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Piyaphong Panpisut, Saad Liaqat, Eleni Zacharaki, Wendy Xia, Haralampos Petridis, Anne Margaret Young
PURPOSE: This study developed light cured dental composites with added monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (MCPM), tristrontium phosphate (TSrP) and antimicrobial polylysine (PLS). The aim was to produce composites that have enhanced water sorption induced expansion, can promote apatite precipitation and release polylysine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Experimental composite formulations consisted of light activated dimethacrylate monomers combined with 80 wt% powder. The powder phase contained a dental glass with and without PLS (2...
2016: PloS One
Patricia M Valdespino-Castillo, Rocío J Alcántara-Hernández, Martín Merino-Ibarra, Javier Alcocer, Miroslav Macek, Octavio A Moreno-Guillén, Luisa I Falcón
Microbes can modulate ecosystem function since they harbor a vast genetic potential for biogeochemical cycling. The spatial and temporal dynamics of this genetic diversity should be acknowledged to establish a link between ecosystem function and community structure. In this study, we analyzed the genetic diversity of bacterial phosphorus utilization genes in two microbial assemblages, microbialites and bacterioplankton of Lake Alchichica, a semiclosed (i.e., endorheic) system with marked seasonality that varies in nutrient conditions, temperature, dissolved oxygen, and water column stability...
October 10, 2016: Microbial Ecology
Xiaowen Wu, Suntharavathanan Mahalingam, Sarah Kay VanOosten, Cate Wisdom, Candan Tamerler, Mohan Edirisinghe
Aligned poly(l-lactide)/poly(methyl methacrylate) binary blend fibers and mats loaded with a chimeric green fluorescence protein having a bioactive peptide with hydroxyapatite binding and mineralization property are prepared by pressurized gyration. The effect of processing parameters on the product morphologies, and the shape memory properties of these samples are investigated. Integration of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles into the fiber assembly is self-directed using the hydroxyapatite-binding property of the peptide genetically engineered to green fluorescence protein...
September 26, 2016: Macromolecular Bioscience
Angelos K Hannides, Robert C Aller
Mucous gels are produced by benthic animals rapidly and in copious amounts, and consequently they are a possible priming substrate whose addition in modest amounts may affect sedimentary organic matter (SOM) remineralization. The priming effect of benthic infaunal mucus was tested using mucus of the common gastropod Neverita duplicata as model substrate. Its composition is typical of marine molluscan mucus, consisting primarily of water (>96% by weight). Salt-free dry weight constitutes 0.7% of total mucus...
September 2016: Limnology and Oceanography
Anne L Soerensen, Amina Traore Schartup, Erik Gustafsson, Bo G Gustafsson, Emma Maria Undeman, Erik Björn
Eutrophication is expanding worldwide, but its implication for production and bioaccumulation of neurotoxic monomethylmercury (MeHg) is unknown. We developed a mercury (Hg) biogeochemical model for the Baltic Sea and used it to investigate the impact of eutrophication on phytoplankton MeHg concentrations. For model evaluation we measured total methylated Hg (MeHgT) in the Baltic Sea and found low concentrations (39±16 fM) above the halocline and high concentrations in anoxic waters (1249±369 fM). To close the Baltic Sea MeHgT budget we inferred an average normoxic water column MeHg production rate of 2×10(-4) d(-1)...
October 5, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Erika Kuramochi, Junko Iizuka, Yoshiharu Mukai
In the present study, we investigated, using micro-Raman spectroscopy (Raman) and transverse microradiography, the influence of bicarbonate [sodium hydrogen carbonate (NaHCO3 )] on the effects of carbonate ions in the mineral phase during demineralization (acid resistance test) of subsurface lesions. Baseline lesions were created by demineralizing bovine enamel, and specimens were then exposed to remineralization solutions containing 0, 5, or 50 mM bicarbonate. Acid resistance tests were performed on remineralized and sound enamel specimens...
