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Shichao Yue, Junling Wu, Qiang Zhang, Ke Zhang, Michael D Weir, Satoshi Imazato, Yuxing Bai, Hockin H K Xu
OBJECTIVES: Secondary caries at the tooth-restoration margins is a primary reason for restoration failure. Cracks at the margins lead to leakage which can trap bacteria, producing acids to cause caries. To date, there has been no report on developing an adhesive resin that has self-healing, antibacterial and remineralizing capabilities. The objectives of this study were to: (1) develop the first self-healing adhesive with antimicrobial and remineralizing capabilities, and (2) investigate the effects of incorporating microcapsules, dimethylaminohexadecyl methacrylate (DMAHDM) and nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP) for the first time...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Dentistry
Niwut Juntavee, Apa Juntavee, Preeyarat Plongniras
Objective: This study investigates the effects of nano-hydroxyapatite (NHA) gel and Clinpro (CP) on remineralization potential of enamel and cementum at the cavosurface area of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing ceramic restoration. Materials and methods: Thirty extracted human mandibular third molars were sectioned at 1 mm above and below the cemento-enamel junction to remove the cemento-enamel junction portions and replaced them with zirconia ceramic disks by bonding them to the crown and root portions with resin cement...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Hee-Eun Kim, Baek-Il Kim
PURPOSE: The aim of thisin situ study was to measure baseline fluorescence loss values (ΔF(0) ) using the quantitative light-induced fluorescence (QLF) technology to screen enamel lesions for effective remineralization following fluoride application. METHODS: In this single-blindedin situ study, 20 adult volunteers wore intraoral appliances containing 4 specimens of human enamel. The surfaces of the specimens were divided into 3 regions: sound, demineralized, and treated regions...
May 12, 2018: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
Sian F Henley, Elizabeth M Jones, Hugh J Venables, Michael P Meredith, Yvonne L Firing, Ribanna Dittrich, Sabrina Heiser, Jacqueline Stefels, Julie Dougans
The West Antarctic Peninsula shelf is a region of high seasonal primary production which supports a large and productive food web, where macronutrients and inorganic carbon are sourced primarily from intrusions of warm saline Circumpolar Deep Water. We examined the cross-shelf modification of this water mass during mid-summer 2015 to understand the supply of nutrients and carbon to the productive surface ocean, and their subsequent uptake and cycling. We show that nitrate, phosphate, silicic acid and inorganic carbon are progressively enriched in subsurface waters across the shelf, contrary to cross-shelf reductions in heat, salinity and density...
June 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Ana M Biondi, Silvina G Cortese, Lucía Babino, Diana E Fridman
The aim of the present work was to evaluate and compare variations in mineral density (MD) using laser-induced fluorescence (LF) after applying 5% Sodium Fluoride Varnish (Duraphat®), 5% Sodium Fluoride Varnish with Tricalcium Phosphate (Clinpro®) or Casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (Recaldent®) on teeth with Molar Incisor Hypomineralization (MIH). Mineral density of 92 MIH teeth with mild (Mi) and moderate (Mo) lesions was assessed using a DIAGNOdent device (KaVo, Biberach, Germany). LF values were recorded on day 0 (baseline) and on days 15, 30 and 45; the remineralizing agents were applied immediately after LF readings at baseline and on days 15 and 30...
December 2017: Acta Odontológica Latinoamericana: AOL
Alice S Ren, Fei Chai, Huijie Xue, David M Anderson, Francisco P Chavez
A potential consequence of climate change is global decrease in dissolved oxygen at depth in the oceans due to changes in the balance of ventilation, mixing, respiration, and photosynthesis. We present hydrographic cruise observations of declining dissolved oxygen collected along CalCOFI Line 66.7 (Line 67) off of Monterey Bay, in the Central California Current region, and investigate likely mechanisms. Between 1998 and 2013, dissolved oxygen decreased at the mean rate of 1.92 µmol kg-1 year-1 on σθ 26...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Rana Alkattan, Frank Lippert, Qing Tang, George J Eckert, Masatoshi Ando
OBJECTIVES: The objectives were to investigate the hardness and chemical composition of sound, demineralized and pH-cycled bovine enamel and determine their influence on demineralization and remineralization behavior. METHODS: Ninety-four, 5 × 5 × 2-mm bovine enamel specimens were demineralized using three different times [(24 h (n = 33), 48 h (n = 30), 96 h (n = 31)]. The specimens were then pH-cycled using either 367 ppm F sodium fluoride or deionized water...
