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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/100001003/emergency-management-of-sepsis-the-simple-stuff-saves-lives
#1
David Sweet, Julian Marsden, Kendall Ho, Christina Krause, James A Russell
Many emergency departments have implemented sepsis protocols since the 2001 publication of results from the early goal-directed therapy trial, which showed early targeted resuscitation lowers mortality. As part of an attempt to improve clinical and operational outcomes for emergency departments across British Columbia, we reviewed sepsis management literature and considered sepsis protocol implementation in the province’s emergency departments. During the literature review we found that many observational studies confirmed an association between implementation of emergency sepsis protocols and decreased mortality...
May 2012: BC medical journal: BCMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823143/stent-thrombosis-and-optimal-duration-of-dual-antiplatelet-therapy-after-coronary-stenting-in-contemporary-practice
#2
Min Soo Cho, Duk-Woo Park
The introduction of drug-eluting stents (DES) in the practice of percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has substantially reduced angiographic and clinical restenosis but is associated with an increasing propensity for very late stent thrombosis (ST). Among several clinical, lesion, or procedure-related predictors of ST, early discontinuation of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) is the most important factor for DES-associated late thrombosis; therefore, the optimal duration of DAPT is a major issue to be critically considered in the current DES era...
August 22, 2017: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823142/oncogenes-mitochondrial-metabolism-and-quality-control-in-differentiated-thyroid-cancer
#3
Hyon-Seung Yi, Joon Young Chang, Koon Soon Kim, Minho Shong
Thyroid cancer is one of the most common malignancies of endocrine organs, and its incidence rate has increased steadily over the past several decades. Most differentiated thyroid tumors derived from thyroid epithelial cells exhibit slow-growing cancers, and patients with these tumors can achieve a good prognosis with surgical removal and radioiodine treatment. However, a small proportion of patients present with advanced thyroid cancer and are unusually resistant to current drug treatment modalities. Thyroid tumorigenesis is a complex process that is regulated by the activation of oncogenes, inactivation of tumor suppressors, and alterations in programmed cell death...
August 22, 2017: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823141/targeted-therapy-of-ovarian-cancer-including-immune-check-point-inhibitor
#4
Jin Young Kim, Chi Heum Cho, Hong Suk Song
Epithelial ovarian cancer is the eighth most common cause of cancer-related deaths in women because most patients present with advanced stage disease at the time of diagnosis. Although cytoreductive surgery and platinum-based chemotherapy remain the gold standards of treatment, the recurrence rate of ovarian cancer remains high. Attempts to improve this standard two-drug chemotherapy by adding a third cytotoxic drug have failed to affect either progression-free survival or overall survival and have resulted in an increase in toxic side effects...
August 22, 2017: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823140/pre-existing-arterial-pathologic-changes-affecting-arteriovenous-fistula-patency-and-cardiovascular-mortality-in-hemodialysis-patients
#5
Ja Young Lee, Young Ok Kim
The radiocephalic arteriovenous fistula (AVF) provides optimal vascular access for hemodialysis; it has a higher long-term patency rate and fewer complications than other vascular access methods. However, the AVF has a high primary failure rate. The presence of small-diameter vessels at anastomosis sites is an important risk factor for AVF failure. However, in a recent study, despite selecting an adequate artery and vein for creating an AVF by routine preoperative vascular mapping, AVF maturation and primary failure occurred...
August 22, 2017: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823126/current-status-and-prospective-of-in-feed-additive-antibiotics-in-the-individual-stage-of-the-pork-production
#6
Junyou Li
Antibiotics have long been of great benefit for people, both in the medical treatment of human disease and in animal food that improves the growth performance and feed utilization during animal production. Antibiotics as in-feed supplements affect all stages of pork production, including the gestation, nursing, growing, and finishing stages, although the effects show stage-dependent differences. However, the use of antibiotics in animal feed has become a worldwide concern. This review describes why sub-therapeutic levels of antibiotic additives in animal feed have become an integral part of animal feeding programs for more than 70 years, particularly in pork production...
August 16, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823116/outcomes-of-living-donor-kidney-transplantation-in-diabetic-patients-age-and-sex-matched-comparison-with-non-diabetic-patients
#7
Chung Hee Baek, Hyosang Kim, Seung Don Baek, Mun Jang, Wonhak Kim, Won Seok Yang, Duck Jong Han, Su-Kil Park
Background/Aims: Kidney transplantation (KT) reportedly provides a significant survival advantage over dialysis in diabetic patients. However, KT outcome in diabetic patients compared with that in non-diabetic patients remains controversial. In addition, owing to recent improvements in the outcomes of KT and management of cardiovascular diseases, it is necessary to analyze outcomes of recently performed KT in diabetic patients. Methods: We reviewed all diabetic patients who received living donor KT between January 2008 and December 2011...
