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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035917/decreases-in-smoking-during-treatment-for-methamphetamine-use-disorders-preliminary-evidence
#1
Sterling McPherson, Michael Orr, Crystal Lederhos, Michael McDonell, Emily Leickly, Katherine Hirchak, Oladunni A Oluwoye, Sean M Murphy, Matthew Layton, John M Roll
Despite high rates of smoking (70-90%) and the severely negative impact of smoking on physical and mental health, only 12% of individuals receiving stimulant-use disorder treatment also receive smoking-cessation treatment. The aim of this investigation was to examine the effect of a contingency management (CM) intervention targeting methamphetamine (MA) use on cigarette smoking. Sixty-one adults with MA-use disorders who were smokers were assigned to CM or standard psychosocial treatment. Rates of smoking-negative breath samples (carbon monoxide <3 ppm) were compared between the two groups while controlling for baseline carbon monoxide level, marijuana use, MA use, and time...
October 13, 2017: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034509/3d-diffusion-weighted-129-xe-mri-for-whole-lung-morphometry
#2
Ho-Fung Chan, Neil J Stewart, Graham Norquay, Guilhem J Collier, Jim M Wild
PURPOSE: To obtain whole lung morphometry measurements from (129) Xe in a single breath-hold with 3D multiple b-value (129) Xe diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) with an empirically optimized diffusion time and compressed sensing for scan acceleration. METHODS: Prospective three-fold undersampled 3D multiple b-value hyperpolarized (129) Xe DW-MRI datasets were acquired, and the diffusion time (Δ) was iterated so as to provide diffusive length scale (LmD ) estimates from the stretched exponential model (SEM) that are comparable to those from (3) He...
October 16, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030882/accelerated-multicontrast-volumetric-imaging-with-isotropic-resolution-for-improved-peri-infarct-characterization-using-parallel-imaging-low-rank-and-spatially-varying-edge-preserving-sparse-modeling
#3
Li Zhang, Peng Lai, Mihaela Pop, Graham A Wright
PURPOSE: To achieve consistent effectiveness in reconstruction of fine image features for cases of varying contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) to facilitate translating accelerated multicontrast volumetric imaging with isotropic resolution toward clinical utility in peri-infarct characterization. THEORY AND METHODS: A low-rank and spatially varying edge-preserving constrained compressed sensing parallel imaging reconstruction method (CP-LASER) is developed to effectively preserve contrast of small-scale structures for highly accelerated multicontrast volumetric imaging in CNR-limited scenarios...
October 13, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994132/fast-and-accurate-multi-channel-b1-mapping-based-on-the-tiamo-technique-for-7t-uhf-body-mri
#4
Sascha Brunheim, Marcel Gratz, Sören Johst, Andreas K Bitz, Thomas M Fiedler, Mark E Ladd, Harald H Quick, Stephan Orzada
PURPOSE: Current methods for mitigation of transmit field B1+ inhomogeneities at ultrahigh field (UHF) MRI by multi-channel radiofrequency (RF) shimming rely on accurate B1+ mapping. This can be time consuming when many RF channels have to be mapped for in vivo body MRI, where the B1 maps should ideally be acquired within a single breath-hold. Therefore, a new B1+ mapping technique (B1TIAMO) is proposed. METHODS: The performance of this technique is validated against an established method (DREAM) in phantom measurements for a cylindrical head phantom with an 8-channel transmit/receive (Tx/Rx) array...
October 9, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986630/comparison-of-transient-severe-motion-in-gadoxetate-disodium-and-gadopentetate-dimeglumine-enhanced-mri-effect-of-modified-breath-holding-method
#5
Ji Soo Song, Eun Jung Choi, Eun Hae Park, Ju-Hyung Lee
OBJECTIVES: To compare the occurrence of transient severe motion (TSM) between gadoxetate disodium- and gadopentetate dimeglumine-enhanced MRI and between gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI scans obtained with and without the application of a modified breath-holding technique. METHODS: We reviewed 80 patients who underwent two magnetic resonance examinations (gadoxetate disodium-enhanced MRI and gadopentetate dimeglumine-enhanced MRI) with the application of a modified breath-holding technique (dual group)...
