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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677510/physiological-and-genetic-adaptations-to-diving-in-sea-nomads
#1
Melissa A Ilardo, Ida Moltke, Thorfinn S Korneliussen, Jade Cheng, Aaron J Stern, Fernando Racimo, Peter de Barros Damgaard, Martin Sikora, Andaine Seguin-Orlando, Simon Rasmussen, Inge C L van den Munckhof, Rob Ter Horst, Leo A B Joosten, Mihai G Netea, Suhartini Salingkat, Rasmus Nielsen, Eske Willerslev
Understanding the physiology and genetics of human hypoxia tolerance has important medical implications, but this phenomenon has thus far only been investigated in high-altitude human populations. Another system, yet to be explored, is humans who engage in breath-hold diving. The indigenous Bajau people ("Sea Nomads") of Southeast Asia live a subsistence lifestyle based on breath-hold diving and are renowned for their extraordinary breath-holding abilities. However, it is unknown whether this has a genetic basis...
April 19, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674994/a-cross-sectional-study-on-cerebral-hemodynamics-after-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-in-a-pediatric-population
#2
Corey M Thibeault, Samuel Thorpe, Michael J O'Brien, Nicolas Canac, Mina Ranjbaran, Ilyas Patanam, Artin Sarraf, James LeVangie, Fabien Scalzo, Seth J Wilk, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Robert B Hamilton
The microvasculature is prominently affected by traumatic brain injury (TBI), including mild TBI (concussion). Assessment of cerebral hemodynamics shows promise as biomarkers of TBI, and may help inform development of therapies aimed at promoting neurologic recovery. The objective of this study was to assess the evolution in cerebral hemodynamics observable with transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasound in subjects suffering from a concussion at different intervals during recovery. Pediatric subjects between the ages of 14 and 19 years clinically diagnosed with a concussion were observed at different points post-injury...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670854/deep-inspiration-breath-hold-techniques-and-advantages-for-cardiac-sparing-during-breast-cancer-irradiation
#3
REVIEW
Carmen Bergom, Adam Currey, Nina Desai, An Tai, Jonathan B Strauss
Historically, heart dose from left-sided breast radiotherapy has been associated with a risk of cardiac injury. Data suggests that there is not a threshold for the deleterious effects from radiation on the heart. Over the past several years, advances in radiation delivery techniques have reduced cardiac morbidity due to treatment. Deep inspiration breath hold (DIBH) is a technique that takes advantage of a more favorable position of the heart during inspiration to minimize heart doses over a course of radiation therapy...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665193/validation-of-a-motion-robust-2d-sequential-technique-for-quantification-of-hepatic-proton-density-fat-fraction-during-free-breathing
#4
B Dustin Pooler, Diego Hernando, Jeannine A Ruby, Hiroshi Ishii, Ann Shimakawa, Scott B Reeder
BACKGROUND: Current chemical-shift-encoded (CSE) MRI techniques for measuring hepatic proton density fat fraction (PDFF) are sensitive to motion artifacts. PURPOSE: Initial validation of a motion-robust 2D-sequential CSE-MRI technique for quantification of hepatic PDFF. STUDY TYPE: Phantom study and prospective in vivo cohort. POPULATION: Fifty adult patients (27 women, 23 men, mean age 57.2 years). FIELD STRENGTH/SEQUENCE: 3D, 2D-interleaved, and 2D-sequential CSE-MRI acquisitions at 1...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659977/quantification-of-variation-in-dose-volume-parameters-for-the-heart-pericardium-and-left-ventricular-myocardium-during-thoracic-tumor-radiotherapy
#5
Ying Tong, Yong Yin, Pinjing Cheng, Jie Lu, Tonghai Liu, Jinhu Chen, Guanzhong Gong
Cardiac activity can induce dose-volume evaluation errors for cardiac structures. The purpose of this study was to quantify the variation in dose-volume parameters for the heart, pericardium and left ventricular myocardium (LVM) throughout the cardiac circle. The heart, pericardium and LVM of 22 patients were contoured on 20 phases of electrocardiography-gated 4D computed tomography (4DCT) images acquired during breath-hold. Radiotherapy plans were designed on 0% phase of the 4DCT images, and the dose distributions of the plans were imported into MIM Maestro and deformed to each phase to generate distributions for all phases...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657962/a-robust-method-for-estimating-b0-inhomogeneity-field-in-the-liver-by-mitigating-fat-signals-and-phase-wrapping
#6
Antonis Matakos, James M Balter, Yue Cao
We developed an optimized and robust method to estimate liver B0 field inhomogeneity for monitoring and correcting susceptibility-induced geometric distortion in magnetic resonance images for precision therapy. A triple-gradient-echo acquisition was optimized for the whole liver B0 field estimation within a single-exhale breath-hold scan on a 3 T scanner. To eliminate chemical-shift artifacts, fat signals were chosen in-phase between 2 echoes with an echo time difference (ΔTE) of 2.3 milliseconds. To avoid phase-wrapping, other 2 echoes provided a large field dynamic range (1/ΔTE) to cover the B0 field inhomogeneity...
