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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722472/fulminant-group-a-streptococcal-infection-without-gangrene-in-the-extremities-analysis-of-five-autopsy-cases
#1
Shu Kato, Motoi Yanazaki, Kino Hayashi, Fumiko Satoh, Ichiro Isobe, Yutaka Tsutsumi
Five autopsy cases of fulminant group A streptococcal infection without gangrene in the extremities are presented. Clinical course of the fulminant illness was short (2-4 days). One pathological autopsy case was aged (86-years-old), and hemorrhagic cystitis was observed. The other four forensic autopsy cases were young (24-38 years-old) with the mean age of 32, and the primary infective lesions were located in the postpartum endometrium, tonsil and bronchus (2 cases). Systemic coccal dissemination with poor neutrophilic reaction was seen in two of five cases...
May 3, 2018: Pathology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718818/use-of-viable-cryopreserved-umbilical-tissue-for-soft-tissue-defects-in-patients-with-gas-gangrene-a-case-series
#2
Kristen McGinness, Dorothy H Kurtz Phelan
INTRODUCTION: Gas gangrene is a rapidly progressive bacterial infection leading to necrosis that usually develops as a result of trauma or postoperative complications. This condition requires early diagnosis with immediate surgical intervention. With a poor prognosis, a high incidence of amputation, and comorbidities such as diabetes and peripheral vascular disease, patients with gas gangrene are put at further risk for surgical complications. OBJECTIVE: This case series reports the clinical outcomes of using a commercially available viable cryopreserved umbilical tissue (vCUT) in the surgical management of 10 patients (9 males, 1 female) with acute lower extremity gas gangrene...
April 2018: Wounds: a Compendium of Clinical Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692527/gangrenous-cholecystitis-analysis-of-imaging-findings-in-histopathologically-confirmed-cases
#3
Binit Sureka, Archana Rastogi, Amar Mukund, Shalini Thapar, Ajeet Singh Bhadoria, Tushar Kanti Chattopadhyay
Purpose: To study the imaging findings in gangrenous acute cholecystitis. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of imaging findings in 31 histopathologically confirmed cases of gangrenous cholecystitis was done. The following imaging findings were analyzed: wall thickness, gallbladder distension, intraluminal membranes, mural striation, edema, wall enhancement, gallstones, gas, pericholecystic fluid, stranding, hemorrhage, hyperaemia in adjacent liver, mucosal/wall irregularity, complications...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Radiology & Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685470/gas-gangrene-of-malignant-mixed-mullerian-tumor-of-ovary-caused-by-clostridium-perfringens
#4
Khrongwong Musikatavorn, Jutamas Saoraya, Tanawat Tarapan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 19, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658485/hyperbaric-oxygen-therapy-its-use-in-medical-emergencies-and-its-development-in-hong-kong
#5
J Ks Leung, R Pk Lam
Hyperbaric oxygen therapy is widely accepted as life-saving treatment for decompression illness. Yet its use in acute carbon monoxide poisoning has remained controversial because of inconsistent findings in clinical trials. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy has an adjunctive role in managing gas gangrene, necrotising soft-tissue infection, and crush injury, as supported by case series. Several cases have been reported in the literature detailing the use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in patients with severe anaemia in whom blood transfusion is not possible...
April 2018: Hong Kong Medical Journal, Xianggang Yi Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588405/concurrent-host-pathogen-transcriptional-responses-in-a-clostridium-perfringens-murine-myonecrosis-infection
#6
Lee-Yean Low, Paul F Harrison, Jodee Gould, David R Powell, Jocelyn M Choo, Samuel C Forster, Ross Chapman, Linden J Gearing, Jackie K Cheung, Paul Hertzog, Julian I Rood
To obtain an insight into host-pathogen interactions in clostridial myonecrosis, we carried out comparative transcriptome analysis of both the bacterium and the host in a murine Clostridium perfringens infection model, which is the first time that such an investigation has been conducted. Analysis of the host transcriptome from infected muscle tissues indicated that many genes were upregulated compared to the results seen with mock-infected mice. These genes were enriched for host defense pathways, including Toll-like receptor (TLR) and Nod-like receptor (NLR) signaling components...