October 6, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985727/respiratory-mechanics-in-infants-with-severe-bronchiolitis-on-controlled-mechanical-ventilation
#6
Pablo Cruces, Sebastián González-Dambrauskas, Julio Quilodrán, Jorge Valenzuela, Javier Martínez, Natalia Rivero, Pablo Arias, Franco Díaz
BACKGROUND: Analysis of respiratory mechanics during mechanical ventilation (MV) is able to estimate resistive, elastic and inertial components of the working pressure of the respiratory system. Our aim was to discriminate the components of the working pressure of the respiratory system in infants on MV with severe bronchiolitis admitted to two PICU's. METHODS: Infants younger than 1 year old with acute respiratory failure caused by severe bronchiolitis underwent neuromuscular blockade, tracheal intubation and volume controlled MV...
October 6, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984599/sleep-apnea-cognitive-profile-and%C3%A2-vascular-changes-an-intriguing-relationship
#7
Laura Buratti, Giovanna Viticchi, Sara Baldinelli, Lorenzo Falsetti, Simona Luzzi, Alessandra Pulcini, Cristina Petrelli, Leandro Provinciali, Mauro Silvestrini
BACKGROUND: Sleep breathing disorders can affect cognitive performances through complex brain anatomical and functional changes. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to evaluate the correlations between cognitive performances and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), as well as the possible influence of vascular factors. METHODS: Thirty-four non-demented OSAS patients and 34 controls were submitted to a neuropsychological evaluation and to a vascular screening including the study of cerebrovascular reactivity by means of the breath-holding index (BHI) calculation...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978638/controlling-thoracic-pressures-in-cetaceans-during-a-breath-hold-dive-importance-of-the-diaphragm
#8
Margo A Lillie, A Wayne Vogl, Stephen Raverty, Martin Haulena, William A McLellan, Garry B Stenson, Robert E Shadwick
Internal pressures change throughout a cetacean's body during swimming or diving, and uneven pressures between the thoracic and abdominal compartments can affect the cardiovascular system. Pressure differentials could arise from ventral compression on each fluke downstroke or by a faster equilibration of the abdominal compartment with changing ambient ocean pressures compared with the thoracic compartment. If significant pressure differentials do develop, we would expect the morphology of the diaphragm to adapt to its in vivo loading...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976478/compressed-sensing-accelerated-3-dimensional-magnetic-resonance-cholangiopancreatography-application-in-suspected-pancreatic-diseases
#9
Liang Zhu, Xi Wu, Zhaoyong Sun, Zhengyu Jin, Elisabeth Weiland, Esther Raithel, Tianyi Qian, Huadan Xue
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to prospectively evaluate image quality, duct visibility, and diagnostic performance in duct-related pathologies of compressed-sensing (CS) accelerated 3-dimensional (3D) magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) prototype protocols and compare these with those of conventional 3D MRCP protocol in patients with suspected pancreatic diseases. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The institutional review board approved this prospective study and all patients provided written informed consent...
September 26, 2017: Investigative Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974856/cardiac-dose-reduction-with-deep-inspiratory-breath-hold-technique-of-radiotherapy-for-left-sided-breast-cancer
#10
Lalitha Kameshwari Sripathi, Parveen Ahlawat, David K Simson, Chira Ranjan Khadanga, Lakshmipathi Kamarsu, Shital Kumar Surana, Kavi Arasu, Harpreet Singh
INTRODUCTION: Different techniques of radiation therapy have been studied to reduce the cardiac dose in left breast cancer. AIM: In this prospective dosimetric study, the doses to heart as well as other organs at risk (OAR) were compared between free-breathing (FB) and deep inspiratory breath hold (DIBH) techniques in intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) and opposed-tangent three-dimensional radiotherapy (3DCRT) plans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifteen patients with left-sided breast cancer underwent computed tomography simulation and images were obtained in both FB and DIBH...
