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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732084/increased-parb-level-affects-expression-of-stress-response-adaptation-and-virulence-operons-and-potentiates-repression-of-promoters-adjacent-to-the-high-affinity-binding-sites-pars3-and-pars4-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#1
Adam Kawalek, Krzysztof Glabski, Aneta Agnieszka Bartosik, Anna Fogtman, Grazyna Jagura-Burdzy
Similarly to its homologs in other bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa partitioning protein ParB facilitates segregation of newly replicated chromosomes. Lack of ParB is not lethal but results in increased frequency of anucleate cells production, longer division time, cell elongation, altered colony morphology and defective swarming and swimming motility. Unlike in other bacteria, inactivation of parB leads to major changes of the transcriptome, suggesting that, directly or indirectly, ParB plays a role in regulation of gene expression in this organism...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730469/optogenetic-control-of-ras-erk-signaling-using-the-phy-pif-system
#2
Alexander G Goglia, Maxwell Z Wilson, Daniel B DiGiorno, Jared E Toettcher
The Ras/Erk signaling pathway plays a central role in diverse cellular processes ranging from development to immune cell activation to neural plasticity to cancer. In recent years, this pathway has been widely studied using live-cell fluorescent biosensors, revealing complex Erk dynamics that arise in many cellular contexts. Yet despite these high-resolution tools for measurement, the field has lacked analogous tools for control over Ras/Erk signaling in live cells. Here, we provide detailed methods for one such tool based on the optical control of Ras activity, which we call "Opto-SOS...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727736/persistent-damaged-bases-in-dna-allow-mutagenic-break-repair-in-escherichia-coli
#3
Jessica M Moore, Raul Correa, Susan M Rosenberg, P J Hastings
Bacteria, yeast and human cancer cells possess mechanisms of mutagenesis upregulated by stress responses. Stress-inducible mutagenesis potentially accelerates adaptation, and may provide important models for mutagenesis that drives cancers, host pathogen interactions, antibiotic resistance and possibly much of evolution generally. In Escherichia coli repair of double-strand breaks (DSBs) becomes mutagenic, using low-fidelity DNA polymerases under the control of the SOS DNA-damage response and RpoS general stress response, which upregulate and allow the action of error-prone DNA polymerases IV (DinB), II and V to make mutations during repair...
July 20, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712131/a-novel-antibacterial-peptide-derived-from-crocodylus-siamensis-hemoglobin-hydrolysate-induces-membrane-permeabilisation-causing-iron-dysregulation-oxidative-stress-and-bacterial-death
#4
J Lueangsakulthai, N Jangpromma, T Temsiripong, J E McKendrick, W Khunkitti, S E Maddocks, S Klaynongsruang
AIMS: A novel antibacterial peptide from Crocodylus siamensis hemoglobin hydrolysate (CHHs) was characterised for antimicrobial activity. METHODS AND RESULTS: CHHs was hydrolysed for 2 h (2h-CHH), 4 h (4h-CHH), 6 h (6h-CHH) and 8 h (8h-CHH). 8h-CHH showed antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at concentrations of 20, 20, 20 and 10 mg ml(-1) (w/v), respectively. Fluorescent microscopy revealed that 8h-CHH had bactericidal activity against E...
July 16, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708867/transcriptome-differences-between-enrofloxacin-resistant-and-enrofloxacin-susceptible-strains-of-aeromonas-hydrophila
#5
Fengjiao Zhu, Zongying Yang, Yiliu Zhang, Kun Hu, Wenhong Fang
Enrofloxacin is the most commonly used antibiotic to control diseases in aquatic animals caused by A. hydrophila. This study conducted de novo transcriptome sequencing and compared the global transcriptomes of enrofloxacin-resistant and enrofloxacin-susceptible strains. We got a total of 4,714 unigenes were assembled. Of these, 4,122 were annotated. A total of 3,280 unigenes were assigned to GO, 3,388 unigenes were classified into Cluster of Orthologous Groups of proteins (COG) using BLAST and BLAST2GO software, and 2,568 were mapped onto pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Gene and Genomes Pathway database...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696262/human-serine-racemase-structure-activity-relationship-studies-provide-mechanistic-insight-and-point-to-position-84-as-a-hotspot-for-%C3%AE-elimination-function
#6
David L Nelson, Gregory A Applegate, Matthew L Beio, Danielle L Graham, David B Berkowitz
There is currently great interest in human serine racemase (hSR), the enzyme responsible for producing the NMDA co-agonist D-serine. Reported correlation of D-serine levels with disorders including Alzheimers disease, ALS and ischemic brain damage (elevated D-serine), and schizophrenia (reduced D-serine) has further piqued this interest. Reported is a structure/activity relationships (SAR) study of position-(S)84, the putative re-face base. In the most extreme case of functional reprogramming, the S84D mutant displays a dramatic reversal of β-elimination substrate specificity in favor of L-serine over the normally preferred L-serine-O-sulfate (L-SOS; ~1200-fold change in kcat/Km ratios) and L-threo-β-hydroxyaspartate (L-THA; ~5000-fold change in kcat/Km ratios) alternative substrates...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689072/nucleolytic-degradation-of-3-ending-overhangs-is-essential-for-dna-end-resection-in-reca-loading-deficient-recb-mutants-of-escherichia-coli
#7
Siniša Ivanković, Dušica Vujaklija, Damir Đermić
Degradation of a 5'-ending strand is the hallmark of the universal process of DNA double strand break (DSB) resection, which results in creation of the central recombination intermediate, a 3'-ending overhang. Here we show that in Escherichia coli recB1080/recB1067 mutants, which are devoid of RecBCD's nuclease and RecA loading activities, degradation of the unwound 3' tail is as essential as is degradation of its 5'-ending complement. Namely, a synergistic action of ExoI, ExoVII, SbcCD and ExoX single-strand specific exonucleases (ssExos) of 3'-5' polarity was essential for preserving cell viability, DNA repair and homologous recombination in the recB1080/recB1067 mutants, to the same extent as the redundant action of 5'-tail trimming ssExos RecJ and ExoVII...