March 27, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571810/the-unusual-presence-of-gas-from-a-puncture-wound-a-case-report
#7
Eric J Roberts, John A Martucci, Daniel Wu
The presence of gas within soft tissues as suggested by plain film radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging is usually sufficient evidence for a gas-producing bacterial infection. A thorough clinical examination and history and tissue culture are necessary to better determine the source of the gas. However, despite the unremarkable physical examination findings, the present case of a plantar puncture wound rapidly developed gas in the tissues and warranted surgical exploration and repair. Delaying treatment in any case of potential gas gangrene can be limb- and life-threatening...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Publication of the American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534840/atraumatic-clostridial-myonecrosis-in-an-immunocompromised-host
#8
Kristine M Thompson, Brian T Kruse, Mary Ann S Hedges
BACKGROUND: Necrotizing fasciitis is usually associated with a surgical or traumatic wound. Clostridial myonecrosis is an uncommon but deadly infection that can develop in the absence of a wound and is often associated with occult gastrointestinal cancer or immunocompromise, or both. CASE REPORT: We report a case of catastrophic atraumatic Clostridium septicum infection in an immunocompromised host. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Emergency physicians most commonly associate necrotizing fasciitis with superinfection of an open wound...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451331/sliding-free-transverse-rectus-abdominis-myocutaneous-flap-for-closure-of-a-massive-abdominal-wall-defect-a-case-report
#9
Annika Senghaas, Thomas Kremer, Volker J Schmidt, Leila Harhaus, Christoph Hirche, Ulrich Kneser, Amir K Bigdeli
Despite considerable advances in reconstructive surgery, massive abdominal wall defects continue to pose a significant surgical challenge. We report the case of a 72-year-old morbidly obese female patient with Clostridium septicum-related gas gangrene of the abdominal wall. After multidisciplinary treatment and multiple extensive debridements, a massive full-thickness defect (40 cm × 35 cm) of the right abdominal wall was present. The abdominal contents were covered with a resorbable mesh to prevent evisceration...
February 16, 2018: Microsurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29385972/gas-gangrene-of-the-eye-endogenous-em-clostridium-perfringens-em-endophthalmitis
#10
Ali S Haider, Harkiran Manku, Peter McCluskey
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 5, 2018: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373309/metabolic-dependent-and-independent-ph-drop-shuts-down-virsr-quorum-sensing-in-clostridium-perfringens
#11
Keika Adachi, Kaori Ohtani, Michio Kawano, Ravindra Pal Singh, Basit Yousuf, Kenji Sonomoto, Tohru Shimizu, Jiro Nakayama
Clostridium perfringens produces various exotoxins and enzymes that cause food poisoning and gas gangrene. The genes involved in virulence are regulated by the agr-like quorum sensing (QS) system, which consists of a QS signal synthesis system and a VirSR two-component regulatory system (VirSR TCS) which is a global regulatory system composed of signal sensor kinase (VirS) and response regulator (VirR). We found that the perfringolysin O gene (pfoA) was transiently expressed during mid-log phase of bacterial growth; its expression was rapidly shut down thereafter, suggesting the existence of a self-quorum quenching (sQQ) system...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290506/thigh-emphysema-as-the-initial-presentation-of-colon-ischemia
#12
Chin-Chuan Hsu, Ping-Yuan Chen, Chih-Cheng Lai
The incidence of colon ischemia has increased in recent years, and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The typical presentations of colon ischemia include abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea, and in severe case, ileus, fever and peritonitis. Here, we document a rare case of colon ischemia presenting with subcutaneous and intramuscular emphysema of the thigh. A 76-year-old woman presented to the emergency department for left thigh pain for three days. Physical examination revealed tenderness without obvious crepitus, erythema or swelling over the left groin area and a soft abdomen without tenderness...
March 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278528/treatment-of-severe-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-a-review
#13
Jason P Burnham, Marin H Kollef
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review the salient features of the management of severe skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs), including toxic shock syndrome, myonecrosis/gas gangrene, and necrotizing fasciitis. RECENT FINDINGS: For severe SSTIs, intensive care, source control, and broad-spectrum antimicrobials are required for the initial phase of illness. There is an increasing focus on the utility of rapid diagnostic tests to help in selection and de-escalation of antimicrobials for SSTIs...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246841/immunization-with-a-nontoxic-naturally-occurring-clostridium-perfringens-alpha-toxin-induces-neutralizing-antibodies-in-rabbits
#14
Flávia de Faria Siqueira, Rodrigo Otávio Silveira Silva, Anderson Oliveira do Carmo, Bárbara Bruna Ribeiro de Oliveira-Mendes, Carolina Campolina Rebello Horta, Francisco Carlos Faria Lobato, Evanguedes Kalapothakis
Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin, encoded by plc gene, has been implicated in gas gangrene, a life threatening infection. Vaccination is considered one of the best solutions against Clostridium infections. Although studies have identified many low quality clostridial vaccines, the use of recombinant proteins has been considered a promising alternative. Previously, a naturally occurring alpha toxin isoform (αAV1b) was identified with a mutation at residue 11 (His/Tyr), which can affect its enzymatic activity...
