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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513740/l-ornithine-stimulates-growth-hormone-release-in-a-manner-dependent-on-the-ghrelin-system
#1
Yee Yin Ho, Junya Nakato, Takafumi Mizushige, Ryuhei Kanamoto, Mamoru Tanida, Saori Akiduki, Kousaku Ohinata
We found that intraduodenal administration of l-ornithine (l-Orn) stimulates growth hormone (GH) secretion in Wistar rats, and then investigated its mechanism. GH-releasing activity after intraduodenal administration of l-Orn was blocked by [d-Lys(3)]-GHRP-6, an antagonist of the ghrelin receptor; however, l-Orn (100 μM) has no affinity for the ghrelin receptor, suggesting that the GH-releasing activity of l-Orn is mediated via ghrelin release and activation of the ghrelin receptor. Intraduodenally administered l-Orn increased ghrelin mRNA expression in the duodenum but not in the stomach or hypothalamus...
May 17, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506816/ghrelin-suppresses-cholecystokinin-cck-peptide-yy-pyy-and-glucagon-like-peptide-1-glp-1-in-the-intestine-and-attenuates-the-anorectic-effects-of-cck-pyy-and-glp-1-in-goldfish-carassius-auratus
#2
Ayelén Melisa Blanco, Juan Ignacio Bertucci, Ana Isabel Valenciano, María Jesús Delgado, Suraj Unniappan
Ghrelin is an important gut-derived hormone with an appetite stimulatory role, while most of the intestinal hormones, including cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), are appetite-inhibitors. Whether these important peptides with opposing roles on food intake interact to regulate energy balance in fish is currently unknown. The aim of this study was to characterize the putative crosstalk between ghrelin and CCK, PYY and GLP-1 in goldfish (Carassius auratus). We first determined the localization of CCK, PYY and GLP-1 in relation to ghrelin and its main receptor GHS-R1a (growth hormone secretagogue 1a) in the goldfish intestine by immunohistochemistry...
May 18, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462451/complexity-of-stomach-brain-interaction-induced-by-molecular-hydrogen-in-parkinson-s-disease-model-mice
#3
Yusuke Yoshii, Taikai Inoue, Yuya Uemura, Yusaku Iwasaki, Toshihiko Yada, Yusaku Nakabeppu, Mami Noda
Molecular hydrogen (H2), as a new medical gas, has protective effects in neurological disorders including Parkinson's disease (PD). In our previous report, the neuroprotective effect of drinking water with saturated H2 (H2 water) in PD mice might be due to stomach-brain interaction via release of gastric hormone, ghrelin. In the present study, we assessed the effect of H2-induced ghrelin more precisely. To confirm the contribution of ghrelin in H2 water-drinking PD model mice, ghrelin-knock out (KO) mice were used...
May 2, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338019/ghrelin-facilitates-glut2-sglt1-and-sglt2-mediated-intestinal-glucose-transport-in-goldfish-carassius-auratus
#4
Ayelén Melisa Blanco, Juan Ignacio Bertucci, Naresh Ramesh, María Jesús Delgado, Ana Isabel Valenciano, Suraj Unniappan
Glucose homeostasis is an important biological process that involves a variety of regulatory mechanisms. This study aimed to determine whether ghrelin, a multifunctional gut-brain hormone, modulates intestinal glucose transport in goldfish (Carassius auratus). Three intestinal glucose transporters, the facilitative glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2), and the sodium/glucose co-transporters 1 (SGLT1) and 2 (SGLT2), were studied. Immunostaining of intestinal sections found colocalization of ghrelin and GLUT2 and SGLT2 in mucosal cells...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321024/the-growth-hormone-secretagogue-hexarelin-protects-rat-cardiomyocytes-from-in-vivo-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-through-interleukin-1-signaling-pathway
#5
Jiannan Huang, Yi Li, Juan Zhang, Yusheng Liu, Qinghua Lu
Hexarelin, a synthetic growth hormone-releasing peptide, has been proven to possess cardioprotective actions through its binding to the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR) 1a and the non-GHSR receptor CD36. However, its effect on myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury has not been fully clarified in vivo. We aimed to determine whether hexarelin treatment could protect cardiomyocytes from I/R injury and to examine the underlying mechanisms. In vivo hearts of male SD rats underwent 30 minutes of ischemia by left coronary artery ligation followed by reperfusion...
