mechanisms are also needed to be further explored. In the present study, the antinociceptive effects of ghrelin (i...
September 2016: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27271793/ghrelin-accelerates-wound-healing-through-ghs-r1a-mediated-mapk-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-gr-signaling-pathways-in-combined-radiation-and-burn-injury-in-rats
#6
Cong Liu, Jiawei Huang, Hong Li, Zhangyou Yang, Yiping Zeng, Jing Liu, Yuhui Hao, Rong Li
The therapeutic effect of ghrelin on wound healing was assessed using a rat model of combined radiation and burn injury (CRBI). Rat ghrelin, anti-rat tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α polyclonal antibody (PcAb), or selective antagonists of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R) 1a (SB203580, SP600125, and [D-Lys3]-GHRP-6, respectively), were administered for seven consecutive days. Levels of various signaling molecules were assessed in isolated rat peritoneal macrophages...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27200188/growth-hormone-releasing-peptide-6-enhances-the-healing-process-and-improves-the-esthetic-outcome-of-the-wounds
#7
Yssel Mendoza Marí, Maday Fernández Mayola, Ana Aguilera Barreto, Ariana García Ojalvo, Yilian Bermúdez Alvarez, Ana Janet Mir Benítez, Jorge Berlanga Acosta
In addition to its cytoprotective effects, growth hormone-releasing peptide 6 (GHRP-6) proved to reduce liver fibrotic induration. CD36 as one of the GHRP-6 receptors appears abundantly represented in cutaneous wounds granulation tissue. The healing response in a scenario of CD36 agonistic stimulation had not been previously investigated. Excisional full-thickness wounds (6 mmØ) were created in the dorsum of Wistar rats and topically treated twice a day for 5 days. The universal model of rabbit's ears hypertrophic scars was implemented and the animals were treated daily for 30 days...
2016: Plastic Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27141463/effects-of-ghrelin-on-sexual-behavior-and-luteinizing-hormone-beta-subunit-gene-expression-in-male-rats
#8
Farrin Babaei-Balderlou, Homayoun Khazali
BACKGROUND: The hormones of hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis have facilitative effects on reproductive behavior in mammals. Ghrelin as a starvation hormone has an inhibitory effect on HPG axis' function. Hence, it is postulated that ghrelin may reduce the sexual behavior through inhibiting of HPG axis. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of ghrelin and its antagonist, [D-Lys(3) ]-GHRP-6, on sexual behavior and LH beta-subunit gene expression in male rats. METHODS: In this experimental study, 128 male Wistar rats were divided into two groups...
April 2016: Journal of Reproduction & Infertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27113177/-effects-of-ghrelin-on-hippocampal-dkk-1-expression-and-cognitive-function-in-rats-with-diabetes-mellitus
#9
Zhao-Xing Shen, Qian Xiao, Yu-Xing Zhao, Ke-Xiang Zhao
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of ghrelin on learning and memory abilities and expressions of DKK-1 and β-catenin in the hippocampus of diabetic rats. METHODS: Sixty male SD rats were randomly assigned into 4 groups, namely the control group, diabetic group, ghrelin-treated diabetic group (DM1 group), and ghrelin- and D-lys3-GHRP-6 (a GHSR-1a receptor antagonist)-treated diabetic group (DM2 group). Diabetic rat models were established by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg)...
April 2016: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27020248/impact-of-d-lys-3-ghrp-6-and-feeding-status-on-hypothalamic-ghrelin-induced-stress-activation
#10
Emma T Brockway, Katherine R Krater, Joaquín A Selva, Shelby E R Wauson, Paul J Currie
Ghrelin administration directly into hypothalamic nuclei, including the arcuate nucleus (ArcN) and the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), alters the expression of stress-related behaviors. In the present study we investigated the effect of feeding status on the ability of ghrelin to induce stress and anxiogenesis. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were implanted with guide cannula targeting either the ArcN or PVN. In the first experiment we confirmed that ArcN and PVN ghrelin treatment produced anxiety-like behavior as measured using the elevated plus maze (EPM) paradigm...