August 21, 2017: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823115/identification-of-distinctive-clinical-significance-in-hospitalized-patients-with-endoscopic-duodenal-mucosal-lesions
#8
Yeji Han, Hye-Kyung Jung, Ji Young Chang, Chang Mo Moon, Seong-Eun Kim, Ki-Nam Shim, Sung-Ae Jung, Joo-Young Kim, Ji-Yun Bae, Sae-In Kim, Ji-Hyun Lee, Sanghui Park
Background/Aims: Duodenitis is not infrequent finding in patient undergoing endoscopy. However, hospitalized patients have a higher incidence of secondary duodenal mucosal lesions that might be related with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, tuberculosis, immunologic disorders, or other rare infections. We aimed to identify clinicopathologic features of duodenal mucosal lesions in hospitalized patients. Methods: All hospitalized patients having duodenal mucosal lesions were identified by endoscopic registration data and pathologic data query from 2011 to 2014...
August 21, 2017: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823111/welfare-to-work-interventions-and-their-effects-on-the-mental-and-physical-health-of-lone-parents-and-their-children
#9
REVIEW
Marcia Gibson, Hilary Thomson, Kasia Banas, Vittoria Lutje, Martin J McKee, Susan P Martin, Candida Fenton, Clare Bambra, Lyndal Bond
BACKGROUND: Lone parents in high-income countries have high rates of poverty (including in-work poverty) and poor health. Employment requirements for these parents are increasingly common. 'Welfare-to-work' (WtW) interventions involving financial sanctions and incentives, training, childcare subsidies and lifetime limits on benefit receipt have been used to support or mandate employment among lone parents. These and other interventions that affect employment and income may also affect people's health, and it is important to understand the available evidence on these effects in lone parents...
August 20, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823106/mitochondrial-outer-membrane-permeabilization-a-focus-on-the-role-of-mitochondrial-membrane-structural-organization
#10
REVIEW
Siti Haji Suhaili, Hamed Karimian, Matthew Stellato, Tzong-Hsien Lee, Marie-Isabel Aguilar
Apoptosis is important in regulating cell death turnover and is mediated by the intrinsic and death receptor-based extrinsic pathways which converge at the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) leading to mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP). MOMP results in the release of apoptotic proteins that further activate the downstream pathway of apoptosis. Thus, tight regulation of MOMP is crucial in controlling apoptosis, and a lack of control may lead to tissue and organ malformation and the development of cancers...
August 19, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823105/understanding-peripartum-depression-through-neuroimaging-a-review-of-structural-and-functional-connectivity-and-molecular-imaging-research
#11
REVIEW
Christy Duan, Jessica Cosgrove, Kristina M Deligiannidis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Imaging research has sought to uncover brain structure, function, and metabolism in women with postpartum depression (PPD) as little is known about its underlying pathophysiology. This review discusses the imaging modalities used to date to evaluate postpartum depression and highlights recent findings. RECENT FINDINGS: Altered functional connectivity and activity changes in brain areas implicated in executive functioning and emotion and reward processing have been identified in PPD...
August 19, 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823102/the-etiology-of-primary-hyperhidrosis-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Moshe Hashmonai, Alan E P Cameron, Cliff P Connery, Noel Perin, Peter B Licht
PURPOSE: Primary hyperhidrosis is a pathological disorder of unknown etiology, affecting 0.6-5% of the population, and causing severe functional and social handicaps. As the etiology is unknown, it is not possible to treat the root cause. Recently some differences between affected and non-affected people have been reported. The aim of this review is to summarize these new etiological data. METHODS: Search of the literature was performed in the PubMed/Medline Database and pertinent articles were retrieved and reviewed...
August 19, 2017: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823091/trauma-ptsd-and-the-developing-brain
#13
REVIEW
Ryan J Herringa
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: PTSD in youth is common and debilitating. In contrast to adult PTSD, relatively little is known about the neurobiology of pediatric PTSD, nor how neurodevelopment may be altered. This review summarizes recent neuroimaging studies in pediatric PTSD and discusses implications for future study. RECENT FINDINGS: Pediatric PTSD is characterized by abnormal structure and function in neural circuitry supporting threat processing and emotion regulation...
August 19, 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823085/chromaffin-cells-as-a-model-to-evaluate-mechanisms-of-cell-death-and-neuroprotective-compounds
#14
REVIEW
Cristobal de Los Rios, Maria F Cano-Abad, Mercedes Villarroya, Manuela G López
In this review, we show how chromaffin cells have contributed to evaluate neuroprotective compounds with diverse mechanisms of action. Chromaffin cells are considered paraneurons, as they share many common features with neurons: (i) they synthesize, store, and release neurotransmitters upon stimulation and (ii) they express voltage-dependent calcium, sodium, and potassium channels, in addition to a wide variety of receptors. All these characteristics, together with the fact that primary cultures from bovine adrenal glands or chromaffin cells from the tumor pheochromocytoma cell line PC12 are easy to culture, make them an ideal model to study neurotoxic mechanisms and neuroprotective drugs...
