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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/100001003/emergency-management-of-sepsis-the-simple-stuff-saves-lives
#1
David Sweet, Julian Marsden, Kendall Ho, Christina Krause, James A Russell
Many emergency departments have implemented sepsis protocols since the 2001 publication of results from the early goal-directed therapy trial, which showed early targeted resuscitation lowers mortality. As part of an attempt to improve clinical and operational outcomes for emergency departments across British Columbia, we reviewed sepsis management literature and considered sepsis protocol implementation in the province’s emergency departments. During the literature review we found that many observational studies confirmed an association between implementation of emergency sepsis protocols and decreased mortality...
May 2012: BC medical journal: BCMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475214/micro-environment-and-intracellular-metabolism-modulation-of-adipose-tissue-macrophage-polarization-in-relation-to-chronic-inflammatory-diseases
#2
REVIEW
Xiao Zhu, Yixuan Tu, Hainan Chen, Ampadu O Jackson, Vaibhav Patel, Kai Yin
BACKGROUND: The accumulation and pro-inflammatory polarization of immune cells, mainly macrophages, in adipose tissue (AT) are considered crucial factors for obesity-induced chronic inflammatory diseases. SCOPE OF REVIEW: In this review, we highlighted the role of adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) polarization on AT function in the obese state and the effect of the micro-environment and intracellular metabolism on the dynamic switch of ATMs into their pro-inflammatory or anti-inflammatory phenotypes, which may have distinct influences on obesity-related chronic inflammatory diseases...
February 23, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475212/the-effects-of-vitamin-d-supplementation-on-biomarkers-of-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress-among-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#3
Maryam Akbari, Vahidreza Ostadmohammadi, Kamran B Lankarani, Reza Tabrizi, Fariba Kolahdooz, Seyed Taghi Heydari, Seyed Habibollah Kavari, Naghmeh Mirhosseini, Alireza Mafi, Majid Dastorani, Zatollah Asemi
The current systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to summarize the effect of vitamin D supplementation on biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress among women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Cochrane library, Embase, PubMed, and Web of Science database were searched to identify related randomized-controlled articles (RCTs) published up to November 2017. Two researchers assessed study eligibility, extracted data, and evaluated risk of bias of included RCTs, independently...
February 23, 2018: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475203/venous-thromboembolism-and-route-of-delivery-review-of-the-literature
#4
Matheus Schimidt Evangelista, Karina Slompo, Jorge Rufino Ribas Timi
Venous thromboembolism events are important causes of maternal death during pregnancy and the postpartum period worldwide. A review of the literature with the objective of evaluating venous thromboembolism events in the puerperium according to the route of delivery was performed through a bibliographic survey in the Medline, LILACS and Scielo databases. We observed that patients submitted to cesarean sections present a significantly higher risk of developing venous thromboembolism when compared with those who undergo spontaneous vaginal delivery...
February 23, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475199/the-role-of-a-single-dose-of-vancomycin-in-reducing-clinical-sepsis-in-premature-infants-prior-to-removal-of-peripherally-inserted-central-catheter-a-retrospective-study
#5
Vidit Bhargava, Lovya George, Michael Malloy, Rafael Fonseca
OBJECTIVE:  Peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) line removal is associated with bloodstream infections and clinical sepsis. We aim to investigate the role of a single prophylactic dose of vancomycin in decreasing the incidence of central line associated bloodstream infection associated with PICC removal. METHODS:  A retrospective chart review of patients in the neonatal intensive care unit was conducted. Patients were divided into two study groups based on whether a single dose of vancomycin was administered (exposed) or not (nonexposed)...
February 23, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475164/thiazolidinediones-as-antidiabetic-agents-a-critical-review
#6
REVIEW
M J Nanjan, Manal Mohammed, B R Prashantha Kumar, M J N Chandrasekar
Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) or Glitazones are an important class of insulin sensitizers used in the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). TZDs were reported for their antidiabetic effect through antihyperglycemic, hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic agents. In time, these drugs were known to act by increasing the transactivation activity of Peroxisome Proliferators Activated Receptors (PPARs). The clinically used TZDs that suffered from several serious side effects and hence withdrawn/updated later, were full agonists of PPAR-γ and potent insulin sensitizers...
February 12, 2018: Bioorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475153/effects-of-high-heeled-shoes-on-gait-a-review
#7
REVIEW
M M Wiedemeijer, E Otten
BACKGROUND: Walking in high heels (HH) may alter gait in various ways, which may be of importance to designers and physicians. RESEARCH QUESTION: How does walking in high heels alter gait and how can this be explained from a biomechanical and control point of view. METHODS: Relevant literature has been collected in which high heeled walking was studied, after which the results were bundled and interpreted in a framework of biomechanics and control...