July 2017: Journal of Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972817/free-breathing-dynamic-19-f-gas-mr-imaging-for-mapping-of-regional-lung-ventilation-in-patients-with-copd
#11
Marcel Gutberlet, Till F Kaireit, Andreas Voskrebenzev, Florian Lasch, Julia Freise, Tobias Welte, Frank Wacker, Jens M Hohlfeld, Jens Vogel-Claussen
Purpose To quantify regional lung ventilation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by using free-breathing dynamic fluorinated (fluorine 19 [(19)F]) gas magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Materials and Methods In this institutional review board-approved prospective study, 27 patients with COPD were examined by using breath-hold (19)F gas wash-in MR imaging during inhalation of a normoxic fluorinated gas mixture (perfluoropropane) and by using free-breathing dynamic (19)F gas washout MR imaging after inhalation of the gas mixture was finished for a total of 25-30 L...
October 3, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971344/the-effect-of-beam-interruption-during-fff-vmat-plans-for-sbrt
#12
Seongjong Oh, Benjamin Lewis, Amy Watson, Siyong Kim, Taeho Kim
To investigate the dosimetric effect of intended beam interruption during volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) with flattening filter free (FFF) beam for exploring the possibility of deep inspiration breath hold stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). A total of ten SBRT plans with 6 and 10 MV FFF beams were retrospectively selected. All plans consisted of four partial arcs, except one plan with six partial arcs. We delivered the plans using a Varian Truebeam™ with three different scenarios; without interruption (0int), with one intentional interruption (1int), or with two intentional interruptions (2int), per each partial arc...
October 2, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966145/how-important-is-the-co2-chemoreflex-for-the-control-of-breathing-environmental-and-evolutionary-considerations
#13
Joseph M Santin
Haldane and Priestley (1905) discovered that the ventilatory control system is highly sensitive to CO2. This "CO2 chemoreflex" has been interpreted to dominate control of resting arterial PCO2/pH (PaCO2/pHa) by monitoring PaCO2/pHa and altering ventilation through negative feedback. However, PaCO2/pHa varies little in mammals as ventilation tightly couples to metabolic demands, which may minimize chemoreflex control of PaCO2. The purpose of this synthesis is to (1) interpret data from experimental models with meager CO2 chemoreflexes to infer their role in ventilatory control of steady-state PaCO2, and (2) identify physiological causes of respiratory acidosis occurring normally across vertebrate classes...
September 28, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964587/feasibility-of-pencil-beam-scanned-intensity-modulated-proton-therapy-in-breath-hold-for-locally-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#14
Jenny Gorgisyan, Per Munck Af Rosenschold, Rosalind Perrin, Gitte F Persson, Mirjana Josipovic, Maria Francesca Belosi, Svend Aage Engelholm, Damien C Weber, Antony J Lomax
PURPOSE: We evaluated the feasibility of treating patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with pencil beam scanned intensity modulated proton therapy (IMPT) in breath-hold. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Fifteen NSCLC patients who had previously received 66 Gy in 33 fractions with image guided photon radiation therapy were included in the present simulation study. In addition to a planning breath-hold computed tomography (CT) scan before the treatment start, a median of 6 (range 3-9) breath-hold CT scans per patient were acquired prospectively throughout the radiation therapy course...
August 24, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964386/-cerebral-vasoreactivity-concordance-of-breath-holding-test-and-acetazolamide-injection-in-current-practice-20-cases-of-asymptomatic-carotid-artery-stenosis
#15
M De Bortoli, A Maillet, S Skopinski, G Sassoust, J Constans, C Boulon
INTRODUCTION: Cerebral vasoreactivity (CVR) is the ability of the brain's vascular system to keep cerebral blood inflow stable. Impaired CVR is a risk marker of stroke in patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis. The gold standard to assess CVR with transcranial ultrasound is acetazolamide (ACTZ) injection. The breath holding test (BHT) might be easier to perform. CVR proved to be efficient in laboratory conditions but not in routine practice. OBJECTIVES: To study the validity of BHT versus ACTZ in routine practice in a vascular exploration unit in patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis...
