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Pathology education

Ivan Wen Wen Lau, Dongting Liu, Lei Xu, Zhanming Fan, Zhonghua Sun
OBJECTIVE: Current diagnostic assessment tools remain suboptimal in demonstrating complex morphology of congenital heart disease (CHD). This limitation has posed several challenges in preoperative planning, communication in medical practice, and medical education. This study aims to investigate the dimensional accuracy and the clinical value of 3D printed model of CHD in the above three areas. METHODS: Using cardiac computed tomography angiography (CCTA) data, a patient-specific 3D model of a 20-month-old boy with double outlet right ventricle was printed in Tango Plus material...
2018: PloS One
Florian F Dibra, Hernan A Prieto, Chancellor F Gray, Hari K Parvataneni
Background: Hip osteoarthritis typically manifests with groin or thigh pain. Other atypical pain patterns, including knee pain, have been described. Except for 2 case reports, there is no literature on this subject. Methods: From our institutional database, between 2011 and 2016, we identified 21 patients who were referred for treatment of knee pain but ultimately diagnosed with hip pathology as the cause of their pain. This group was evaluated for duration of symptoms prior to diagnosis, previous interventions, presence of walking aids, and symptom resolution after treatment of the hip pathology...
March 2018: Arthroplasty Today
Barbara Colombo, Stefania Balzarotti, Allison Greenwood
OBJECTIVES: The concept of Cognitive Reserve (CR) has been used to account for brain plasticity in older adults that may underlie the resilience against the effects of aging or pathology on cognitive abilities. This study aims at exploring the proxies of CR in a sample of healthy older adults by analyzing their spontaneous reminiscence through a discourse analysis approach. METHOD: Fifteen community-dwelling older adults were asked to participate in a video-recorded, spontaneous reminiscence interview...
March 5, 2018: Clinical Gerontologist
Michael L Wilson, Kenneth A Fleming, Modupe A Kuti, Lai Meng Looi, Nestor Lago, Kun Ru
As global efforts accelerate to implement the Sustainable Development Goals and, in particular, universal health coverage, access to high-quality and timely pathology and laboratory medicine (PALM) services will be needed to support health-care systems that are tasked with achieving these goals. This access will be most challenging to achieve in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs), which have a disproportionately large share of the global burden of disease but a disproportionately low share of global health-care resources, particularly PALM services...
March 14, 2018: Lancet
Shahin Sayed, William Cherniak, Mark Lawler, Soo Yong Tan, Wafaa El Sadr, Nicholas Wolf, Shannon Silkensen, Nathan Brand, Lai Meng Looi, Sanjay A Pai, Michael L Wilson, Danny Milner, John Flanigan, Kenneth A Fleming
Insufficient awareness of the centrality of pathology and laboratory medicine (PALM) to a functioning health-care system at policy and governmental level, with the resultant inadequate investment, has meant that efforts to enhance PALM in low-income and middle-income countries have been local, fragmented, and mostly unsustainable. Responding to the four major barriers in PALM service delivery that were identified in the first paper of this Series (workforce, infrastructure, education and training, and quality assurance), this second paper identifies potential solutions that can be applied in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs)...
March 14, 2018: Lancet
Jaime Fernández-Sarmiento, Joseph A Carcillo, Claudia M Salinas, Edgar F Galvis, Paula A López, Andrés Jagua-Gualdrón
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate adherence to the sepsis bundle before and after an educational strategy and its impact on hospital stay. DESIGN: A prospective, analytic, before-and-after study of children with severe sepsis and septic shock who presented to the emergency department. SETTING: Carried out from January to December 2014 in the emergency department of a quaternary care hospital. PATIENTS: Of a total of 19,836 children who presented to the emergency department, 4,383 had an infectious pathology, with 203 of these showing severe sepsis and septic shock (124 pre intervention, and 79 post intervention)...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Neina F Ferguson, Julie M Estis
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if brief video-recorded patient simulation training increased students' ability to assess feeding skills in preterm infants. Method: Baccalaureate-level nursing students (N = 52) and graduate-level speech-language pathology students (N = 42) were randomized to 1 of 2 groups: didactic training (N = 51) or didactic training plus video simulation (N = 43). Outcome measures included knowledge test scores, calculated clinical judgment scores, and clinical marker documentation accuracy...