April 6, 2017: International Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245976/ghrelin-alleviates-anxiety-and-depression-like-behaviors-induced-by-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress-in-rodents
#6
Hui-Jie Huang, Xiao-Cang Zhu, Qiu-Qin Han, Ya-Lin Wang, Na Yue, Jing Wang, Rui Yu, Bing Li, Gen-Cheng Wu, Qiong Liu, Jin Yu
As a regulator of food intake, ghrelin also plays a key role in mood disorders. Previous studies reported that acute ghrelin administration defends against depressive symptoms of chronic stress. However, the effects of long-term ghrelin on rodents under chronic stress hasn't been revealed. In this study, we found chronic peripheral administration of ghrelin (5nmol/kg/day for 2 weeks, i.p.) could alleviate anxiety- and depression-like behaviors induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS). The depression-like behaviors were assessed by the forced swimming test (FST), and anxiety-like behaviors were assessed by the open field test (OFT) and the elevated plus maze test (EPM)...
February 27, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214691/dlitiazem-inhibits-the-oxidative-stress-induced-by-angiotensin-ii-through-growth-hormone-secretagogue-receptor-type-1a-in-human-umbilicus-vein-endothelial-cells
#7
Lingyun Zhou, Meng Yang, Shanru Zuo, Xiaofeng Guan, Jianglin Wang, Qingjie Chen, Xiaocong Zuo, Sujie Jia, Ren Guo
Diltiazem has been used for post-transplant hypertension, but the mechanism underlying its protective effect of endothelial cells against angiotensin II (Ang II) - induced impairment remains unclear. Human umbilicus vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured and divided into seven groups: control, Ang II (10(-6)M), diltiazem (10(-6)M), [D-Lys3]-GHRP-6(25μM), diltiazem (10(-6)M)+Ang II (10(-6)M), losartan (10(-6)M)+Ang II (10(-6)M), [D-Lys3]-GHRP-6 (25μM) + Dil(10(-6)M)+Ang II (10(-6)M) groups. Nitric oxide (NO) production, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, protein and mRNA expressions of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and p47 phox subunit of NADPH were evaluated...
May 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090719/diversity-oriented-synthesis-of-cyclic-azapeptides-by-a-3-macrocyclization-provides-high-affinity-cd36-modulating-peptidomimetics
#8
Jinqiang Zhang, Mukandila Mulumba, Huy Ong, William D Lubell
Macrocyclization has enabled the use of peptides in drug discovery creating a need for methods to synthesize diverse peptide macrocycles. Azapeptides have advanced to clinically used drugs, however, few cyclic azapeptides have been studied. A multiple component "A(3) -macrocyclization" strategy is described for the preparation of diverse cyclic azapeptides and is demonstrated by the synthesis of 15 growth hormone releasing hormone-6 (GHRP-6) analogs. Certain cyclic aza-GHRP-6 analogs exhibited unprecedented affinity for the CD36 receptor, and capacity to modulate Toll-like receptor agonist-induced overproduction of nitric oxide, and reduce pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine production in macrophages...
January 16, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042022/ghrelin-modulates-gene-and-protein-expression-of-digestive-enzymes-in-the-intestine-and-hepatopancreas-of-goldfish-carassius-auratus-via-the-ghs-r1a-possible-roles-of-plc-pkc-and-ac-pka-intracellular-signaling-pathways
#9
Ayelén Melisa Blanco, Juan Ignacio Bertucci, Aída Sánchez-Bretaño, María Jesús Delgado, Ana Isabel Valenciano, Suraj Unniappan
Ghrelin, a multifunctional gut-brain hormone, is involved in the regulation of gastric functions in mammals. This study aimed to determine whether ghrelin modulates digestive enzymes in goldfish (Carassius auratus). Immunofluorescence microscopy found colocalization of ghrelin, GHS-R1a and the digestive enzymes sucrase-isomaltase, aminopeptidase A, trypsin and lipoprotein lipase in intestinal and hepatopancreatic cells. In vitro ghrelin treatment in intestinal and hepatopancreas explant culture led to a concentration- and time-dependent modulation (mainly stimulatory) of most of the digestive enzymes tested...
