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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290506/thigh-emphysema-as-the-initial-presentation-of-colon-ischemia
#1
Chin-Chuan Hsu, Ping-Yuan Chen, Chih-Cheng Lai
The incidence of colon ischemia has increased in recent years, and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The typical presentations of colon ischemia include abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea, and in severe case, ileus, fever and peritonitis. Here, we document a rare case of colon ischemia presenting with subcutaneous and intramuscular emphysema of the thigh. A 76-year-old woman presented to the emergency department for left thigh pain for three days. Physical examination revealed tenderness without obvious crepitus, erythema or swelling over the left groin area and a soft abdomen without tenderness...
December 6, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278528/treatment-of-severe-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-a-review
#2
Jason P Burnham, Marin H Kollef
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the salient features of the management of severe skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs), including toxic shock syndrome, myonecrosis/gas gangrene, and necrotizing fasciitis. RECENT FINDINGS: For severe SSTIs, intensive care, source control, and broad-spectrum antimicrobials are required for the initial phase of illness. There is an increasing focus on the utility of rapid diagnostic tests to help in selection and de-escalation of antimicrobials for SSTIs...
December 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246841/immunization-with-a-nontoxic-naturally-occurring-clostridium-perfringens-alpha-toxin-induces-neutralizing-antibodies-in-rabbits
#3
Flávia de Faria Siqueira, Rodrigo Otávio Silveira Silva, Anderson Oliveira do Carmo, Bárbara Bruna Ribeiro de Oliveira Mendes, Carolina Campolina Rebello Horta, Francisco Carlos Faria Lobato, Evanguedes Kalapothakis
Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin, encoded by plc gene, has been implicated in gas gangrene, a life threatening infection. Vaccination is considered one of the best solutions against Clostridium infections. Although studies have identified many low quality clostridial vaccines, the use of recombinant proteins has been considered a promising alternative. Previously, a naturally occurring alpha toxin isoform (αAV1b) was identified with a mutation at residue 11 (His/Tyr), which can affect its enzymatic activity...
December 12, 2017: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246581/combined-therapy-with-gas-gangrene-antitoxin-and-recombinant-human-soluble-thrombomodulin-for-clostridium-perfringens-sepsis-in-a-rat-model
#4
Toru Hifumi, Daisuke Nakano, Joe Chiba, Motohide Takahashi, Akihiko Yamamoto, Yoshihide Fujisawa, Kenya Kawakita, Yasuhiro Kuroda, Akira Nishiyama
Cases of Clostridium perfringens septicemia, such as liver abscess, often develop a rapidly progressive intravascular hemolysis and coagulation; the mortality rate with current standard care including antibiotics and surgery is high. Herein, we firstly investigated the effects of gas gangrene antitoxin (GGA) (antitoxin against C. perfringens) and recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin (rTM) on the hemolysis, coagulation status, inflammatory process, and mortality in α-toxin-treated rats. Male 11-week-old Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups: control group, α-toxin group, GGA group, rTM group, and combined GGA and rTM (combination group)...
December 12, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201151/complete-genome-sequences-of-clostridium-perfringens-del1-strain-isolated-from-chickens-affected-by-necrotic-enteritis
#5
Charles Li, Xianghe Yan, Hyun S Lillehoj
Background: Clostridium perfringens is ubiquitous in nature. It is a normal inhabitant in the intestinal tract of animals and humans. As the primary etiological agent of gas gangrene, necrosis and bacteremia, C. perfringens causes food poisoning, necrotic enteritis (NE), and even death. Epidemiology research has indicated that the increasing incidence of NE in poultry is associated with the withdrawal of in-feed antibiotic growth promoters in poultry production in response to government regulations...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197851/deadly-combination-clostridium-septicum-and-colorectal-malignancy
#6
Carolyn Cullinane, Helen Earley, Shona Tormey
Gas gangrene is a life-threatening, necrotising soft tissue infection. Colorectal malignancy-associated Clostridiumsepticum is a rare cause of gas gangrene. This case outlines an initial presentation of colonic malignancy as gas gangrene from C.septicum infection.A 69-year-old man presented with abdominal pain, vomiting and constipation. Abdominal X-ray revealed dilated small bowel loops. Lactate was elevated. A diagnosis of small bowel obstruction was made. Subsequent CT revealed caecal thickening and subcutaneous emphysema overlying the left flank...
December 2, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186812/biotechnological-applications-of-microbial-per-chlorate-reduction
#7
REVIEW
(no author information available yet)
While the microbial degradation of a chloroxyanion-based herbicide was first observed nearly ninety years ago, only recently have researchers elucidated the underlying mechanisms of perchlorate and chlorate [collectively, (per)chlorate] respiration. Although the obvious application of these metabolisms lies in the bioremediation and attenuation of (per)chlorate in contaminated environments, a diversity of alternative and innovative biotechnological applications has been proposed based on the unique metabolic abilities of dissimilatory (per)chlorate-reducing bacteria (DPRB)...