February 2018: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246581/combined-therapy-with-gas-gangrene-antitoxin-and-recombinant-human-soluble-thrombomodulin-for-clostridium-perfringens-sepsis-in-a-rat-model
#15
Toru Hifumi, Daisuke Nakano, Joe Chiba, Motohide Takahashi, Akihiko Yamamoto, Yoshihide Fujisawa, Kenya Kawakita, Yasuhiro Kuroda, Akira Nishiyama
Cases of Clostridium perfringens septicemia, such as liver abscess, often develop a rapidly progressive intravascular hemolysis and coagulation; the mortality rate with current standard care including antibiotics and surgery is high. Herein, we firstly investigated the effects of gas gangrene antitoxin (GGA) (antitoxin against C. perfringens) and recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin (rTM) on the hemolysis, coagulation status, inflammatory process, and mortality in α-toxin-treated rats. Male 11-week-old Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups: control group, α-toxin group, GGA group, rTM group, and combined GGA and rTM (combination group)...
January 2018: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201151/complete-genome-sequences-of-clostridium-perfringens-del1-strain-isolated-from-chickens-affected-by-necrotic-enteritis
#16
Charles Li, Xianghe Yan, Hyun S Lillehoj
Background: Clostridium perfringens is ubiquitous in nature. It is a normal inhabitant in the intestinal tract of animals and humans. As the primary etiological agent of gas gangrene, necrosis and bacteremia, C. perfringens causes food poisoning, necrotic enteritis (NE), and even death. Epidemiology research has indicated that the increasing incidence of NE in poultry is associated with the withdrawal of in-feed antibiotic growth promoters in poultry production in response to government regulations...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197851/deadly-combination-clostridium-septicum-and-colorectal-malignancy
#17
Carolyn Cullinane, Helen Earley, Shona Tormey
Gas gangrene is a life-threatening, necrotising soft tissue infection. Colorectal malignancy-associated Clostridiumsepticum is a rare cause of gas gangrene. This case outlines an initial presentation of colonic malignancy as gas gangrene from C.septicum infection.A 69-year-old man presented with abdominal pain, vomiting and constipation. Abdominal X-ray revealed dilated small bowel loops. Lactate was elevated. A diagnosis of small bowel obstruction was made. Subsequent CT revealed caecal thickening and subcutaneous emphysema overlying the left flank...
December 2, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186812/biotechnological-applications-of-microbial-per-chlorate-reduction
#18
REVIEW
Ouwei Wang, John D Coates
While the microbial degradation of a chloroxyanion-based herbicide was first observed nearly ninety years ago, only recently have researchers elucidated the underlying mechanisms of perchlorate and chlorate [collectively, (per)chlorate] respiration. Although the obvious application of these metabolisms lies in the bioremediation and attenuation of (per)chlorate in contaminated environments, a diversity of alternative and innovative biotechnological applications has been proposed based on the unique metabolic abilities of dissimilatory (per)chlorate-reducing bacteria (DPRB)...
November 24, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180205/effect-of-transfer-status-on-outcomes-for-necrotizing-soft-tissue-infections
#19
Angela M Ingraham, Hee Soo Jung, Amy E Liepert, Charles Warner-Hillard, Caprice C Greenberg, John E Scarborough
BACKGROUND: Whether patients with necrotizing soft tissue infections (NSTI) who presented to under-resourced hospitals are best served by immediate debridement or expedited transfer is unknown. We examined whether interhospital transfer status impacts outcomes of patients requiring emergency debridement for NSTI. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We conducted a retrospective review studying patients with an operative diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis, Fournier's gangrene, or gas gangrene in the 2010-2015 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program Participant Use Data Files...
December 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179775/fusobacterium-emphysematous-pyomyositis-with-necrotizing-fasciitis-of-the-leg-presenting-as-compartment-syndrome-a-case-report
#20
Eduardo Smith-Singares, Joseph Adjei Boachie, Izaskun M Iglesias, Leland Jaffe, Adam Goldkind, Eric I Jeng
BACKGROUND: Fusobacterium necrophorum is a common agent of disease in humans, but the occurrence of primary infections outside the head and neck area is extremely rare. While infection with Fusobacterium necrophorum has a rather benign course above the thorax, the organism is capable of producing very severe disease when located in unusual sites, including various forms of septic thrombophlebitis. No infections of the leg have been documented before; thus, antibiotic coverage for Fusobacterium is currently not recommended in this area...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Medical Case Reports
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