May 5, 2018: Journal of Dentistry
Lester Lembke-Jene, Ralf Tiedemann, Dirk Nürnberg, Xun Gong, Gerrit Lohmann
The Pacific hosts the largest oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) in the world ocean, which are thought to intensify and expand under future climate change, with significant consequences for marine ecosystems, biogeochemical cycles, and fisheries. At present, no deep ventilation occurs in the North Pacific due to a persistent halocline, but relatively better-oxygenated subsurface North Pacific Intermediate Water (NPIW) mitigates OMZ development in lower latitudes. Over the past decades, instrumental data show decreasing oxygenation in NPIW; however, long-term variations in middepth ventilation are potentially large, obscuring anthropogenic influences against millennial-scale natural background shifts...
May 7, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
You-Min Kim, Dong-Hyun Kim, Chang Weon Song, Seog-Young Yoon, Se-Yeon Kim, Hee Sam Na, Jin Chung, Yong-Il Kim, Yong Hoon Kwon
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanical and biological properties of orthodontic bonding agents containing silver- or zinc-doped bioactive glass (BAG) and determine the antibacterial and remineralization effects of these agents. Methods: BAG was synthesized using the alkali-mediated solgel method. Orthodontic bonding agents containing BAG were prepared by mixing BAG with flowable resin. Transbond™ XT (TXT) and Charmfil™ Flow (CF) were used as controls...
May 2018: Korean Journal of Orthodontics
Tisson V Job, Girish T Narayana, Kishan K Venkappa, K Binu Nathan, Shameem Ahsan, Jayakkodi Harikaran
Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the remineralization potential of three different dentifrices using Raman spectroscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Materials and methods: Totally, 30 extracted intact impacted third molar teeth were selected and the crown of each tooth in a group was separated from the root and longitudinally sectioned into four parts with each section under a subgroup, of which one section was an untreated section, the second and the third sections were demineralized in a demineralizing solution, and the third section was remineralized after demineralization...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
Danilo Augusto de Holanda Ferreira, Carolina Patrícia Aires, Regina Célia Bressan Queiroz De Figueiredo, Frederico Barbosa de Sousa
The amount of organic material in the cariogenic environment correlates with the amount of organic material incorporated in carious enamel. The incorporated organic material may be expected to reduce the pore volumes available for remineralization and resin infiltration, but these expected outcomes have not yet been quantified. We tested the effect of the amount of organic content in the cariogenic agent on remineralization and the resin-occluded pore volume in artificial subsurface enamel caries. An acid gel (organic-rich; G1) and an aqueous solution (organic-poor; G2) were used to induce subsurface lesions in human enamel...
May 3, 2018: Caries Research
P M Pires, T P Santos, A Fonseca-Gonçalves, M M Pithon, R T Lopes, A A Neves
AIM: To test the hypothesis that polyacrylic acid-based and calcium silicate materials are able to increase mineral density of artificially demineralized dentine produced by a microcosm model for caries formation. METHODOLOGY: Forty-five dentine cavities were prepared in 9 sound human third molars (5 in each tooth). Specimens received a bacterial inoculum and were incubated in BHI plus 5% of sucrose for 96h to allow biofilm formation. After that, the specimens were scanned in a high energy micro-CT (baseline stack) and then, each cavity was filled with different cements: zinc polycarboxylate (Poly Zinc™ , Prevest DenPro, Jammu, India), conventional glass ionomer (Ketac Molar, 3M ESPE, Seefeld, Germany) and two calcium silicate based materials (MTA, Angelus, Londrina, Brazil and Biodentine™ , Septodont, Saint Maur des Fosses, France) while the central cavity was filled with utility wax (negative control)...
April 22, 2018: International Endodontic Journal
Manuel Toledano, Raquel Osorio, Estrella Osorio, Inmaculada Cabello, Manuel Toledano-Osorio, Fátima S Aguilera
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the induced changes in the chemical and mechanical performance at the glass-ionomer cement-dentin interface after mechanical load application. METHODS: A conventional glass-ionomer cement (GIC) (Ketac Bond), and a resin-modified glass-ionomer cement (RMGIC) (Vitrebond Plus) were used. Bonded interfaces were stored in simulated body fluid, and then tested or submitted to the mechanical loading challenge. Different loading waveforms were applied: No cycling, 24 h cycled in sine or loaded in sustained hold waveforms...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Dentistry
Jordon D Hemingway, Robert G Hilton, Niels Hovius, Timothy I Eglinton, Negar Haghipour, Lukas Wacker, Meng-Chiang Chen, Valier V Galy
Lithospheric organic carbon ("petrogenic"; OCpetro ) is oxidized during exhumation and subsequent erosion of mountain ranges. This process is a considerable source of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) to the atmosphere over geologic time scales, but the mechanisms that govern oxidation rates in mountain landscapes are poorly constrained. We demonstrate that, on average, 67 ± 11% of the OCpetro initially present in bedrock exhumed from the tropical, rapidly eroding Central Range of Taiwan is oxidized in soils, leading to CO2 emissions of 6...
