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David Sweet, Julian Marsden, Kendall Ho, Christina Krause, James A Russell
Many emergency departments have implemented sepsis protocols since the 2001 publication of results from the early goal-directed therapy trial, which showed early targeted resuscitation lowers mortality. As part of an attempt to improve clinical and operational outcomes for emergency departments across British Columbia, we reviewed sepsis management literature and considered sepsis protocol implementation in the province’s emergency departments. During the literature review we found that many observational studies confirmed an association between implementation of emergency sepsis protocols and decreased mortality...
May 2012: BC medical journal: BCMJ
Jennifer Selinski, Renate Scheibe
Malate valves act as powerful systems for balancing the ATP/NAD(P)H ratio required in various subcellular compartments in plant cells. As components of malate valves, isoforms of malate dehydrogenases (MDHs) and dicarboxylate translocators catalyze the reversible interconversion of malate and oxaloacetate and their transport. Depending on the coenzyme specificity of the MDH isoforms, either NADH or NADPH can be transported indirectly. Arabidopsis thaliana possesses nine genes encoding MDH isoenzymes: Activities of NAD-dependent MDHs have been detected in mitochondria, peroxisomes, cytosol and plastids, respectively...
June 22, 2018: Plant Biology
Valeria Filippou, Charalampos Tsoumpas
PURPOSE: Printing technology, capable of producing three-dimensional (3D) objects, has evolved in recent years and provides potential for developing reproducible and sophisticated physical phantoms. 3D printing technology can help rapidly develop relatively low cost phantoms with appropriate complexities, which are useful in imaging or dosimetry measurements. The need for more realistic phantoms is emerging since imaging systems are now capable of acquiring multimodal and multiparametric data...
June 22, 2018: Medical Physics
Karen Croot
Lexical retrieval impairments (also known as anomia or word-finding deficits) are an early and prominent symptom in primary progressive aphasia (PPA), causing distress and frustration to individuals with PPA and their communication partners, and prompting research on lexical retrieval treatment. This paper reviews the research on lexical retrieval treatment in PPA from the earliest reports in the 1990s to early 2018 and considers the implications of this research for clinical practice. The number of published studies has increased markedly over the past decade, consisting primarily of behavioral studies, with rapid recent growth in noninvasive brain stimulation studies...
July 2018: Seminars in Speech and Language
Maya L Henry, Stephanie M Grasso
Speech-language pathologists play a crucial role in the assessment and treatment of individuals with primary progressive aphasia (PPA). The speech-language evaluation is a critical aspect of the diagnostic and rehabilitative process, informing differential diagnosis as well as intervention planning and monitoring of cognitive-linguistic status over time. The evaluation should include a thorough case history and interview and a detailed assessment of speech-language and cognitive functions, with tasks designed to detect core and associated deficits outlined in current diagnostic criteria...
July 2018: Seminars in Speech and Language
H Isabel Hubbard, Sara K Mamo, Tammy Hopper
Hearing loss is common among typically aging older adults and those with dementia. In recent years, there has been a renewed interest in the relationship between hearing and cognition among older adults, and in hearing loss as a modifiable risk factor for dementia. However, relatively less attention has been focused on the management of hearing loss among individuals with dementia and the key roles of speech-language pathologists and audiologists in providing such care. In this article, the authors review the literature on hearing loss and dementia, and analyze the research evidence for treatment of hearing loss in the context of major neurocognitive disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease...
July 2018: Seminars in Speech and Language
Yannick Hurni, Andrea Poretti, Jacques Schneider, Raphael Guzman, Gian Paolo Ramelli
INTRODUCTION:  Hydrocephalus can be progressive or spontaneously arrested. In arrested hydrocephalus, the balance between production and absorption of the cerebrospinal fluid is restored. Patients are mostly asymptomatic, and no surgical treatment is necessary for them. METHODS:  We performed a two-center consecutive case series study, aimed at investigating the safety of nonsurgical management of hydrocephalus in selected pediatric patients. We retrospectively selected all consecutive patients, suspected to suffer from arrested hydrocephalus and referred to our two institutions between January 2011 and December 2013...
