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Zaleha Shafiei, Zubaidah Haji Abdul Rahim, Koshy Philip, Nalina Thurairajah
BACKGROUND: Plant extracts mixture (PEM) and its individual constituent plant extracts(Psidium sp., Mangifera sp., Mentha sp.) are known to have an anti-adhering effect towards oral bacteria in the single-species biofilm. To date, the adhering ability of the early and late plaque colonisers (Streptococcus sanguinis and Streptococcus mutans) to PEM-treated experimental pellicle have not been investigated in dual-species biofilms. METHODS: Fresh leaves of these plants were used in the preparation of the respective aqueous extract decoctions...
2016: PeerJ
In K Kim, Noel Zuckerbraun, Maybelle Kou, Tien Vu, Kelly Levasseur, Kenneth Yen, Jennifer Chapman, Cara Doughty, Constance McAneney, Pavan Zaveri, Deborah Hsu
This article is the sixth in a 7-part series that aims to comprehensively describe the current state and future directions of pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) fellowship training from the essential requirements to considerations for successfully administering and managing a program to the careers that may be anticipated upon program completion. This article provides a broad overview of administering and supervising a PEM fellowship program. It explores 3 topics: the principles of program administration, committee management, and recommendations for minimum time allocated for PEM fellowship program directors to administer their programs...
October 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Line S Bisgaard, Christina K Mogensen, Alexander Rosendahl, Helena Cucak, Lars Bo Nielsen, Salka E Rasmussen, Tanja X Pedersen
Macrophages are heterogeneous and can polarize into specific subsets, e.g. pro-inflammatory M1-like and re-modelling M2-like macrophages. To determine if peritoneal macrophages (PEMs) or bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs) resembled aortic macrophages from ApoE-/- mice, their M1/M2 phenotype, inflammatory status, and lipid metabolism signatures were compared. oxLDL accumulation was similar in PEMs and BMDMs. On protein expression level, BMDMs showed an M2-like CD206(high)CD11c(low) profile, while cholesterol loading led to enhanced CD11c expression and reduced MCP-1 secretion...
October 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
P Goossens, C Martineau-Corcos, F Saïdi, J A Martens, F Taulelle
Nafion proton exchange membranes (PEMs) for fuel cell applications are extensively studied and commercially applied, but their unique proton conduction capabilities are still somewhat unexplained. For studying proton dynamics in situ, molecular level spectroscopic techniques have been of limited utility so far. By solid-state (1)H and (19)F double resonance nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy using the recently revived multiple contact cross-polarization (MC-CP) pulse sequence along with double-quantum (1)H-(1)H filtering, high resolution proton populations distinct from the dominant water resonance were observed in Nafion for the first time...
October 7, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Prashant P Kadam, Nithya Jaideep Gogtay, Sunil Karande, V Shah, Urmila M Thatte
OBJECTIVES: Studies on antimalarial kinetics in children or adults who are undernourished or malnourished are both limited and have yielded conflicting results. The present study was carried out with the objectives of evaluating the pharmacokinetics of single dose chloroquine and its metabolite desethylchloroquine in children who were undernourished and compare them with children who were normally nourished. METHODS: Children of either gender between the ages of 5 and 12 years, smear positive for P...
September 2016: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
Ludovic Giloteaux, Maureen R Hanson, Betsy A Keller
BACKGROUND Patients with myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) present with profound fatigue, flu-like symptoms, pain, cognitive impairment, orthostatic intolerance, and post-exertional malaise (PEM), and exacerbation of some or all of the baseline symptoms. CASE REPORT We report on a pair of 34-year-old monozygotic twins discordant for ME/CFS, with WELL, the non-affected twin, and ILL, the affected twin. Both twins performed a two-day cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET), pre- and post-exercise blood samples were drawn, and both provided stool samples for biochemical and molecular analysis...
October 10, 2016: American Journal of Case Reports
Wei Jia, Beibei Tang, Peiyi Wu
In the current study, carbon nanotube/graphene oxide nanoribbon (CNT/GONR) composites were obtained via a chemical "unzipping" method. Then novel CNT/GONR Nafion composite proton exchange membranes (PEMs) were prepared via a blending method. The CNT/GONR nanocomposites induce the adjustment of (-SO3-)n ionic clusters in Nafion matrix to construct long-range ionic nanochannels and keep the activity of ionic clusters at the same time. This dramatically promotes the proton transport of the CNT/GONR Nafion composite PEMs at low humidity and high temperature...