June 2017: Tomography: a Journal for Imaging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656611/modified-breath-hold-compressed-sensing-3d-mr-cholangiopancreatography-with-a-small-field-of-view-and-high-resolution-acquisition-clinical-feasibility-in-biliary-and-pancreatic-disorders
#7
Liang Zhu, Huadan Xue, Zhaoyong Sun, Tianyi Qian, Elisabeth Weiland, Bernd Kuehn, Patrick Asbach, Bernd Hamm, Zhengyu Jin
BACKGROUND: Compressed-sensing (CS) accelerated 3D MR cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) could be acquired in both navigator-triggered (NT) and breath-hold (BH) mode, but the latter has been considered inferior in depicting pancreatic duct and diagnosing pancreatic duct-related diseases. PURPOSE: To prospectively evaluate the clinical feasibility of a modified 3D BH-CS-MRCP prototype protocol with small field-of-view (FOV) and higher spatial resolution, and to compare its performance to the original BH-CS-MRCP and NT-CS-MRCP...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656522/hybrid-t-2-and-t-1-weighted-radial-acquisition-for-free-breathing-abdominal-examination
#8
Thomas Benkert, John P Mugler, David S Rigie, Daniel K Sodickson, Hersh Chandarana, Kai Tobias Block
PURPOSE: Most clinical MR examinations require acquisition of different image contrasts. For abdominal exams, the scans are conventionally performed as separate acquisitions using respiratory gating or repeated breath holding, which can be time-inefficient and challenging for patients. Here, a hybrid imaging approach is described that creates T2 - and T1 -weighted images from a single scan and allows for free-breathing acquisition. THEORY AND METHODS: T2 -weighted data is collected using 3D fast spin-echo (FSE) acquisition with motion-robust radial stack-of-stars sampling...
April 15, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643278/absolute-myocardial-blood-flow-after-elective-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-evaluated-on-phase-contrast-cine-cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#9
Rikuta Hamaya, Akinori Sugano, Yoshihisa Kanaji, Tadashi Fukuda, Yoshinori Kanno, Taishi Yonetsu, Eisuke Usui, Masahiro Hoshino, Masahiro Hada, Hiroaki Ohya, Yohei Sumino, Haruhito Yuki, Tadashi Murai, Tetsumin Lee, Tsunekazu Kakuta
BACKGROUND: Few studies have documented changes in myocardial blood flow (MBF) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Phase-contrast cine cardiovascular MRI (PC-CCMR) of the coronary sinus (CS) is a promising approach to quantify MBF. The aim of this study was to quantify CS flow (CSF) on PC-CCMR as a measure of volumetric MBF before and after elective PCI.Methods and Results:We prospectively studied 34 patients with stable angina undergoing elective PCI for a single de novo lesion...
April 12, 2018: Circulation Journal: Official Journal of the Japanese Circulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29626239/high-spatial-resolution-free-breathing-3d-late-gadolinium-enhancement-cardiac-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-ischaemic-and-non-ischaemic-cardiomyopathy-quantitative-assessment-of-scar-mass-and-image-quality
#10
Maurice B Bizino, Qian Tao, Jacob Amersfoort, Hans-Marc J Siebelink, Pieter J van den Bogaard, Rob J van der Geest, Hildo J Lamb
PURPOSE: To compare breath-hold (BH) with navigated free-breathing (FB) 3D late gadolinium enhancement cardiac MRI (LGE-CMR) MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-one patients were retrospectively included (34 ischaemic cardiomyopathy, 14 non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy, three discarded). BH and FB 3D phase sensitive inversion recovery sequences were performed at 3T. FB datasets were reformatted into normal resolution (FB-NR, 1.46x1.46x10mm) and high resolution (FB-HR, isotropic 0.91-mm voxels). Scar mass, scar edge sharpness (SES), SNR and CNR were compared using paired-samples t-test, Pearson correlation and Bland-Altman analysis...