February 15, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894854/decreased-level-of-endogenous-ghrelin-is-involved-in-the-progression-of-lung-injury-induced-by-oleic-acid
#10
Zhijun Liu, Ting Yu, Haitao Yang, Xiuli Tian, Linlin Feng
AIMS: Acute lung injury (ALI) is associated with excessive mortality and lacks appropriate therapy. Ghrelin is a novel peptide that protects the lung against ALI. This study aimed to investigate the role of endogenous ghrelin in the pathogenesis of ALI. MAIN METHODS: We used a rat oleic acid (OA)-induced ALI model. Pulmonary impairment was detected by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, lung mechanics, wet/dry weight ratio, and arterial blood gas analysis. Plasma and lung content of ghrelin was examined by ELISA, and mRNA expression of ghrelin was measured by quantitative real-time PCR...
November 25, 2016: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27665924/neuroprotective-effect-of-epidermal-growth-factor-plus-growth-hormone-releasing-peptide-6-resembles-hypothermia-in-experimental-stroke
#11
N Subirós, H Pérez-Saad, L Aldana, C L Gibson, W S Borgnakke, D Garcia-Del-Barco
BACKGROUND: Combined therapy with epidermal growth factor (EGF) and growth hormone-releasing peptide 6 (GHRP-6) in stroke models has accumulated evidence of neuroprotective effects from several studies, but needs further support before clinical translation. Comparing EGF + GHRP-6 to hypothermia, a gold neuroprotection standard, may contribute to this purpose. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to compare the neuroprotective effects of a combined therapy based on EGF + GHRP-6 with hypothermia in animal models of (a) global ischemia representing myocardial infarction and (b) focal brain ischemia representing ischemic stroke...
November 2016: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27631466/use-of-ultraviolet-photodissociation-coupled-with-ion-mobility-mass-spectrometry-to-determine-structure-and-sequence-from-drift-time-selected-peptides-and-proteins
#12
Alina Theisen, Bin Yan, Jeffery M Brown, Michael Morris, Bruno Bellina, Perdita E Barran
We demonstrate the capabilities of a laser-coupled ion mobility mass spectrometer for analysis of peptide sequence and structure showing ultraviolet photodissociation (UVPD) spectra of mass and mobility selected ions. A Synapt G2-S mass spectrometer has been modified to allow photointeraction of ions post the mobility cell. For this work, we have employed a single wavelength laser, which irradiates at 266 nm. We present the unique capabilities of this instrument and demonstrate several key features. Irradiation of luteinizing hormone releasing hormone (LHRH), growth hormone releasing hexapeptide (GHRP-6), and TrpCage (sequence NLYIQWLKDGGPSSGRPPPS) yields extensive b- and y-type fragmentation as well as a- and c-type ions...
October 3, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27523747/ginkgoghrelins-unique-acylated-flavonoid-diglycosides-in-folium-ginkgo-stimulate-growth-hormone-secretion-via-activation-of-the-ghrelin-receptor
#13
Sheng-Kuo Hsieh, Tse-Yu Chung, Yue-Chiun Li, Yuan-Hao Lo, Nan-Hei Lin, Ping-Chung Kuo, Wen-Ying Chen, Jason T C Tzen
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Folium Ginkgo, the dried leaf of Ginkgo biloba L. is a traditional Chinese medicine listed in the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China with several therapeutic effects, including prevention of aging. It is used as herbal medicine for the treatment of several aging-related diseases. The therapeutic effects of Folium Ginkgo on aging-related diseases are suspected to be similar to the anti-aging effects of growth hormone release induced by ghrelin...
December 4, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27474249/study-on-the-molecular-mechanism-of-antinociception-induced-by-ghrelin-in-acute-pain-in-mice
#14
Fu-Yan Liu, Min-Min Zhang, Ping Zeng, Wen-Wen Liu, Jing-Lei Wang, Bei Yang, Qun Dai, Jie Wei
Ghrelin has been identified as the endogenous ligand for the GHS-R1α (growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1 alpha). Our previous experiments have indicated that ghrelin (i.c.v.) induces antinociceptive effects in acute pain in mice, and the effects were mediated through the central opioid receptors and GHS-R1α. However, which opioid receptor (OR) mediates the antinociceptive effects and the molecular mechanisms are also needed to be further explored. In the present study, the antinociceptive effects of ghrelin (i...