October 5, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Brandon Michael Graver, H Christopher Frey, Jiangchuan Hu
Few data are available regarding the effect of biodiesel on exhaust emission rates of two-stroke engines used in many passenger locomotives. Using a portable emissions measurement system (PEMS), duty cycle average nitrogen oxides (NOx), hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matter (PM), and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission rates were measured for three locomotives operating on ultra-low sulfur diesel (ULSD) and soy-based B10, B20, and B40 biodiesel blends. Measurements were conducted in the rail yard (RY) and over-the-rail (OTR) during passenger service...
October 3, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
H Rajaei Sharifabadi, A A Naserian, R Valizadeh, M R Nassiry, W G Bottje, R R Redden
Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of moderate feed restriction on productivity of lambs classified on the basis of phenotypic expression of residual feed intake (RFI). In Exp. 1, 58 fat-tailed Kurdi ram lambs (32.1 ± 4.2 kg BW) were individually fed, ad libitum, a pelleted diet (35% alfalfa hay and 65% concentrate). Feed intake and ADG were determined for a 6-wk period and 3 feed efficiency measures including RFI, G:F, and partial efficiency of maintenance (PEM) were calculated. The lambs were sorted based on RFI and the 16 highest RFI (RFI ≥ mean + 0...
August 2016: Journal of Animal Science
Takamichi Kuwahara, Yoshiki Hirooka, Hiroki Kawashima, Eizaburo Ohno, Hiroyuki Sugimoto, Daijuro Hayashi, Tomomasa Morishima, Manabu Kawai, Hiroki Suhara, Tomoaki Takeyama, Takeshi Yamamura, Kohei Funasaka, Masanao Nakamura, Ryoji Miyahara, Osamu Watanabe, Masatoshi Ishigami, Yoshie Shimoyama, Shigeo Nakamura, Senju Hashimoto, Hidemi Goto
BACKGROUND & AIMS: There is no established non-invasive method for diagnosis of pancreatic fibrosis. Shear wave elastography (SW-EG) may be a candidate for this purpose. The aims of this study were to assess the reproducibility of SW-EG in the normal imaging pancreas (Phase 1) and to evaluate the diagnostic performance of SW-EG for pancreatic fibrosis classified histologically (Phase 2). METHODS: Phase 1: This included 127 cases that underwent SW-EG of the normal imaging pancreas...
September 23, 2016: Pancreatology: Official Journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et Al.]
Nicolaus W Glomb, Manish I Shah, Andrea T Cruz
BACKGROUND: There is global variation in the ability of hospital-based emergency centres to provide paediatric emergency medicine (PEM) services. Although minimum standards have been proposed, they may not be applicable in resource-limited settings. OBJECTIVE: The goal was to identify reasonable minimum standards to provide safe and effective care for acutely ill children in resource-limited settings. METHODS: Using previously proposed standards from the International Federation of Emergency Medicine (IFEM), a modified Delphi approach was used to reach agreement regarding minimum standards for PEM in resource-limited settings...
September 29, 2016: Paediatrics and International Child Health
Leonardo Rojas, Andrés F Cardona, Oscar Arrieta, Beatriz Wills, Luis Corrales-Rodriguez, Hernán Carranza, Carlos Vargas, Jorge Otero, Claudio Martin, Mauricio Cuello, Carlos Ortiz, Rafael Rosell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
Leonardo Rojas, Andrés F Cardona, Oscar Arrieta, Beatriz Wills, Luis Corrales-Rodriguez, Hernán Carranza, Carlos Vargas, Jorge Otero, Claudio Martin, Mauricio Cuello, Carlos Ortiz, Rafael Rosell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
Taeyoung Kim, Sukwon Kang, Je Hoon Sung, Young Koo Kang, Young Hwa Kim, Jae Kyung Jang
Polyester cloth (PC) was selected as a prospective inexpensive substitute separator material for microbial fuel cells (MFCs). PC was compared with a traditional Nafion proton exchange membrane (PEM) as an MFC separator by analyzing its physical and electrochemical properties. A single layer of PC showed higher mass transfer (e.g., for O₂/H⁺/ions) than the Nafion PEM; in the case of oxygen mass transfer coefficient (ko), a rate of 50.0 × 10⁻⁵ cm·s⁻¹ was observed compared to a rate of 20.8 × 10⁻⁵ cm·s⁻¹ in the Nafion PEM...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Tobias Morawietz, Michael Handl, Claudio Oldani, K Andreas Friedrich, Renate Hiesgen
A quantitative in situ investigation of the structure of the catalytic layer of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells using material-sensitive and conductive atomic force microscopy is reported. The distribution and size of the ionomer phase at the surface of the catalytic layer is retrieved from adhesion force mappings, measured at high humidity and up to 75 °C. The average ionomer layer thickness varies between 7 and 13 nm for three differently prepared samples, as concluded from the histograms. Evidence of a lamellar structure of the thinner ionomer layers is presented...