April 6, 2018: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623819/register-based-ecologic-evaluation-of-safety-signals-related-to-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-in-children
#11
Miia Artama, Hanna Rinta-Kokko, Hanna Nohynek, Jukka Jokinen, Arto Palmu
BACKGROUND: In clinical trials of Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccines (PCV), some adverse events have been reported more frequently in the PCV vaccinated. Ten-valent PCV (PCV10) was introduced into the Finnish National Vaccination Programme (NVP) in September 2010. OBJECTIVES: We conducted an ecologic register-based study to investigate further the reported adverse events after PCV. METHODS: This study included data obtained from the Finnish nationwide, population-based registers...
April 6, 2018: Current Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614647/reduced-cerebrovascular-reserve-capacity-as-a-biomarker-of-microangiopathy-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-mild-cognitive-impairment
#12
Barbora Soukupova Urbanova, Jaroslava Paulasova Schwabova, Hana Magerova, Petr Jansky, Hana Markova, Martin Vyhnalek, Jan Laczo, Jakub Hort, Ales Tomek
BACKGROUND: Cerebral microangiopathy in Alzheimer's disease (AD) causes chronic hypoperfusion and probably accelerates neurodegenerative changes. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesize microvascular impairment could be present already in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and can be revealed using transcranial color-coded sonography (TCCS) and the breath-holding maneuver. METHODS: Three groups of subjects (AD in the stage of dementia, MCI, and cognitively normal controls) with detailed neuropsychological testing and low cerebrovascular burden (no history of stroke, no intra- or extracranial artery stenoses, and no severe vascular lesions on brain MRI), underwent a TCCS assessment of peak systolic (PSV), mean flow (MFV), and end diastolic velocities (EDV) and resistance and pulsatility indices (RI, PI) in large intracranial vessels bilaterally...
March 24, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29613964/mr-imaging-of-thoracic-aortic-disease
#13
John P Lichtenberger, Derek F Franco, Jason S Kim, Brett W Carter
A number of congenital defects and acquired disease processes affect the thoracic aorta, and traditionally, computed tomography (CT) has been the mainstay of imaging, especially in evaluation of the acute aorta. However, recent advances in magnetic resonance (MR) imaging such as electrocardiographically (ECG) triggered breath-hold sequences and ultrafast 3-dimensional MR angiography (MRA) are bringing MR imaging to the forefront of imaging of the thoracic aorta. By providing high-resolution morphological imaging and sophisticated vascular flow analysis for functional data, this modality can provide a comprehensive, reproducible evaluation of the thoracic aorta...
April 2018: Topics in Magnetic Resonance Imaging: TMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606339/a-feasibility-study-of-single-inhalation-single-energy-xenon-enhanced-ct-for-high-resolution-imaging-of-regional-lung-ventilation-in-humans
#14
Daniel W Pinkham, Mohammadreza Negahdar, Tokihiro Yamamoto, Erik Mittra, Maximilian Diehn, Viswam S Nair, Paul J Keall, Peter G Maxim, Billy W Loo
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of single-inhalation xenon-enhanced computed tomography (XeCT) to provide clinically practical, high-resolution pulmonary ventilation imaging to clinics with access to only a single-energy computed tomography scanner, and to reduce the subject's overall exposure to xenon by utilizing a higher (70%) concentration for a much shorter time than has been employed in prior studies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted an institutional review board-approved prospective feasibility study of XeCT for 15 patients undergoing thoracic radiotherapy...