October 2017: J Med Vasc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959898/mandibular-canal-visibility-using-a-plain-volumetric-interpolated-breath-hold-examination-sequence-in-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#16
Chutamas Deepho, Hiroshi Watanabe, Junichiro Sakamoto, Tohru Kurabayashi
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the validity of plain volumetric interpolated breath-hold examination (VIBE) examinations for detecting the course of the mandibular canal (MC), and to compare the results to contrast-enhanced (CE) VIBE images. METHODS: From our imaging archives, we collected 28 cases taken with a VIBE sequence both before and after intravenous administration of gadolinium hydrate, and then two observers evaluated neuro-vascular bundle (NVB) visibility in the VIBE images...
September 29, 2017: Dento Maxillo Facial Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950420/performance-of-a-tracheostomy-removal-protocol-for-pediatric-patients-in-rehabilitation-after-acquired-brain-injury-factors-associated-with-timing-and-possibility-of-decannulation
#17
Marco Pozzi, Sara Galbiati, Federica Locatelli, Emilio Clementi, Sandra Strazzer
OBJECTIVES: We assessed the performance of a tracheostomy decannulation protocol privileging safety over quickness, in pediatric patients undergoing rehabilitation from severe acquired brain injury. We analyzed factors associated with decannulation timing and possibility and examined cases of failure. HYPOTHESIS: A safe decannulation protocol should minimize failures. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. PATIENT SELECTION: Patients aged 0-17 admitted to rehabilitation with tracheostomy in the last 15 years (n = 123)...
September 26, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944081/renal-volumetry-with-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#18
Rolf H Christensen, Torbjörn Lundgren, Peter Stenvinkel, Torkel B Brismar
BACKGROUND: No gold standard exists for renal volumetry in vivo. PURPOSE: To devise and evaluate segmentation methods on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) datasets. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Five combinations of MRI pulse sequences and measuring methods were used to measure the renal volumes of five men aged 54-72 years scanned before autologous renal stem cell transplantation and three, six, and 12 months post transplantation. RESULTS: Renal volume did not change after stem cell transplantation...
September 2017: Acta Radiologica Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942008/transport-of-ellipsoid-fibers-in-oscillatory-shear-flows-implications-for-aerosol-deposition-in-deep-airways
#19
Lihi Shachar-Berman, Yan Ostrovski, Alessandro De Rosis, Stavros Kassinos, Josué Sznitman
It is widely acknowledged that inhaled fibers, e.g. air pollutants and anthropogenic particulate matter, hold the ability to deposit deep into the lungs reaching the distal pulmonary acinar airways as a result of their aerodynamic properties; these particles tend to align with the flow and thus stay longer airborne relative to their spherical counterpart, due to higher drag forces that resist sedimentation. Together with a high surface-to-volume ratio, such characteristics may render non-spherical particles, and fibers in particular, potentially attractive airborne carriers for drug delivery...
September 20, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941830/experimental-and-computational-study-of-the-effect-of-breath-actuated-mechanism-built-in-the-nexthaler-%C3%A2-dry-powder-inhaler
#20
Árpád Farkas, David Lewis, Tanya Church, Alan Tweedie, Francesca Mason, Allen E Haddrell, Jonathan P Reid, Alpár Horváth, Imre Balásházy
The breath-actuated mechanism (BAM) is a mechanical unit included in NEXThaler(®) with the role of delaying the emission of the drug until the inhalation flow rate of the patient is sufficiently high to detach the drug particles from their carriers. The main objective of this work was to analyse the effect of the presence of BAM on the size distribution of the emitted drug and its airway deposition efficiency and distribution. Study of the hygroscopic growth of the emitted drug particles and its effect on the deposition was another goal of this study...
September 21, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
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