May 2016: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26915318/-time-course-study-of-growth-hormone-releasing-peptide-6-induced-c-fos-expression-in-neurons-of-feeding-related-nuclei-of-hypothalamus
#11
Yan-Juan Yu, Jing Dong, Zheng-Yao Jiang, Inge Depoortere
The present study was aimed to explore the effects of intraperitoneal injection of growth hormone releasing peptide-6 (GHRP-6), a ghrelin receptor agonist, on food intake and neuronal activity of feeding-related nuclei in the hypothalamus of NMRI mice. Accumulated amount of food intake was measured, and total number of c-fos immunoreactive neurons in arcuate nucleus (ARC), paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and supraoptic nucleus (SON) was counted by immunohistochemistry at 1, 3 and 6 h after the GHRP-6 injection...
February 25, 2016: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26879868/ghrelin-induces-colon-cancer-cell-proliferation-through-the-ghs-r-ras-pi3k-akt-and-mtor-signaling-pathways
#12
Gi-Shih Lien, Chien-Huang Lin, You-Lan Yang, Ming-Shun Wu, Bing-Chang Chen
Colon cancer is the third most common malignancy worldwide. Recently, some interesting associations between ghrelin and cancer were reported, and it may participate in colon cancer development. In the present report, we explored the role of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), Ras, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), Akt, and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways in the ghrelin-induced proliferation of human colon cancer cells. Ghrelin-caused HT-29 proliferation was reduced by [D-Lys3]-GHRP-6 (a GHS-R inhibitor)...
April 5, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26873999/ag-and-uag-induce-%C3%AE-casein-expression-via-activation-of-erk1-2-and-akt-pathways
#13
Sunan Li, Juxiong Liu, Qingkang Lv, Chuan Zhang, Shiyao Xu, Dongxue Yang, Bingxu Huang, Yalong Zeng, Yingjie Gao, Wei Wang
The ghrelin peptides were found to circulate in two major forms: acylated ghrelin (AG) and unacylated ghrelin (UAG). Previous studies showed that AG regulates β-casein (CSN2) expression in mammary epithelial cells. However, little is known about the mechanisms by which AG regulates CSN2 gene and protein expression. Evidence suggests that UAG has biological activity through GHSR1a-independent mechanisms. Here, we investigated the possible GHSR1a-mediated effect of UAG on the expression of CSN2 in primary bovine mammary epithelial cells (pbMECs) isolated from lactating cow...
April 2016: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26840702/ghrelin-attenuates-the-growth-of-ho-8910-ovarian-cancer-cells-through-the-erk-pathway
#14
R X Bai, W P Wang, P W Zhao, C B Li
Ovarian cancer is one of the most common causes of death from gynecologic tumors and is an important public health issue. Ghrelin is a recently discovered bioactive peptide that acts as a natural endogenous ligand of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR). Several studies have identified the protective effects of ghrelin on the mammalian reproductive system. However, little research has been done on the effects of ghrelin on ovarian cancer cells, and the underlying mechanisms of these effects. We sought to understand the potential involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in ghrelin-mediated inhibition of growth of the ovarian line HO-8910...
March 2016: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26812312/insulinotropic-action-of-bombesin-like-peptides-mediated-by-gastrin-releasing-peptide-receptors-in-steers
#15
H Q Zhao, G Yao, S Yannaing, S ThanThan, H Kuwayama
The present study characterizes the receptor that mediates the insulinotropic action of bombesin-like peptides (BLP) in ruminants. Eight Holstein steers were randomly and intravenously injected with synthetic bovine gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP; 0.9 nmol/kg BW), neuromedin B (NMB; 0.9 nmol/kg BW), or neuromedin C (NMC; 0.9 nmol/kg BW), each alone or combined with the antagonist of GRP receptors N-acetyl-GRP-OCHCH (N-GRP-EE; 22.5 nmol/kg BW) or the antagonist of GH secretagogue receptor type 1a (GHS-R1a) [D-Lys]-GHRP-6 (21...