April 13, 2018: Science
Qian Ren, Zhongcheng Li, Longjiang Ding, Xiuqing Wang, Yumei Niu, Xi Qin, Xuedong Zhou, Linglin Zhang
In this study, we have designed a more clinically powerful anti-caries treatment by applying the amelogenin-derived peptide QP5 to the antibacterial carrier material chitosan in a hydrogel (CS-QP5 hydrogel), and characterized its effects on the inhibition of a cariogenic biofilm and the promotion of the remineralization of the initial caries lesions. The results indicated that the CS-QP5 hydrogel sustainably inhibited the growth of the Streptococcus mutans biofilm, lactic acid production and the metabolic activity over a prolonged period of time...
March 2018: Regenerative Biomaterials
Vivian Leite Martins, Rodrigo Vitoria da Costa Ramos, Max José Pimenta Lima, Roberto Paulo Correia de Araújo, Andrea Nóbrega Cavalcanti
Context: Eroded dentin might present the opening of dentinal tubules, increasing permeability, and consequently dentinal hypersensitivity. Aims: This study evaluated the permeability of dentin surfaces exposed to different levels of erosion and methods of surface protection. Materials and Methods: Dentine samples (3 mm × 3 mm × 1 mm) were prepared from bovine incisors ( n = 90) and divided into three groups according to the method of controlling erosive challenge: Negative control, topical fluoride application, and glass ionomer sealant...
January 2018: Journal of Conservative Dentistry: JCD
Soo-Kyung Jun, Sun-A Yang, You-Jin Kim, Ahmed El-Fiqi, Nandin Mandakhbayar, Duck-Su Kim, Jiyeon Roh, Salvatore Sauro, Hae-Won Kim, Jung-Hwan Lee, Hae-Hyoung Lee
Restoration of hard tissue in conjunction with adhesive is a globally challenging issue in medicine and dentistry. Common clinical therapies involving application of adhesive and substitute material for functional or anatomical recovery are still suboptimal. Biomaterials with bioactivity and inhibitory effects of enzyme-mediated adhesive degradation can render a solution to this. Here, we designed a novel copper-doped bioactive glass nanoparticles (CuBGn) to offer multifunction: metalloproteinases (MMP) deactivation and remineralization and incorporated the CuBGn in resin-dentin adhesive systems, which showed most common failure of MMP mediated adhesive degradation among hard tissue adhesives, to evaluate proposed therapeutic effects...
April 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
Peter Rechmann, Beate M T Rechmann, Richard Kinsel, John D B Featherstone
AIM: Long-term, low-level fluoride concentrations in saliva are highly effective in caries prevention and remineralization. The aim of the present two-phased study was to test whether fluoride-releasing lozenges compared to placebo significantly raise salivary fluoride levels above baseline achieved by 1100 ppm fluoride toothpaste in a double-blind, crossover pilot study. METHODS: In phase 1, a four-arm crossover basic study, four participants used one dissolvable lozenge with ...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Investigative and Clinical Dentistry
Issa Daas, Sherine Badr, Essam Osman
AIM: The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of nano-hydroxyapatite (nano-HAP) paste and fluoride varnish in remineralizing initial enamel lesion in young permanent teeth and their ability to resist secondary caries under dynamic pH cycling quantitatively and qualitatively. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Initial caries-like lesions were artificially developed on 45 specimens. Specimens were divided into three groups: (1) Control (without treatment), (2) fluoride varnish (3M ESPE), and (3) nano-HAP paste (Desensibilize Nano P)...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
Peter Rechmann, Richard Kinsel, John D B Featherstone
In the past, the dental profession has adhered to a rigid tenet: remove decay from a tooth and then restore, a mindset that has been proverbially dubbed as "drill and fill." Today, dental caries is recognized as an infectious disease that affects children and adults throughout life. The philosophy of CAries Management By Risk Assessment, or CAMBRA®, represents a paradigm shift. The CAMBRA concept provides the dentist with scientific, evidence-based solutions with which to approach treatment of dental caries disease...
April 2018: Compendium of Continuing Education in Dentistry
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