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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318191/a-fatal-clostridium-perfringens-infection-with-hemolysis-after-chemotherapy-in-an-adolescent
#1
Musa G Kukul, Kısmet Ciki, Eda Karadag-Oncel, Ali B Cengiz, Baris Kuskonmaz, Betul Tavil, Selman Kesici
Gas gangrene, clostridial myonecrosis, is one of the most serious infectious diseases, characterized by rapidly progressive destruction of deep soft tissues and production of gas within the tissues. We presented a case of fatal spontaneous gas gangrene due to Clostridium perfringens in a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia during remission induction chemotherapy phase.
April 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259756/preparation-and-characterization-of-a-human-scfv-against-the-clostridium-perfringens-type-a-alpha-toxin
#2
Dongdong Wang, Yuhuan Yue, Guangmou Wu, Yuan Tian, Yuling Liu, Jia Yu, Yuangang Ji, Jinpeng Wang, Jian Li, Rongrong Pan, Hongyuan Ma, Guoli Zhang
Alpha-toxin produced by Clostridium perfringens is an important virulence factor, causing food poisoning and gas gangrene in humans. As such, it is considered a potential bioterrorism threat. To date, there is still no human effective therapeutic drug against alpha-toxin. In this study, a human single chain antibody against alpha-toxin was produced from synthetic (Tomlinson I + J) naive phage display libraries, and its preventive and therapeutic efficacy in mice was examined. To prove the neutralizing potential of the scFv, alpha-toxin was preincubated with scFv and subsequently tested for its lecithinase and hemolytic activity, as well as its lethal effect in mice following intravenous administration...
March 1, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213749/effect-of-continuous-sub-culturing-on-infectivity-of-clostridium-perfringens-atcc13124-in-mouse-gas-gangrene-model
#3
Ravi Bhushan Kumar, Syed Imteyaz Alam
Clostridium perfringens is a Validated Biological Agent and a pathogen of medical, veterinary, and military significance. Gas gangrene is the most destructive of all the clostridial diseases and is caused by C. perfringens type A strains wherein the infection spreads quickly (several inches per hour) with production of gas. Influence of repeated in vitro cultivation on the infectivity of C. perfringens was investigated by comparing the surface proteins of laboratory strain and repository strains of the bacterium using 2DE-MS approach...
February 17, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104376/lipidomic-profile-of-gm95-cell-death-induced-by-clostridium-perfringens-alpha-toxin
#4
Marco M Manni, Juan G Valero, Miriam Pérez-Cormenzana, Ainara Cano, Cristina Alonso, Félix M Goñi
Clostridium perfringens alpha-toxin (ATX) is considered as a prototype of cytotoxic bacterial phospholipases C, and is the major virulence factor in C. perfringens-induced gas gangrene. It is known that, depending on the dose, ATX causes membrane disruption and cytolysis or only limited hydrolysis of its substrates. In the latter case, toxin activity leads to the unregulated generation of bioactive lipids that can ultimately induce cell death. We have characterized apoptosis and necrosis in highly ATX-sensitive, ganglioside-deficient cells exposed to different concentrations of ATX and we have studied the lipidomic profile of cells treated with ATX as compared to native cells to detect the main changes in the lipidomic profile and the possible involvement of lipid signals in cell death...
January 16, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025502/role-of-p38alpha-beta-map-kinase-in-cell-susceptibility-to-clostridium-sordellii-lethal-toxin-and-clostridium-difficile-toxin-b
#5
Ilona Schelle, Janina Bruening, Mareike Buetepage, Harald Genth
Lethal Toxin from Clostridium sordellii (TcsL), which is casually involved in the toxic shock syndrome and in gas gangrene, enters its target cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis. Inside the cell, TcsL mono-O-glucosylates and thereby inactivates Rac/Cdc42 and Ras subtype GTPases, resulting in actin reorganization and an activation of p38 MAP kinase. While a role of p38 MAP kinase in TcsL-induced cell death is well established, data on a role of p38 MAP kinase in TcsL-induced actin reorganization are not available...
December 22, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869757/clostridium-perfringens-sialidases-potential-contributors-to-intestinal-pathogenesis-and-therapeutic-targets
#6
REVIEW
Jihong Li, Francisco A Uzal, Bruce A McClane
Clostridium perfringens is a major cause of histotoxic and intestinal infections of humans and other animals. This Gram-positive anaerobic bacterium can produce up to three sialidases named NanH, NanI, and NanJ. The role of sialidases in histotoxic infections, such as gas gangrene (clostridial myonecrosis), remains equivocal. However, recent in vitro studies suggest that NanI may contribute to intestinal virulence by upregulating production of some toxins associated with intestinal infection, increasing the binding and activity of some of those toxins, and enhancing adherence of C...