February 7, 2018: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475150/thyrotoxicosis-induced-cardiomyopathy-requiring-support-with-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation
#8
REVIEW
Abigail White, Sabin J Bozso, Michael C Moon
PURPOSE: Thyrotoxicosis-induced cardiomyopathy (TCM) is a rare, potentially life-threatening complication requiring extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for temporary mechanical support while a euthyroid state is being achieved. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The current review searched Ovid Medline and PubMed for all relevant studies reported in English from January 1, 1970 to December 31, 2017. We included studies where patients were diagnosed with thyrotoxicosis, eventually deteriorating into TCM, requiring veno-arterial ECMO...
February 3, 2018: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475080/partial-maxillectomy-for-ameloblastoma-of-the-maxilla-with-infratemporal-fossa-involvement-a-combined-endoscopic-endonasal-and-transoral-approach
#9
Anasuya Guha, Libor Hart, Helena Polachova, Martin Chovanec, Petr Schalek
BACKGROUND: Ameloblastoma represents the most common epithelial odontogenic tumor. Because of the proximity of the maxillary tumors to the orbit and skull base, it should be managed as radically as possible. Maxillectomy mainly via the transfacial or transoral approach represents the most common type of surgical procedure. Drawback of these approaches is limited control of the superiomedial extent of the tumour in the paranasal area. We report the use of a combined endoscopic endonasal and transoral approach to manage maxillary plexiform ameloblastoma in a 48 year old male patient...
February 20, 2018: Journal of Stomatology, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475057/evaluation-of-cash-transfer-programs-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-methodological-review
#10
Ebenezer Owusu-Addo, Andre M N Renzaho, Ben J Smith
Cash transfer programs (CTs) have been rigorously evaluated since their inception in the 1990s. However, to date, there has been no study critically examining the utility of the methodological approaches used to evaluate CTs. This article reviews the approaches used to evaluate CTs in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) to provide recommendations for improving future CTs evaluations. We conducted searches for CTs evaluation studies in SSA in the peer-reviewed and grey literature using electronic databases, hand searching of selected journals, organisational websites, Google Scholar and Scirus Internet search engines...
February 14, 2018: Evaluation and Program Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475040/metabo-devo-a-metabolic-perspective-of-development
#11
REVIEW
Lautaro Gándara, Pablo Wappner
In the last years, several reports have established the notion that metabolism is not just a housekeeping process, but instead an active effector of physiological changes. The idea that the metabolic status may rule a wide range of phenomena in cell biology is starting to be broadly accepted. Thus, current developmental biology has begun to describe different ways by which the metabolic profile of the cell and developmental programs of the organism can crosstalk. In this review, we discuss mechanisms by which metabolism impacts on processes governing development...
February 20, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475039/genes-and-micrornas-associated-with-mouse-cleft-palate-a-systematic-review-and-bioinformatics-analysis
#12
Akiko Suzuki, Nada Abdallah, Mona Gajera, Goo Jun, Peilin Jia, Zhongming Zhao, Junichi Iwata
Cleft palate (CP) is the most prevalent craniofacial deformity, with ethnic and geographic variation in prevalence in humans. Mice have been used as an animal model to study the cause(s) of CP by several approaches, including genetic and chemical-induced approaches. Mouse genetic approaches revealed that significant amounts of genes are involved in the CP pathology. The aim of this study was to identify common features of CP-associated genes and to explore the roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) as important post-transcriptional regulators that may be involved in the regulation of CP genes...
February 20, 2018: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475026/results-of-interdisciplinary-management-of-693-patients-with-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-clinical-outcome-and-relevant-prognostic-factors
#13
Muhammad AlMatter, Marta Aguilar Péreza, Pervinder Bhogal, Victoria Hellstern, Oliver Ganslandt, Hans Henkes
OBJECTIVES: Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is associated with high rates of morbidities and fatalities. The continuous evolution of neurosurgical, endovascular and neuro-intensive cares has improved the overall mortality. In this study we sought to evaluate the clinical outcome after aSAH from a single tertiary center. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively identified and reviewed all consecutive patients with aSAH treated at our center between 2007 and 2016...
February 13, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475024/chromatin-dynamics-at-the-core-of-kidney-fibrosis
#14
REVIEW
Björn Tampe, Michael Zeisberg
Progression of chronic kidney disease is a principal challenge in Nephrology, as effective therapies to halt or even reverse established lesion are not available yet. While numerous growth factors and environmental stimuli that drive progression of chronic kidney disease are present within the fibrotic microenvironment, the effector cells' genetic information needs to be accessible in order to enable the pro-fibrotic response. As more than 2 m of DNA encoding the genetic information is crammed as protein-DNA complex called chromatin within the nucleus of each cell, an accessible chromatin state is a prerequisite in the hierarchical order of events to enable production of fibrotic proteins and fibrotic cellular responses...