August 19, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823080/the-many-faces-and-phases-of-ceramide-and-sphingomyelin-ii-binary-mixtures
#15
REVIEW
María Laura Fanani, Bruno Maggio
A rather widespread idea on the functional importance of sphingolipids in cell membranes refers to the occurrence of ordered domains enriched in sphingomyelin and ceramide that are largely assumed to exist irrespective of the type of N-acyl chain in the sphingolipid. Ceramides and sphingomyelins are the simplest kind of two-chained sphingolipids and show a variety of species, depending on the fatty acyl chain length, hydroxylation, and unsaturation. Abundant evidences have shown that variations of the N-acyl chain length in ceramides and sphingomyelins markedly affect their phase state, interfacial elasticity, surface topography, electrostatics, and miscibility, and that even the usually conceived "condensed" sphingolipids and many of their mixtures may exhibit liquid-like expanded states...
August 19, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823074/single-anastomosis-duodeno-ileal-switch-sadis-a-systematic-review-of-efficacy-and-safety
#16
Saeed Shoar, Lauren Poliakin, Rebecca Rubenstein, Alan A Saber
BACKGROUND: Owing to the possibility of weight regain after the long-term follow-up of gastric bypass patients and because of the high morbidity of biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch, single-anastomosis duodeno-ileal switch (SADIS) has emerged as a rescue procedure in bariatric surgery. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this review is to summarize the literature data on SADIS. SETTING: University Hospital, NY. METHODS: A comprehensive literature review was performed through October 2016 to identify English studies on SADIS performed in human subjects...
August 19, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823067/combined-classical-spindle-cell-pleomorphic-lipoma-spectrum-imaging-and-clinical-data
#17
Yara Younan, Anthony Martinez, Nickolas Reimer, Mark Edgar, Felix Gonzalez, Monica Umpierrez, Ty Subhawong, Adam D Singer
OBJECTIVES: Compile the largest study to date on the imaging and clinical features of the classic spindle cell/pleomorphic lipoma spectrum and suggest this diagnosis be included in the differential for benign and malignant macroscopic fat-containing soft tissue masses regardless of the mass location or patient demographics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An institutional search was performed to identify all available classic-type spindle cell/pleomorphic lipomas with available demographic and imaging data...
August 19, 2017: Skeletal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823062/treatment-of-retinal-artery-occlusion-using-transluminal-nd-yag-laser-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#18
REVIEW
Vitaly Man, Idan Hecht, Michal Talitman, Assaf Hilely, Mohamad Midlij, Zvia Burgansky-Eliash, Asaf Achiron
AIMS: To review clinical experience, efficacy, and safety of transluminal Nd:YAG laser embolectomy/embolysis (TYE) for retinal artery occlusion. METHODS:  Electronic databases were searched for all published clinical studies and case-reports reporting on TYE in central (CRAO) or branch (BRAO) retinal artery occlusion. Individual patient data was evaluated in a weighted pooled analysis. RESULTS: Sixty-one cases were reported, 47 with BRAO and 14 with CRAO...
August 19, 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823054/recent-advances-in-synthetic-lipopeptides-as-anti-microbial-agents-designs-and-synthetic-approaches
#19
REVIEW
Jun-Jie Koh, Shuimu Lin, Roger W Beuerman, Shouping Liu
Infectious diseases impose serious public health burdens and continue to be a global public health crisis. The treatment of infections caused by multidrug-resistant pathogens is challenging because only a few viable therapeutic options are clinically available. The emergence and risk of drug-resistant superbugs and the dearth of new classes of antibiotics have drawn increasing awareness that we may return to the pre-antibiotic era. To date, lipopeptides have been received considerable attention because of the following properties: They exhibit potent antimicrobial activities against a broad spectrum of pathogens, rapid bactericidal activity and have a different antimicrobial action compared with most of the conventional antibiotics used today and very slow development of drug resistance tendency...
August 19, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823029/experience-of-lung-transplantation-in-patients-with-lymphangioleiomyomatosis-at-a-brazilian-reference-centre
#20
Bruno Guedes Baldi, Marcos Naoyuki Samano, Silvia Vidal Campos, Martina Rodrigues de Oliveira, José Eduardo Afonso Junior, Rafael Medeiros Carraro, Ricardo Henrique Oliveira Braga Teixeira, Isabela Pasqualini Minguini, Roni Burlina, Eduardo Zinoni Silva Pato, Carlos Roberto Ribeiro Carvalho, André Nathan Costa
INTRODUCTION: Lung transplantation (LT) is the standard of care for patients with advanced lung diseases, including lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM). LAM accounts for only 1% of all LTs performed in the international registry. As a result, the global experience, including the use of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors before and after LT in LAM, is still limited. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of all LAM patients who underwent LT at our centre between 2003 and 2016...
August 19, 2017: Lung
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