June 22, 2018: Neuropediatrics
Sally P Weaver
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Having a research curriculum in addition to hosting a resident research day stimulates research activity in residency programs. Research collaborations outside an individual residency program may also promote research in residency. This paper describes a community-wide health research forum that engages faculty and residents in research while bringing together potential research collaborators from the community. METHODS: A yearly research forum has been held at a large community-based family medicine residency program for the past 10 years...
June 2018: Family Medicine
Bijoy G Rajbanshi, Dikshya Joshi, Sidhartha Pradhan, Navin C Gautam, Rabindra Timala, Urmila Shakya, Apurb Sharma, Gangaram Biswakarma, Jyotindra Sharma
OBJECTIVES: Coarctation of the aorta is known to present with hypertension in older patients; we reviewed our experience and assessed the outcome of hypertension following surgical correction. METHODS: From April 2004 to date, 43 patients above the age of 12 underwent coarctation of the aorta repair. The mean age was 20.4 + 9.7 years (maximum 56 years); 21 (48.8%) were older than 18 years and 28 (65.1%) were men. Thirty (69.8%) patients had hypertension...
June 22, 2018: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
Qiao-Li Wang, Shao-Hua Xie, Wen-Tao Li, Jesper Lagergren
Background: Tobacco smoking strongly increases risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and moderately increases risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma. How smoking cessation influences esophageal cancer risk across histological subtypes, time latencies, and geographic regions is not clear. Methods: Studies were systematically searched on Medline, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Pooled estimates of risk ratios (RRs) were derived using a random effects model...
December 1, 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Denise M Akob, John M Sutton, Janna L Fierst, Karl B Haase, Shaun Baesman, George W Luther, Laurence G Miller, Ronald S Oremland
Acetylene (IUPAC name: ethyne) is a colorless, gaseous hydrocarbon, composed of two triple bonded carbon atoms attached to hydrogens (C2H2). When microbiologists and biogeochemists think of acetylene, they immediately think of its use as an inhibitory compound of certain microbial processes and a tracer for nitrogen fixation. However, what is less widely known is that anaerobic and aerobic microorganisms can degrade acetylene, using it as a sole carbon and energy source and providing the basis of a microbial food web...
August 1, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
Rejane Reich, Eneida Rejane Rabelo-Silva, Simone Marques Dos Santos, Miriam de Abreu Almeida
OBJECTIVE: To map the production of knowledge on vascular access complications in patients undergoing percutaneous procedures in hemodynamic laboratories. METHODS: Scoping review study. The search strategy was developed in three stages, considering the period from July 2005 to July 2015 in the PubMed, CINAHL, Scopus, and LILACS databases. The collected data were analyzed and summarized in a narrative form. RESULTS: One-hundred twenty-eight publications that made it possible to map the contexts of study of complications, occurrence according to access routes, as well as an understanding of diagnosis and clinical management, were included...
June 7, 2018: Revista Gaúcha de Enfermagem
Dâmarys Kohlbeck de Melo Neu Ribeiro, Maria Helena Lenardt, Tânia Maria Lourenço, Susanne Elero Betiolli, Marcia Daniele Seima, Carlos Alberto Guimarães
OBJECTIVES: To analyze in scientific publications how the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) has been employed to evaluate the elderly. METHODS: Integrative review of periodical publications between 2011 and 2015, available online in full-text in Portuguese, English and Spanish. RESULTS: 129 articles were found; after the application of the criteria, they resulted in 21. The studies were categorized into two groups: A) follow or compare scores in FIM (cohort studies, case-control, clinical trials), focusing on rehabilitation, evaluation of programs and changes in the functional level after procedures/interventions; and B) measure/associate the functionality of the elderly (cross-sectional studies), focused on evaluation protocols in elderly health and associations to the caregiver burden, hospital stay, balance, satisfaction with life, cognition and clinical/socio-demographic aspects...