October 12, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
James T Kennedy, Paul F Collins, Monica Luciana
Adolescent obesity is associated with an increased chance of developing serious health risks later in life. Identifying the neurobiological and personality factors related to increases in adiposity is important to understanding what drives maladaptive consummatory and exercise behaviors that result in obesity. Previous research has largely focused on adults with few findings published on interactions among adiposity, brain structure, and personality. In this study, Voxel Based Morphometry (VBM) was used to identify associations between gray and white matter volumes and increasing adiposity, as measured by Body Mass Index percentile (BMI%), in 137 adolescents (age range: 9-20 years, BMI% range: 5...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Abhishek De, Jayati Datta, Ipsita Haldar, Mukul Biswas
Ethanol oxidation reaction has been studied in acidic environment over PtPd nanoparticles (NPs) grown on the molybdenum oxide-polypyrrole composite (MOPC) support. The attempt was focused on using reduced Pt loading on non-carbon support for direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC) operated with proton exchange membrane (PEM). As revealed in SEM study, a molybdenum oxide network exists in polypyrrole caging and the presence of metal NPs over the composite matrix is confirmed by TEM analysis. Further physicochemical characterizations such as XRD, EDAX, and XPS are followed in order to understand the surface morphology and composition of the hybrid structure...
October 14, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Sang-Hee Woo, Kyung-Hwan Kwak, Gwi-Nam Bae, Kyung Hwan Kim, Chang Hyeok Kim, Se-Jin Yook, Sangzin Jeon, Sangil Kwon, Jeongsoo Kim, Seung-Bok Lee
The unintended influence of exhaust plumes emitted from a vehicle ahead to on-road air quality surveying data measured with a mobile laboratory (ML) at 20-40 km h(-1) in dense traffic areas was investigated by experiment and life-sized computational fluidic dynamics (CFD) simulation. The ML equipped with variable sampling inlets of five columns by four rows was used to measure the spatial distribution of CO2 and NOx concentrations when following 5-20 m behind a sport utility vehicle (SUV) as an emitter vehicle equipped with a portable emission monitoring system (PEMS)...
November 2016: Environmental Pollution
Justin Presseau, Jeremy M Grimshaw, Jacqueline M Tetroe, Martin P Eccles, Jill J Francis, Gaston Godin, Ian D Graham, Janet E Hux, Marie Johnston, France Légaré, Louise Lemyre, Nicole Robinson, Merrick Zwarenstein
BACKGROUND: Pragmatic trials of implementation interventions focus on evaluating whether an intervention changes professional behaviour under real-world conditions rather than investigating the mechanism through which change occurs. Theory-based process evaluations conducted alongside pragmatic randomised trials address this by assessing whether the intervention changes theoretical constructs proposed to mediate change. The Ontario Printed Educational Materials (PEM) cluster trial was designed to increase family physicians' guideline-recommended prescription of thiazide diuretics...
2016: Implementation Science: IS
Chun Yi Lim, Mary Law, Mary Khetani, Nancy Pollock, Peter Rosenbaum
This study examines caregivers' perceptions of participation patterns and environmental supports and barriers for young children with and without developmental disabilities within their child care/preschool and community settings. The Young Children's Participation and Environment Measure (YC-PEM) was completed by 151 parents of Singaporean children (0-7 years old) with and without developmental disabilities. Setting-specific summary and item-level scores of these children were compared using ANCOVA, Mann-Whitney U, and Pearson chi-square tests...
July 2016: OTJR: Occupation, Participation and Health
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