February 20, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475023/the-multifaceted-roles-of-perlecan-in-fibrosis
#15
REVIEW
Megan S Lord, Fengying Tang, Jelena Rnjak-Kovacina, James G W Smith, James Melrose, John M Whitelock
Perlecan, or heparan sulfate proteoglycan 2 (HSPG2), is a ubiquitous heparan sulfate proteoglycan that has major roles in tissue and organ development and wound healing by orchestrating the binding and signaling of mitogens and morphogens to cells in a temporal and dynamic fashion. In this review, its roles in fibrosis are reviewed by drawing upon evidence from tissue and organ systems that undergo fibrosis as a result of an uncontrolled response to either inflammation or traumatic cellular injury leading to an over production of a collagen-rich extracellular matrix...
February 20, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475020/cancer-survivors-an-expanding-population-with-an-increased-cardiometabolic-risk
#16
REVIEW
Francesco Felicetti, Nicoletta Fortunati, Enrico Brignardello
In the last decades the survival rate of patients diagnosed with cancer - both in childhood and adulthood - significantly improved, leading to a growing number of cancer survivors (CS) within general population. Despite the better survival rate related to the cancer diagnosis, CS show increased mortality and morbidity if compared to non-cancer population, due to the occurrence of health conditions categorized as late effects of previous anticancer treatments. Cardiovascular (CV) diseases are one of the main responsible for this increased morbidity of CS...
February 20, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475004/novel-compounds-targeting-inha-for-tb-therapy
#17
REVIEW
Manaf AlMatar, Essam A Makky, Işıl Var, Begüm Kayar, Fatih Köksal
Tuberculosis (TB) is described as lethal disease in the world. Resistant to TB drugs is the main reason to have unfavourable outcomes in the treatment of TB. Therefore, new agents to replace existing drugs are urgently needed. Previous reports suggested that InhA inhibitors, an enoyl-ACP-reductase, might provide auspicious candidates which can be developed into novel antitubercular agents. In this review, we explain the role of InhA in the resistance of isoniazid. Furthermore, five classes of InhA inhibitors, which display novel binding modes and deliver evidence of their prosperous target engagement, have been debated...
September 21, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475003/neuropathic-pain-models-caused-by-damage-to-central-or-peripheral-nervous-system
#18
REVIEW
Anil Kumar, Harshpreet Kaur, Arti Singh
Neuropathic Pain (NP) is a painful condition which is a direct consequence of a lesion or disease affecting the somatosensory system with symptoms like allodynia, hyperalgesia. It has complex pathogenesis as it involves several molecular signaling pathways, thus numerous reliable animal models are crucial to understand the underlying mechanism of NP and formulate effective management therapy. Some models like spinal cord injury, chronic constriction injury, spinal nerve ligation, chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy, diabetes-induced NP and many more are discussed...
October 2, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474996/considerations-for-exercise-prescription-in-patients-with-bone-metastases-a-comprehensive-narrative-review
#19
REVIEW
Gráinne Sheill, Emer M Guinan, Nicola Peat, Juliette Hussey
Metastatic disease is a frequent complication of advanced cancer, with bone representing one of the most common sites of metastatic occurrence. Patients with bone metastases receive long-term systemic treatments which have a significant attritional impact on muscle strength, fatigue and physical functioning. Physical rehabilitation involving exercise and physical activity prescription has a considerable role in counteracting these changes however exercise is often perceived as a contraindication in the presence of bone metastases due to concerns about aggravating skeletal related events...
February 20, 2018: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29474995/evaluation-of-performance-based-outcome-measures-for-the-upper-limb-a-comprehensive-narrative-review
#20
REVIEW
Sophie Wang, Janice Hsu, Lauren Trent, Tiffany Ryan, Nathan Kearns, Eugene Civillico, Kimberly Kontson
Objective performance-based outcome measures (OMs) have the potential to provide unbiased and reproducible assessments of limb function. However, very few of these performance-based OMs have been validated for upper limb (UL) prosthesis users. OMs validated in other clinical populations (e.g. neurological or musculoskeletal conditions) could be used to fill gaps in existing performance-based OMs for UL amputees. Additionally, a joint review might reveal consistent gaps across multiple clinical populations. Therefore, the objective of this review was to systematically characterize prominent measures utilized in both sets of clinical populations with regard to (1) location of task performance around the body, (2) possible grips employed, (3) bilateral vs...
February 20, 2018: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
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