November 19, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865316/soft-tissue-reconstruction-pyramid-for-the-diabetic-charcot-foot
#7
REVIEW
Claire M Capobianco, Thomas Zgonis
Foot and ankle ulcerations in patients with diabetic Charcot neuroarthropathy (DCN) occur frequently and can be challenging to address surgically when conservative care fails. Patients with acute or chronic diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) are at continued risk for development of osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, gas gangrene, and potential lower extremity amputation. Concurrent vasculopathy and peripheral neuropathy as well as uncontrolled medical comorbidities complicate the treatment approach. In addition, pathomechanical forces left untreated may contribute to DFU recurrence in this patient population...
January 2017: Clinics in Podiatric Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27850308/669-combined-therapy-gas-gangrene-antitoxin-and-recombinant-thrombomodulin-for-clostridium-perfringens
#8
Toru Hifumi, Yasuhiro Kuroda, Kenya Kawakita
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770534/clostridial-paraproctitis-with-gas-gangrene-of-front-lateral-abdominal-walls-and-necrotic-fascio-myositis-case-report
#9
N Didbaridze, N Lomidze, T Abuladze, G Qiliptari, T Didbaridze, I Gvasalia, Z Mkervalishvili, N Gogokhia
Anaerobic clostridial infection is the most severe form of paraproctitis. The incubation period is very short, from 3 to 6 hours, sometimes lasting for 1-2 days. Clostridial infection spreads rapidly and induces gas gangrene, causes destruction of cells and other intermediate substances, and impedes blood circulation. This paper presents a case study of an extremely severe form of anaerobic infection with spontaneous gas gangrene, cellulitis, fasciomyositic necrosis, severe intoxication and septic shock on the abdominal front and lateral surfaces...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761196/factitious-disorder-presenting-with-attempted-simulation-of-fournier-s-gangrene
#10
Joseph Tseng, Peter Poullos
Fournier's gangrene is a severe polymicrobial necrotizing fasciitis of the perineal, genital, or perianal regions. The classic presentation is severe pain and swelling with systemic signs. Crepitus and cutaneous necrosis are often seen. Characteristic CT findings include subcutaneous gas and inflammatory stranding. Unless treated aggressively, patients can rapidly become septic and die. Factitious Disorder is the falsification of one's own of medical or psychological signs and symptoms. Many deceptive methods have been described, from falsely reporting physical or psychological symptoms, to manipulating lab tests, or even injecting or ingesting foreign substances in order to induce illness...
September 2016: Journal of Radiology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725448/clostridium-perfringens-%C3%AE-toxin-impairs-lipid-raft-integrity-in-neutrophils
#11
Masaya Takehara, Teruhisa Takagishi, Soshi Seike, Kyohei Oishi, Yoshino Fujihara, Kazuaki Miyamoto, Keiko Kobayashi, Masahiro Nagahama
Clostridium perfringens type A, a Gram-positive, anaerobic bacterium, causes gas gangrene. Recently, we reported that C. perfringens α-toxin blocked neutrophil differentiation in an enzyme activity-dependent manner to impair host innate immunity, which should be crucial for the pathogenesis of C. perfringens. However, the detailed mechanism remains unclear. Lipid rafts have been reported to be platforms for signaling molecules involved in the regulation of cell differentiation in many different cell types...
2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721737/clostridium-septicum-an-unusual-link-to-a-lower-gastrointestinal-bleed
#12
Kegan Jessamy, Fidelis O Ojevwe, Ezinnaya Ubagharaji, Anuj Sharma, Obiajulu Anozie, Christy Ann Gilman, Sekou Rawlins
Clostridium septicum is a highly virulent pathogen which is associated with colorectal malignancy, hematological malignancy, immunosuppression, diabetes mellitus and cyclical neutropenia. Presentation may include disseminated clostridial infection in the form of septicemia, gas gangrene, and mycotic aortic aneurysms. We report the case of a 62-year-old female presenting with necrotizing fasciitis of her left thigh and subsequently developing rectal bleeding. While she was being treated with empiric antibiotics, her blood culture was found to be positive for C...
May 2016: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713042/an-uncommon-cause-of-gas-gangrene
#13
Jiten P Kothadia, Karn Wijarnpreecha, Wuttiporn Manatsathit
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699456/diagnosis-and-management-of-skin-and-soft-tissue-infections-in-the-intensive-care-unit-a-review
#14
REVIEW
Jason P Burnham, John P Kirby, Marin H Kollef
PURPOSE: To review the salient features of the diagnosis and management of the most common skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI). This review focuses on severe SSTIs that require care in an intensive care unit (ICU), including toxic shock syndrome, myonecrosis/gas gangrene, and necrotizing fasciitis. METHODS: Guidelines, expert opinion, and local institutional policies were reviewed. RESULTS: Severe SSTIs are common and their management complex due to regional variation in predominant pathogens and antimicrobial resistance patterns, as well as variations in host immune responses...