March 29, 2018: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605590/measurement-of-fat-fraction-in-the-human-thymus-by-localized-nmr-and-three-point-dixon-mri-techniques
#15
Kenneth W Fishbein, Sokratis K Makrogiannis, Vanessa A Lukas, Marilyn Okine, Ramona Ramachandran, Luigi Ferrucci, Josephine M Egan, Chee W Chia, Richard G Spencer
PURPOSE: To develop a protocol to non-invasively measure and map fat fraction, fat/(fat+water), as a function of age in the adult thymus for future studies monitoring the effects of interventions aimed at promoting thymic rejuvenation and preservation of immunity in older adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three-dimensional spoiled gradient echo 3T MRI with 3-point Dixon fat-water separation was performed at full inspiration for thymus conspicuity in 36 volunteers 19 to 56 years old...
March 29, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605203/in-vitro-and-clinical-characterization-of-the-valved-holding-chamber-aerochamber-plus-%C3%A2-flow-vu-%C3%A2-for-administrating-tiotropium-respimat-%C3%A2-in-1-5-year-old-children-with-persistent-asthmatic-symptoms
#16
Herbert Wachtel, Mark Nagel, Michael Engel, Georges El Azzi, Ashish Sharma, Jason Suggett
BACKGROUND: When characterizing inhalation products, a comprehensive assessment including in vitro, pharmacokinetic (PK), and clinical data is required. We conducted a characterization of tiotropium Respimat® when administered with AeroChamber Plus® Flow-Vu® anti-static valved holding chamber (test VHC) with face mask in 1-5-year-olds with persistent asthmatic symptoms. METHODS: In vitro tiotropium dose and particle size distribution delivered into a cascade impactor were evaluated under fixed paediatric and adult flow rates between actuation and samplings...
April 2018: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605120/assessment-of-deep-inspiration-breath-hold-dibh-amplitude-and-reduction-in-cardiac-dose-in-left-breast-cancer-patients
#17
D Ledsom, A J Reilly, H Probst
INTRODUCTION: The primary aim of this study was to examine the impact of deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) amplitude on subsequent mean heart dose and V30 during radiotherapy. The secondary aim was to investigate if patient age influenced DIBH amplitude. METHOD: A retrospective study of 30 patients with left-sided breast cancer was completed. Patients were randomly selected from the total number of patients dual scanned in free breathing (FB) and DIBH over a 2-year period...
May 2018: Radiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601114/analysis-and-improvement-of-motion-encoding-in-magnetic-resonance-elastography
#18
Christian Guenthner, Jurgen Henk Runge, Ralph Sinkus, Sebastian Kozerke
Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) utilizes phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which is phase locked to externally generated mechanical vibrations, to measure the three-dimensional wave displacement field. At least four measurements with linear-independent encoding directions are necessary to correct for spurious phase contributions if effects from imaging gradients are non-negligible. In MRE, three encoding schemes have been used: unbalanced four- and six-point and balanced four-point ('tetrahedral') encoding...
March 30, 2018: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589215/cellular-glucose-uptake-during-breath-hold-diving-in-experienced-male-breath-hold-divers
#19
Nicola Sponsiello, Danilo Cialoni, Massimo Pieri, Alessandro Marroni
BACKGROUND: The physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms that govern diving, both self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (SCUBA) and breath-hold diving (BH-diving), are in large part well known, even if there are still many unknown aspects, in particular about cell metabolism during BH-diving. The scope of this study was to investigate changes in glycemia, insulinemia, and the catecholamine response to BH-diving, to better understand if the insulin-stimulated glucose uptake mechanism is involved in cellular metabolism in this sport...
March 27, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587881/teddi-radiotherapy-delivery-in-deep-inspiration-for-pediatric-patients-a-nopho-feasibility-study
#20
Anni Young Lundgaard, Lisa Lyngsie Hjalgrim, Laura Ann Rechner, Mirjana Josipovic, Morten Joergensen, Marianne Camille Aznar, Anne Kill Berthelsen, Lise Borgwardt, Christoffer Johansen, Annika Loft, Akmal Safwat, Leila Vaalavirta, Lena Specht, Maja Vestmoe Maraldo
BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy (RT) delivered in deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) is a simple technique, in which changes in patient anatomy can significantly reduce the irradiation of the organs at risk (OARs) surrounding the treatment target. DIBH is routinely used in the treatment of some adult patients to diminish the risk of late effects; however, no formalized studies have addressed the potential benefit of DIBH in children. METHODS/DESIGN: TEDDI is a multicenter, non-randomized, feasibility study...
March 27, 2018: Radiation Oncology
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