October 4, 2016: European Journal of Oral Sciences
Ensanya Ali Abou Neel, Anas Aljabo, Adam Strange, Salwa Ibrahim, Melanie Coathup, Anne M Young, Laurent Bozec, Vivek Mudera
Biomineralization is a dynamic, complex, lifelong process by which living organisms control precipitations of inorganic nanocrystals within organic matrices to form unique hybrid biological tissues, for example, enamel, dentin, cementum, and bone. Understanding the process of mineral deposition is important for the development of treatments for mineralization-related diseases and also for the innovation and development of scaffolds. This review provides a thorough overview of the up-to-date information on the theories describing the possible mechanisms and the factors implicated as agonists and antagonists of mineralization...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Sili Han, Yingying Fan, Zhengli Zhou, Huanxin Tu, Danxue Li, Xueping Lv, Longjiang Ding, Linglin Zhang
OBJECTIVE: An amelogenin-derived peptide has been shown to promote remineralization of demineralized enamel in an in vitro model of initial caries induced by pH cycling. The present study examines whether the peptide exerts similar effects within the complex oral environment in vivo. DESIGN: Specific pathogen-free Sprague-Dawley rats (n=36) were infected with Streptococcus mutans, given ad libitum access to Diet 2000 and drinking water supplemented with sucrose (10%, w/v), and then randomly divided into three groups treated with 25μM peptide solution, 1g/L NaF or deionized water...
September 26, 2016: Archives of Oral Biology
Karim Elhennawy, Falk Schwendicke
OBJECTIVES: We systematically reviewed treatment modalities for MIH-affected molars and incisors. DATA: Trials on humans with ≥1 MIH molar/incisor reporting on various treatments were included. Two authors independently searched and extracted records. Sample-size-weighted annual failure rates were estimated where appropriate. The risk of bias was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. SOURCES: Electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Cochrane CENTRAL, Google Scholar) were screened, and hand searches and cross-referencing performed...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Dentistry
Marnie L Atkins, Isaac R Santos, Damien T Maher
Riverine systems act as important aquatic conduits for carbon transportation between atmospheric, terrestrial and oceanic pools, yet the magnitude of these exports remain poorly constrained. Interconnected creek and river sites (n=28) were sampled on a quarterly basis in three subcatchments of the subtropical Richmond River Catchment (Australia) to investigate spatial and temporal dynamics of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and carbon stable isotope ratios (δ(13)C)...
September 27, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
T De Caluwé, C W J Vercruysse, H A Declercq, D Schaubroeck, R M H Verbeeck, L C Martens
OBJECTIVE: Bioactive glasses (BAG) form, in contrast to formerly used implant materials, a stable bond with tissues, especially bone, when implanted. Nowadays BAGs are often mixed with a cement/composite that hardens in situ to broaden its applications in dentistry or orthopedics. The bioactivity and biocompatibility of possible BAG candidates for BAG-cement/composite development were evaluated. METHODS: Two fluoride containing BAGs were tested: a Na(+)-containing (45S5F), based on the first commercial BAG, and a Na(+)-free BAG (CF9), with a higher Ca(2+) and PO4(3-) content...
September 26, 2016: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
Manuel Toledano, Fátima S Aguilera, Modesto T López-López, Estrella Osorio, Manuel Toledano-Osorio, Raquel Osorio
The aim of this research was to assess the ability of amalgam restorations to induce amorphous mineral precipitation at the caries-affected dentin substrate. Sound and caries-affected dentin surfaces were subjected to both Zn-free and Zn-containing dental amalgam restorations. Specimens were submitted to thermocycling (100,000 cycles/5°C-55°C, 3 months). Dentin surfaces were studied by atomic force microscopy (nanoroughness), X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive analysis, for physical and morphological surface characterization...
September 29, 2016: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Kunneng Liang, Michael D Weir, Xianju Xie, Lin Wang, Mark A Reynolds, Jiyao Li, Hockin H K Xu
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of poly (amido amine) (PAMAM), composite with nanoparticles of amorphous calcium phosphate (NACP), and the combined PAMAM+NACP nanocomposite treatment, on remineralization of demineralized dentin in a cyclic artificial saliva/lactic acid environment for the first time. METHODS: Dentin specimens were prepared and demineralized with 37% phosphoric acid for 15s. Four groups were prepared: (1) dentin control, (2) dentin coated with PAMAM, (3) dentin with NACP composite, (4) dentin with PAMAM+NACP...