June 7, 2018: Revista Gaúcha de Enfermagem
Elis Martins Ulbrich, Maria de Fátima Mantovani, Ângela Taís Mattei, Felismina Rosa Parreira Mendes
OBJECTIVE: To develop a predictive scale for determining complications in adults with hypertension and actions for care supported in primary care. METHOD: Methodological research developed in the municipality of Curitiba-PR in 2013 and 2014, carried out in two stages, the first through the collection of data from 387 adults with hypertension through a structured interview and anxiety scales, depression, quality of life, medication adherence and social support. The second step was the construction of the scale from the statistically significant variables in the multivariate analysis...
June 7, 2018: Revista Gaúcha de Enfermagem
Janete de Souza Urbanetto, Ana Paula Christo de Freitas, Ana Paula Ribeiro de Oliveira, Jessica de Cassia Ramos Dos Santos, Franciele de Oliveira Minuto Muniz, Renata Martins da Silva, Maria Cristina Lore Schilling
OBJECTIVE: To describe the scientific evidence published in literature regarding the risk factors for the development of phlebitis. METHOD: Integrative literature review with the inclusion of 14 original articles found in the LILACS, Scielo and Pubmed bases from January 2004 to April 2015, analyzed by levels of evidence and frequency, associated factors, degree and treatment of phlebitis. RESULTS: The frequency / incidence / minimum rate of phlebitis was 3% and the maximum was 59...
June 7, 2018: Revista Gaúcha de Enfermagem
Victoria Hemming, Terry V Walshe, Anca M Hanea, Fiona Fidler, Mark A Burgman
INTRODUCTION: Natural resource management uses expert judgement to estimate facts that inform important decisions. Unfortunately, expert judgement is often derived by informal and largely untested protocols, despite evidence that the quality of judgements can be improved with structured approaches. We attribute the lack of uptake of structured protocols to the dearth of illustrative examples that demonstrate how they can be applied within pressing time and resource constraints, while also improving judgements...
2018: PloS One
R B Giesberts, M C van der Steen, P G M Maathuis, A T Besselaar, E E G Hekman, G J Verkerke
BACKGROUND: Clubfeet are commonly treated using the Ponseti method. This method involves weekly manipulation and casting which gradually corrects the position of the foot. However, the reasons for following a weekly interval are not clear. QUESTION / PURPOSE: The aim is to investigate the influence of the cast change interval on treatment outcomes in the Ponseti method. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of comparative studies in which the cast change interval was varied...
2018: PloS One
Hakmin Lee, Sung Il Hwang, Hak Jong Lee, Seok-Soo Byun, Sang Eun Lee, Sung Kyu Hong
OBJECTIVES: Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) has been shown to be an important component of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI). We compared performance of DWI for detection of prostate cancer (PCa) in peripheral zone (PZ) and transition zone (TZ) of prostate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed data of 460 subjects who underwent preoperative 3.0-Tesla mpMRI and subsequently radical prostatectomy. Level of suspicion for PCa was graded using 5-grade Likert-scale from DWI...
2018: PloS One
Mathieu Nacher, Antoine Adenis, Florence Huber, Edouard Hallet, Philippe Abboud, Emilie Mosnier, Bastien Bideau, Christian Marty, Aude Lucarelli, Vanessa Morel, François Lacapère, Loïc Epelboin, Pierre Couppié
BACKGROUND: Given the great efforts put into the strategic objective of reducing the proportion of HIV-infected patients that are undiagnosed, the aim of the present study was to review the temporal trends between 1997 and 2016 for median estimates of infection duration and median CD4 count at diagnosis for the main patient origins in French Guiana. METHODS: CD4 cell count at HIV sero-conversion and square root of CD4 cell decline were obtained using the CD4 decline in a cohort of HIV-infected persons in the UK, fitting random effect (slope and intercept) multilevel linear regression models...
2018: PloS One
Aled Jones, Ben Hannigan, Michael Coffey, Alan Simpson
CONTEXT: In response to political and social factors over the last sixty years mental health systems internationally have endeavoured to transfer the delivery of care from hospitals into community settings. As a result, there has been increased emphasis on the need for better quality care planning and care coordination between hospital services, community services and patients and their informal carers. The aim of this systematic review of international research is to explore which interventions have proved more or less effective in promoting personalized, recovery oriented care planning and coordination for community mental health service users...
2018: PloS One
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