December 2016: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637108/the-neat-domain-containing-proteins-of-clostridium-perfringens-bind-heme
#15
Jocelyn M Choo, Jackie K Cheung, Jessica A Wisniewski, David L Steer, Dieter M Bulach, Thomas J Hiscox, Anjana Chakravorty, A Ian Smith, David A Gell, Julian I Rood, Milena M Awad
The ability of a pathogenic bacterium to scavenge iron from its host is important for its growth and survival during an infection. Our studies on C. perfringens gas gangrene strain JIR325, a derivative of strain 13, showed that it is capable of utilizing both human hemoglobin and ferric chloride, but not human holo-transferrin, as an iron source for in vitro growth. Analysis of the C. perfringens strain 13 genome sequence identified a putative heme acquisition system encoded by an iron-regulated surface gene region that we have named the Cht (Clostridium perfringens heme transport) locus...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27590386/radiological-diagnosis-of-gas-gangrene-in-a-fetus-at-term
#16
Kanako Abe, Hiromi Hamada, Yutaka Fujiki, Moe Iiba, Yuri Tenjimbayashi, Hiroyuki Yoshikawa
OBJECTIVE: To report a case of gas gangrene in a fetus at term, which was diagnosed by antenatal computed tomography (CT) imaging. CASE REPORT: A 23-year-old primiparous woman, who did not undergo any prenatal health checks until term, developed hypertension, proteinuria, and clouding of consciousness, and experienced intrauterine fetal death. A single, mature fetus with voluminous gas bubbles was observed on CT, which was consistent with a diagnosis of fetal gas gangrene...
August 2016: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27490157/clostridial-gas-gangrene-of-the-abdominal-wall-after-laparoscopic-cholecystectomy-a-case-report-and-review
#17
Annelieke M K Harmsen, Erik van Tol, Georgios F Giannakopoulos, L Maurits de Brauw
Clostridial gas gangrene is a rare, yet severe, complication after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. We present a case report of a 48-year-old man with obesity, coronary artery disease, and diabetes, who developed clostridial gas gangrene of the abdominal wall after an uncomplicated laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Although the diagnosis was missed initially, successful radical surgical debridement was performed and the patient survived. Pathogenesis, symptoms, prognostic factors, and the best treatment are discussed...
August 2016: Surgical Laparoscopy, Endoscopy & Percutaneous Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27488346/a-case-of-acute-onset-postoperative-gas-gangrene-caused-by-clostridium-perfringens
#18
Tomonori Takazawa, Jou Ohta, Tatsuo Horiuchi, Hiroshi Hinohara, Fumio Kunimoto, Shigeru Saito
BACKGROUND: Gas gangrene is a necrotic infection of soft tissue associated with high mortality rates. We report a case of postoperative gas gangrene with very acute onset and rapid progression of symptoms. To our knowledge, this case is the most acute onset of postoperative gas gangrene ever reported. CASE PRESENTATION: A 65-year-old Japanese female patient developed a shock state 16 h after radical cystectomy with ileal conduit reconstruction. Two days after the operation, she was transferred to the intensive care unit because of deterioration in her respiratory and circulatory condition...
August 3, 2016: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27399773/regulation-of-toxin-production-in-clostridium-perfringens
#19
REVIEW
Kaori Ohtani, Tohru Shimizu
The Gram-positive anaerobic bacterium Clostridium perfringens is widely distributed in nature, especially in soil and the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and animals. C. perfringens causes gas gangrene and food poisoning, and it produces extracellular enzymes and toxins that are thought to act synergistically and contribute to its pathogenesis. A complicated regulatory network of toxin genes has been reported that includes a two-component system for regulatory RNA and cell-cell communication. It is necessary to clarify the global regulatory system of these genes in order to understand and treat the virulence of C...
2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27372177/lacking-the-protective-label-of-diabetes-phenytoin-induced-distal-symmetrical-peripheral-neuropathy-a-clinical-case-report
#20
A M Mahon
This report documents an unusual case of distal symmetrical peripheral neuropathy (DSPN) in an otherwise healthy patient without diabetes mellitus (DM) presenting to a podiatric wound care clinic. The development of gas gangrene coupled with Charcot neuroarthropathic changes ultimately resulted in a potentially life-saving transmetatarsal (TMT) amputation. Causation of, or at least a contributor to, the DSPN was likely phenytoin usage for epileptic seizures. Long-term use of phenytoin can lead to axonal shrinkage and random clusters of nerve demyelination [1]...
November 2016: Journal of Tissue Viability
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