March 9, 2018: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
Alona Zer, Jean Claude Cutz, Harman Sekhon, David M Hwang, Christina Sit, Manjula Maganti, Mike Sung, Matthew Binnie, Anthony Brade, Tae Bong Chung, Suzanne Kamel-Reid, Paul Narinder, Ming S Tsao, Tom Waddell, Gilda da Cunha Santos, Milan Patel, Ron F Carter, Natasha B Leighl
BACKGROUND: Molecular testing in advanced lung cancer is standard in guiding treatment selection. However, population-wide implementation of testing remains a challenge. We developed a knowledge translation intervention to improve understanding among diagnostic specialists about molecular testing and appropriate diagnostic sampling in lung cancer. METHODS: Specialty-specific education programs were developed from existing literature and input from Canadian leaders in lung pathology, respirology, interventional radiology, thoracic surgery, radiation and medical oncology...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
Diego Z Carvalho, Erik K St Louis, David S Knopman, Bradley F Boeve, Val J Lowe, Rosebud O Roberts, Michelle M Mielke, Scott A Przybelski, Mary M Machulda, Ronald C Petersen, Clifford R Jack, Prashanthi Vemuri
Importance: Aging is associated with excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS), which has been linked to cognitive decline in the elderly. However, whether EDS is associated with the pathologic processes of Alzheimer disease remains unclear. Objective: To investigate whether EDS at baseline is associated with a longitudinal increase in regional β-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation in a cohort of elderly individuals without dementia. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective analysis included participants enrolled in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging, a longitudinal population-based study in Olmsted County, Minnesota...
March 12, 2018: JAMA Neurology
Venkataramana Kandi, Parimala Reddy Basireddy
Introduction Medical education involves training necessary to become a physician or a surgeon. This includes various levels of training like undergraduate, internship, and postgraduate training. Medical education can be quite complex, since it involves training in pre-clinical subjects (anatomy, physiology, biochemistry), the para-clinical subjects (microbiology, pathology, pharmacology, and forensic medicine), and a discrete group of clinical subjects that include general medicine, surgery, obstetrics and gynaecology, ear, nose and throat specialization, paediatrics, cardiology, pulmonology, dermatology, ophthalmology, and orthopaedics, and many other clinical specializations and super specialities (cardio-thoracic surgery, neurosurgery, etc...
January 5, 2018: Curēus
Ephraim E Parent, David M Schuster
Positron emission tomography (PET) is a functional imaging method that can exploit various aspects of tumor biology to enable greater detection of prostate cancer than can be provided by morphologic imaging alone. Anti-1-amino-3-[18 F]-flurocyclobutane-1-carboxylic acid (18 F-fluciclovine) is a non-naturally occurring amino acid PET radiotracer that is recently United States Food and Drug Administration approved for detection of suspected recurrent prostate cancer. The tumor imaging features of this radiotracer mirror the upregulation of transmembrane amino acid transport that occurs in prostate cancer due to increased amino acid metabolism for energy and protein synthesis...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Nasim Sheikh-Bahaei, S Ahmad Sajjadi, Roido Manavaki, Mary McLean, John T O'Brien, Jonathan H Gillard
OBJECTIVES: To determine if the level of metabolites in MR Spectroscopy (MRS) is a representative marker of underlying pathological changes identified in PET images in Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: We performed PET-guided MRS in cases of probable AD, Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and healthy controls (HC). All participants were imaged by11 C-Pittsburgh Compound B (11 C-PiB) and18 F-fluorodeoxy-glucose (18 F-FDG)-PET followed by 3T MRS. PET images were assessed both visually and using standardized uptake value ratios (SUVR)...
March 8, 2018: Annals of Neurology
Pantelis Maiovis, Panagiotis Ioannidis, Georgios Gerasimou, Anna Gotzamani-Psarrakou, Dimitrios Karacostas
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Cognitive reserve (CR) mediates the clinical expression of brain pathology in Alzheimer's disease, while there are much less relevant data in frontotemporal dementia (FTD). In the present study we examined whether CR, measured using the Cognitive Reserve Index (CRI), correlated with regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in Greek FTD patients. METHODS: Eighty FTD patients, i.e., 47 with behavioral variant FTD (bvFTD) and 33 with primary progressive aphasia (PPA), were enrolled into this study...