November 24, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180205/effect-of-transfer-status-on-outcomes-for-necrotizing-soft-tissue-infections
#8
Angela M Ingraham, Hee Soo Jung, Amy E Liepert, Charles Warner-Hillard, Caprice C Greenberg, John E Scarborough
BACKGROUND: Whether patients with necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTI) who presented to under-resourced hospitals are best served by immediate debridement or expedited transfer is unknown. We examined whether interhospital transfer status impacts outcomes of patients requiring emergency debridement for NSTI. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We conducted a retrospective review studying patients with an operative diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis, Fournier's gangrene, or gas gangrene in the 2010-2015 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Participant Use Data Files...
December 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179775/fusobacterium-emphysematous-pyomyositis-with-necrotizing-fasciitis-of-the-leg-presenting-as-compartment-syndrome-a-case-report
#9
Eduardo Smith-Singares, Joseph Adjei Boachie, Izaskun M Iglesias, Leland Jaffe, Adam Goldkind, Eric I Jeng
BACKGROUND: Fusobacterium necrophorum is a common agent of disease in humans, but the occurrence of primary infections outside the head and neck area is extremely rare. While infection with Fusobacterium necrophorum has a rather benign course above the thorax, the organism is capable of producing very severe disease when located in unusual sites, including various forms of septic thrombophlebitis. No infections of the leg have been documented before; thus, antibiotic coverage for Fusobacterium is currently not recommended in this area...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145325/perforated-appendicitis-after-colonoscopy-cause-or-coincidence-a-rare-case-report-and-literature-review
#10
Xiao-Cong Zhou, Chun-Wei Huang, Yan-Yan Dai, Zhi-Yang Huang, Zheng Lou
RATIONALE: Colonoscopy is a relatively safe and common procedure with low risks of complications, and acute appendicitis with perforation is an extremely rare complication of colonoscopy. The current study presents an unusual case of acute gangrenous appendicitis with perforation following a screening colonoscopy. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 73-year-old man presented to our emergency department with lower right abdominal pain 3 days after a routine screening colonoscopy...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096338/liver-abscess-and-sepsis-caused-by-clostridium-perfringens-and-klebsiella-oxytoca
#11
Christoph Paasch, Stefan Wilczek, Martin W Strik
INTRODUCTION: Clostridium (C) perfringens and Klebsiella (K) oxytoca are pathogenous human bacteria. Due to the production of several toxins C. perfringens is virulent by causing i.a. the necrotizing fasciitis, gas gangrene and hepatic abscess. K. oxytoca mostly causes infections of the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We are presenting the case of a male patient at the age of 64, who suffered from nausea and progressive pain in the right upper abdomen...
October 26, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034307/uterine-clostridium-perfringens-infection-related-to-gynecologic-malignancy
#12
Kevin M Kremer, Megan E McDonald, Michael J Goodheart
Uterine gas gangrene caused by Clostridium perfringens is a serious, often life-threatening infection that is rarely encountered in the practice of gynecologic oncology. However, the hypoxic nature of gynecologic cancers due to necrosis and/or prior radiation therapy creates a microenvironment optimal for proliferation of anaerobic bacteria such as the Clostridium species. Early recognition and aggressive treatment with IV antibiotics and surgical debridement remain the cornerstones of management in order to decrease morbidity and mortality...
November 2017: Gynecologic Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993363/rare-postoperative-complication-clostridium-perfringens-septic-shock-following-elective-abdominal-surgery
#13
Michael Bath, Mark McKelvie, Khalid Canna
Postoperative infections are one of the most common complications in general surgery, and while rates have reduced with the routine administration of perioperative antibiotics, around 5% of patients undergoing a surgical procedure will develop an infective complication.(1) The Gram-positive, obligate anaerobe, Clostridium perfringens, is a well-known pathogen that forms part of both the environmental and gastrointestinal flora.(2) While more commonly associated with food poisoning, anaerobic cellulitis and traumatic gas gangrene, rare cases of spontaneous non-traumatic gas gangrene of abdominal viscera have also been recorded...