September 2016: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27271793/ghrelin-accelerates-wound-healing-through-ghs-r1a-mediated-mapk-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-gr-signaling-pathways-in-combined-radiation-and-burn-injury-in-rats
#15
Cong Liu, Jiawei Huang, Hong Li, Zhangyou Yang, Yiping Zeng, Jing Liu, Yuhui Hao, Rong Li
The therapeutic effect of ghrelin on wound healing was assessed using a rat model of combined radiation and burn injury (CRBI). Rat ghrelin, anti-rat tumor necrosis factor (TNF) α polyclonal antibody (PcAb), or selective antagonists of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R) 1a (SB203580, SP600125, and [D-Lys3]-GHRP-6, respectively), were administered for seven consecutive days. Levels of various signaling molecules were assessed in isolated rat peritoneal macrophages...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27200188/growth-hormone-releasing-peptide-6-enhances-the-healing-process-and-improves-the-esthetic-outcome-of-the-wounds
#16
Yssel Mendoza Marí, Maday Fernández Mayola, Ana Aguilera Barreto, Ariana García Ojalvo, Yilian Bermúdez Alvarez, Ana Janet Mir Benítez, Jorge Berlanga Acosta
In addition to its cytoprotective effects, growth hormone-releasing peptide 6 (GHRP-6) proved to reduce liver fibrotic induration. CD36 as one of the GHRP-6 receptors appears abundantly represented in cutaneous wounds granulation tissue. The healing response in a scenario of CD36 agonistic stimulation had not been previously investigated. Excisional full-thickness wounds (6 mmØ) were created in the dorsum of Wistar rats and topically treated twice a day for 5 days. The universal model of rabbit's ears hypertrophic scars was implemented and the animals were treated daily for 30 days...
2016: Plastic Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27141463/effects-of-ghrelin-on-sexual-behavior-and-luteinizing-hormone-beta-subunit-gene-expression-in-male-rats
#17
Farrin Babaei-Balderlou, Homayoun Khazali
BACKGROUND: The hormones of hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis have facilitative effects on reproductive behavior in mammals. Ghrelin as a starvation hormone has an inhibitory effect on HPG axis' function. Hence, it is postulated that ghrelin may reduce the sexual behavior through inhibiting of HPG axis. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of ghrelin and its antagonist, [D-Lys(3) ]-GHRP-6, on sexual behavior and LH beta-subunit gene expression in male rats. METHODS: In this experimental study, 128 male Wistar rats were divided into two groups...
April 2016: Journal of Reproduction & Infertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27113177/-effects-of-ghrelin-on-hippocampal-dkk-1-expression-and-cognitive-function-in-rats-with-diabetes-mellitus
#18
Zhao-Xing Shen, Qian Xiao, Yu-Xing Zhao, Ke-Xiang Zhao
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effects of ghrelin on learning and memory abilities and expressions of DKK-1 and β-catenin in the hippocampus of diabetic rats. METHODS: Sixty male SD rats were randomly assigned into 4 groups, namely the control group, diabetic group, ghrelin-treated diabetic group (DM1 group), and ghrelin- and D-lys3-GHRP-6 (a GHSR-1a receptor antagonist)-treated diabetic group (DM2 group). Diabetic rat models were established by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (65 mg/kg)...
April 2016: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27020248/impact-of-d-lys-3-ghrp-6-and-feeding-status-on-hypothalamic-ghrelin-induced-stress-activation
#19
Emma T Brockway, Katherine R Krater, Joaquín A Selva, Shelby E R Wauson, Paul J Currie
Ghrelin administration directly into hypothalamic nuclei, including the arcuate nucleus (ArcN) and the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), alters the expression of stress-related behaviors. In the present study we investigated the effect of feeding status on the ability of ghrelin to induce stress and anxiogenesis. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats were implanted with guide cannula targeting either the ArcN or PVN. In the first experiment we confirmed that ArcN and PVN ghrelin treatment produced anxiety-like behavior as measured using the elevated plus maze (EPM) paradigm...
May 2016: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26915318/-time-course-study-of-growth-hormone-releasing-peptide-6-induced-c-fos-expression-in-neurons-of-feeding-related-nuclei-of-hypothalamus
#20
Yan-Juan Yu, Jing Dong, Zheng-Yao Jiang, Inge Depoortere
The present study was aimed to explore the effects of intraperitoneal injection of growth hormone releasing peptide-6 (GHRP-6), a ghrelin receptor agonist, on food intake and neuronal activity of feeding-related nuclei in the hypothalamus of NMRI mice. Accumulated amount of food intake was measured, and total number of c-fos immunoreactive neurons in arcuate nucleus (ARC), paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and supraoptic nucleus (SON) was counted by immunohistochemistry at 1, 3 and 6 h after the GHRP-6 injection...
February 25, 2016: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
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