March 7, 2018: Neuro-degenerative Diseases
Inga Petraviciene, Regina Grazuleviciene, Sandra Andrusaityte, Audrius Dedele, Mark J Nieuwenhuijsen
Background: The complex impact of environmental and social factors on preschool children being overweight/obese is unclear. We examined the associations between the levels of green space exposure and the risk of being overweight/obese for 4-6 year-old children and assessed the impact of maternal education on these associations. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 1489 mother-child pairs living in Kaunas, Lithuania, in 2012-2013. We assessed children overweight/obesity by standardized questionnaires using international body mass index cut-off points, and the level of greenness exposures by satellite-derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) of each child's home and by the distance to a nearest city park...
March 5, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Steffi van Wessel, Tjalina Hamerlynck, Benedictus Schoot, Steven Weyers
OBJECTIVE: To gain insight in the current ideas on, and implementation of hysteroscopy amongst practicing gynaecologists in the Netherlands and Flanders. STUDY DESIGN: In August 2016 an electronic questionnaire was sent to practising gynaecologist members of the Dutch (N = 591) and Flemish (N = 586) Society of Obstetrics and Gynaecology. RESULTS: The response rate for the Netherlands was 15.4% (91/591), and for Flanders 27.0% (158/586)...
February 19, 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Lester D R Thompson, David N Poller, Kennichi Kakudo, Raoul Burchette, Yuri E Nikiforov, Raja R Seethala
The aim of the study was to assess interobserver variation in reporting nuclear features of encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma, newly reclassified as noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP), based on a proposed standardized scoring system. An education module was individually reviewed as a pre-evaluation teaching guide of the specific features of classical papillary carcinoma, the specific inclusion and exclusion features for the diagnosis of NIFTP, and a catalog of the standardized scoring system of the nuclear features of papillary carcinoma used to reach this diagnosis...
March 6, 2018: Endocrine Pathology
Alycia M Markowski, Kristin C Greenwood, Jessica L Parker, Marie B Corkery, Maria C Dolce
AIMS: Oral health is integral to overall health and wellness. All healthcare providers can contribute to improving health by including an oral health screening (OHS) in the physical examination. The aims of this study were to 1) develop and test a novel oral health curriculum and 2) compare the effectiveness of two distinct methods of instruction, a) simulation with physical therapists (PT) and dental professional co-debriefing and b) video observation with PT faculty- only instruction...
2018: Journal of Allied Health
Noomi Matthiesen
This paper argues that the neo-liberal work of schooling includes a focus on producing subjectivities with a high level of well-being. This is done by drawing on evidence based therapeutic techniques that are adjusted to a school setting. These are termed 'therapeutic socio-educational technologies. It is argued that these practices adhere to the neo-liberal logic of increased competition, standardization and testing, focusing on the individual child. There are a number of problems connected to these well-being enhancing technologies...
March 3, 2018: Integrative Psychological & Behavioral Science
Elise Harder, Kirsten E Juul, Signe M Jensen, Louise T Thomsen, Kirsten Frederiksen, Susanne K Kjaer
Cervical cancer occurs most often in under-screened women. In this nationwide register study, we described differences in sociodemographic characteristics between passive and active non-participants and examined socio-demographic characteristics, reproductive history, and mental and physical health as potential determinants for passive non-participation compared with participation in the Danish cervical cancer screening program. Screening history in women aged 23-49 years invited for cervical cancer screening in 2008-2009 was retrieved from the Danish Pathology Databank with information about dates of invitation and unsubscription...
March 6, 2018: Preventive Medicine
Brian S Shumway, Mark L Bernstein, Chen Qian, Manjiri Y Kulkarni, Shesh N Rai
Decreased lecture attendance in undergraduate and health science professions education has been noted throughout the world. The limited study of the effect of lecture attendance on dental students' performance has yielded mixed results, with some studies finding a positive effect and others reporting no association. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of lecture attendance on dental students' final grades in an oral pathology course at one U.S. dental school. Due to a curriculum change, second- and third-year students (N=233) were concurrently enrolled in the spring 2016 oral pathology (OP) course...
March 2018: Journal of Dental Education
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