October 9, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993295/design-synthesis-and-collagenase-inhibitory-activity-of-some-novel-phenylglycine-derivatives-as-metalloproteinase-inhibitors
#14
Ankit Ganeshpurkar, Devendra Kumar, Sushil Kumar Singh
Metalloproteases are a class of proteases having metal ion(s) at their catalytic sites. Bacterial collagenases are involved in human gas gangrene, periodontal diseases, food etc. The Clostridium collagenase occurs in two isoforms COL_G and Col_H. The present work is based on the protein structure-based approach for the development of collagenase inhibitor. The sequence analysis and structural alignment of both isoforms showed significant similarity in active site except aspartate switch present in Col_H. The homology model was developed and validated for Col_H peptidase domain with open aspartate switch followed by the docking of designed ligands...
October 6, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944569/prognostic-factors-and-treatment-outcomes-for-patients-with-fournier-s-gangrene-a-retrospective-study
#15
Kyung Sook Hong, Hee Jung Yi, Ryung-Ah Lee, Kwang Ho Kim, Soon Sup Chung
Fournier's gangrene is a gas-forming, necrotising soft tissue infection affecting the perineum. It spreads rapidly along the deep fascial planes and is associated with a high mortality rate. With a growing elderly population with comorbidities, the frequency of severe cases of Fournier's gangrene is expected to increase. We retrospectively reviewed 20 patients diagnosed with Fournier's gangrene at our institution from 2003 to 2014 and analysed data. Thirteen patients had diabetes mellitus, two had been diagnosed with liver cirrhosis, and four were chronic alcoholics...
September 25, 2017: International Wound Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936381/anal-canal-gas-gangrene-in-aplastic-anaemia-rare-yet-lethal-entity-a-caveat
#16
Sundaramurthi Sudharsanan, Chellappa Vijayakumar, Kumar Manish, T P Elamurugan, Ali S Manwar
Gas gangrene is one of the most serious infections of traumatic and surgical wounds. The importance lies in the fact that, if not managed at the right time, the condition is fatal. Though perianal cellulitis and gangrene are commonly reported in immunocompromised patients, we report the case of a patient with gas gangrene involving only the anal canal extending to the rectum, a rare presentation to be reported in literature.  An 18-year-old lady, a patient of aplastic anaemia - immunodeficiency, developed gas gangrene of the anal canal possibly due to faecal contamination of anal fissures...
July 13, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934314/mode-of-action-of-plectasin-derived-peptides-against-gas-gangrene-associated-clostridium-perfringens-type-a
#17
Xueling Zheng, Xiumin Wang, Da Teng, Ruoyu Mao, Ya Hao, Na Yang, Lifen Zong, Jianhua Wang
NZ2114 and MP1102 are novel plectasin-derived peptides with potent activity against Gram-positive bacteria. The antibacterial characteristics and mechanism of NZ2114 and MP1102 against gas gangrene-associated Clostridium perfringens were studied for the first time. The minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration of NZ2114 and MP1102 against resistant C. perfringens type A strain CVCC 46 were 0.91 μM. Based on the fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) result, an additive or synergic effect was observed between NZ2114 (FICI = 0...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876598/spectrum-of-disease-and-outcome-of-primary-amputation-for-diabetic-foot-sepsis
#18
S Cheddie, C Manneh, H Zulu
BACKGROUND: Guillotine amputation for diabetic foot sepsis followed by an elective refashioning of the stump is regarded as standard practice. Primary amputation is associated with higher reamputation rates. METHOD: A prospective cohort study of 85 patients who underwent surgery for diabetic foot sepsis from 2014 to 2016 at Madadeni Provincial Hospital, KwaZulu-Natal was done. Ethical approval was granted. The Wagner classification (Wag) was used to classify disease severity...
September 2017: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871383/non-clostridial-gas-gangrene-in-a-patient-with-poorly-controlled-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-on-hemodialysis
#19
Ryo Shigemoto, Takatoshi Anno, Fumiko Kawasaki, Shintaro Irie, Masayuki Yamamoto, Shintaro Tokuoka, Hideaki Kaneto, Kohei Kaku, Niro Okimoto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 5, 2017: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798881/scrotal-abscess-drained-by-iatrogenic-urethral-fistula-in-an-adult-diabetic-male
#20
Marco Stizzo, Davide Arcaniolo, Carmelo Quattrone, Raffaele Balsamo, Marco Terribile, Celeste Manfredi, Vincenzo Mirone, Paolo Verze, Marco De Sio
A 46-year-old Caucasian male has been transferred to our urology department with a history of septic fever, uncompensated diabetes, pain, and scrotal swelling. On clinical examination, the left inguinal and scrotal area was swollen, tender, and painful; scrotal MR had been performed, showing the catheter tip in scrotal cavity and presence of gas. The case was diagnosed as scrotal abscess with urethroscrotal fistula. He was successfully treated with scrotal incision, drainage, catheter repositioning under fluoroscopic control, antibiotics, and insulin...
2017: Case Reports in Urology
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