January 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26811125/structure-activity-relationship-for-pept%C3%A3-dic-growth-hormone-secretagogues
#16
P Ferro, G Krotov, I Zvereva, G Rodchenkov, J Segura
Growth hormone releasing peptides (GHRPs) could be widely used by cheating athletes because they produce growth hormone (GH) secretion, so may generate an ergogenic effect in the body. Knowledge of the essential amino acids needed in GHRP structure for interaction with the target biological receptor GHSR1a, the absorption through different administration routes, and the maintenance of pharmacological activity of potential biotransformation products may help in the fight against their abuse in sport. Several GHRPs and truncated analogues with the common core Ala-Trp-(D-Phe)-Lys have been studied with a radio-competitive assay for the GHSR1a receptor against the radioactive natural ligand ghrelin...
January 26, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26802728/the-antagonism-of-ghrelin-alters-the-appetitive-response-to-learned-cues-associated-with-food
#17
Megan J Dailey, Timothy H Moran, Peter C Holland, Alexander W Johnson
The rapid increase in obesity may be partly mediated by an increase in the exposure to cues for food. Food-paired cues play a role in food procurement and intake under conditions of satiety. The mechanism by which this occurs requires characterization, but may involve ghrelin. This orexigenic peptide alters the response to food-paired conditioned stimuli, and neural responses to food images in reward nuclei. Therefore, we tested whether a ghrelin receptor antagonist alters the influence of food-paired cues on the performance of instrumental responses that earn food and the consumption of food itself using tests of Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT) and cue potentiated feeding (CPF), respectively...
April 15, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26629013/ghrelin-protects-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells-against-advanced-glycation-end-products-induced-apoptosis-via-no-cgmp-signaling
#18
Pengjie Li, Ying Liu, Ying Xiang, Miao Lin, Jinling Gao
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the intracellular mechanism involved in the anti-apoptotic effect of ghrelin on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). METHODS: HUVECs were pretreated with ghrelin before exposure to 200 μg/ml advanced glycation end products (AGEs)-BSA for 48 h. Cell viability and apoptosis were determined by MTT assay and Annexin V/PI staining. Intracellular cGMP levels evaluation and cGMP analogs were employed to explore possible mechanisms...
2015: International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26592452/ghrelin-enhances-cue-induced-bar-pressing-for-high-fat-food
#19
Veronique St-Onge, Alexander Watts, Alfonso Abizaid
Ghrelin is an orexigenic hormone produced by the stomach that acts on growth hormone secretagogue receptors (GHSRs) both peripherally and centrally. The presence of GHSRs in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) suggests that ghrelin signaling at this level may increase the incentive value of palatable foods as well as other natural and artificial rewards. The present investigation sought to determine if ghrelin plays a role in relapse to such foods following a period of abstinence. To achieve this, thirty-six male Long Evans rats were trained to press a lever to obtain a high fat chocolate food reward on a fixed ratio schedule of 1...
February 2016: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26578461/simplifying-and-expanding-the-screening-for-peptides-2-kda-by-direct-urine-injection-liquid-chromatography-and-ion-mobility-mass-spectrometry
#20
Andreas Thomas, Christian Görgens, Sven Guddat, Detlef Thieme, Frank Dellanna, Wilhelm Schänzer, Mario Thevis
The analysis of low-molecular-mass peptides in doping controls has become a mandatory aspect in sports drug testing and, thus, the number of samples that has to be tested for these analytes has been steadily increasing. Several peptides <2 kDa with performance-enhancing properties are covered by the list of prohibited substances of the World Anti-Doping Agency including Desmopressin, LH-RH, Buserelin, Triptorelin, Leuprolide, GHRP-1, GHRP-2, GHRP-3, GHRP-4, GHRP-5,GHRP-6, Alexamorelin, Ipamorelin, Hexarelin, ARA-290, AOD-9604, TB-500 and Anamorelin...
January 2016: Journal of Separation Science
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