September 22, 2016: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
Vaishnavi L Gopalakrishnan, Robert P Anthonappa, Nigel M King, Anut Itthagarun
BACKGROUND: No published studies exist on the remineralizing potential of Tooth Mousse Plus(®) (TMP) when applied for less than 3 min. AIM: To evaluate (i) the remineralizing potential of TMP on artificial carious lesions, when applied thrice daily for 60 s, and (ii) the benefit of using a fluoridated dentifrice prior to TMP application. DESIGN: Carious lesions, 120-200 μm deep, were produced by placing molars in demineralizing solution for 96 h, and sections 100-150 μm thick were then randomly assigned to four groups...
September 23, 2016: International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry
Roza Haghgoo, Motahare Ahmadvand, Sareh Moshaverinia
INTRODUCTION: NovaMin is a synthetic mineral compound composed of calcium, sodium, phosphorus, and silica. It releases crystalline hydroxyl-carbonate apatite (HCA), which structurally resembles the minerals naturally found in the teeth. Nano-hydroxyapatite (NHA) is a biocompatible compound with high affinity for tooth enamel. NHA particles morphologically resemble dental enamel apatite crystals. Considering the efficacy of remineralizing agents and the importance of conservative preventive measures, this study aimed to compare the remin-eralizing effects of NovaMin and NHA on caries-like lesions in primary teeth...
2016: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
Ebru Kucukyilmaz, Selcuk Savas
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of different remineralization agents by quantitative light-induced fluorescence digital BiluminatorTM (QLF-D). METHODS: Artificial caries lesions were created, and the teeth were divided according to the tested materials: (i) distilled water, (ii) acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF), (iii) Curodont Repair (CR), (iv) ammonium hexafluorosilicate (SiF) and (v) ammonium hexafluorosilicate plus cetylpyridinium chloride (SiF + CPC)...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Applied Biomaterials & Functional Materials
Robert C Lee, Michal Staninec, Oanh Le, Daniel Fried
New diagnostic methods are needed for the accurate assessment of caries lesion activity to establish the need for surgical treatment. Detection of the highly mineralized surface layer that forms near the surface of the lesions as a result of remineralization is important for diagnosis of the lesion activity. Previous studies have demonstrated that novel imaging methods can be used to detect remineralization of artificial enamel caries lesions. In this paper, the activity of natural enamel caries lesions was assessed in-vitro via detection of the surface layer with PS-OCT and dehydration rate measurements with NIR reflectance and thermal imaging modalities...
May 2016: IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics
Maki Nakamura, Ayako Oyane, Yoshiki Shimizu, Saori Miyata, Ayumi Saeki, Hirofumi Miyaji
: We achieved rapid, surfactant-free, and one-pot fabrication of antibacterial calcium phosphate (CaP) submicrospheres containing silver nanoparticles by combining physical laser and chemical coprecipitation processes. In this physicochemical process, weak pulsed laser irradiation (20min) was performed on a labile CaP reaction mixture supplemented with silver ions as a light-absorbing agent. The silver content in the submicrospheres was controlled for a wide range (Ag/P elemental ratio varied from 0...
September 15, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
Miho Sugiura, Yuichi Kitasako, Alireza Sadr, Yasushi Shimada, Yasunori Sumi, Junji Tagami
OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of chewing gum containing phosphoryl oligosaccharides of calcium (POs-Ca) and fluoride on white spot lesion (WSL) remineralization in comparison with POs-Ca or placebo (control) chewing gums, in double- blind, randomized, controlled trial. METHODS: Thirty-seven healthy subjects, who had at least one WSL, with an ICDAS score of 2 or 1, were recruited for this study. The subjects were randomly divided into three groups (control, POs-Ca, POs-Ca+F) and chewed two slabs of each gum three times every day for 3 months...
November 2016: Journal of Dentistry
I M Makeeva, M A Polyakova, O E Avdeenko, Yu O Paramonov, S A Kondrat'ev, A A Pilyagina
The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of toothpaste «Apadent Total Care» containing nanocalciumhydroxyapatite and its influence on caries resistance of tooth enamel and teeth sensitivity. The study involved 30 people: 15 patients aged 17-25 years and 15 aged 35-44 years. Study participants used «Apadent Total Care» toothpaste with nanocalciumhydroxyapatite. To evaluate the effectiveness of toothpastes clinical assessment of enamel remineralization rate was carried out, as well as the dynamics of enamel acid resistance and teeth sensitivity (Shiff index)...
2016: Stomatologii︠a︡
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