June 27, 2017: DNA Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670935/genetic-damage-induced-by-electronic-waste-leachates-and-contaminated-underground-water-in-two-prokaryotic-systems
#8
Okunola A Alabi, Adekunle A Bakare
The inappropriate and unsafe management practices related to disposal and recycling of electronic wastes in Nigeria has led to environmental and underground water contamination. Reports on the level and type of contamination as well as the possible DNA damage effects of this contamination are insufficient. This study evaluated the DNA damaging potential of e-waste simulated and raw leachates, and its contaminated underground water using the SOS chromotest on Escherichia coli PQ37 and the Ames Salmonella fluctuation test on Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100, without and with metabolic activation...
July 3, 2017: Toxicology Mechanisms and Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630302/new-perspective-on-spring-vegetation-phenology-and-global-climate-change-based-on-tibetan-plateau-tree-ring-data
#9
Bao Yang, Minhui He, Vladimir Shishov, Ivan Tychkov, Eugene Vaganov, Sergio Rossi, Fredrik Charpentier Ljungqvist, Achim Bräuning, Jussi Grießinger
Phenological responses of vegetation to climate, in particular to the ongoing warming trend, have received much attention. However, divergent results from the analyses of remote sensing data have been obtained for the Tibetan Plateau (TP), the world's largest high-elevation region. This study provides a perspective on vegetation phenology shifts during 1960-2014, gained using an innovative approach based on a well-validated, process-based, tree-ring growth model that is independent of temporal changes in technical properties and image quality of remote sensing products...
July 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620855/physicochemical-characteristics-mutagenicity-and-genotoxicity-of-airborne-particles-under-industrial-and-rural-influences-in-northern-lebanon
#10
Pamela N Melki, Frédéric Ledoux, Samer Aouad, Sylvain Billet, Bilal El Khoury, Yann Landkocz, Roula M Abdel-Massih, Dominique Courcot
In this work, the main objectives were to assess the mutagenic and genotoxic effects of fine particulate matter collected in an industrial influenced site in comparison with a non-industrial influenced one (rural site) and to relate the particulate matter (PM) composition to the observed genotoxic effects. At the industrial influenced site, higher concentrations of phosphates, trace metals, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in particles could be related to the contributions of quarries, fertilizer producer, cement plants, and tires burning...
June 15, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618189/comparative-genomics-of-the-dna-damage-inducible-network-in-the-patescibacteria
#11
Miquel Sánchez-Osuna, Jordi Barbé, Ivan Erill
Metagenomics provide unprecedented insights into the genetic diversity of uncultivated bacteria inhabiting natural environments. Recent surveys have uncovered a major radiation of candidate phyla encompassing the Patescibacteria superphylum. Patescibacteria have small genomes and a presumed symbiotic or parasitic lifestyle, but the difficulty in culturing representative members constrains the characterization of behavioral and adaptive traits. Here we combine in silico and in vitro approaches to characterize the SOS transcriptional response to DNA damage in the Patescibacteria superphylum...
June 15, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615362/drugging-the-catalytically-inactive-state-of-ret-kinase-in-ret-rearranged-tumors
#12
Dennis Plenker, Maximilian Riedel, Johannes Brägelmann, Marcel A Dammert, Rakhee Chauhan, Phillip P Knowles, Carina Lorenz, Marina Keul, Mike Bührmann, Oliver Pagel, Verena Tischler, Andreas H Scheel, Daniel Schütte, Yanrui Song, Justina Stark, Florian Mrugalla, Yannic Alber, André Richters, Julian Engel, Frauke Leenders, Johannes M Heuckmann, Jürgen Wolf, Joachim Diebold, Georg Pall, Martin Peifer, Maarten Aerts, Kris Gevaert, René P Zahedi, Reinhard Buettner, Kevan M Shokat, Neil Q McDonald, Stefan M Kast, Oliver Gautschi, Roman K Thomas, Martin L Sos
Oncogenic fusion events have been identified in a broad range of tumors. Among them, RET rearrangements represent distinct and potentially druggable targets that are recurrently found in lung adenocarcinomas. We provide further evidence that current anti-RET drugs may not be potent enough to induce durable responses in such tumors. We report that potent inhibitors, such as AD80 or ponatinib, that stably bind in the DFG-out conformation of RET may overcome these limitations and selectively kill RET-rearranged tumors...
June 14, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614372/intestinal-organoids-model-human-responses-to-infection-by-commensal-and-shiga-toxin-producing-escherichia-coli
#13
Sayali S Karve, Suman Pradhan, Doyle V Ward, Alison A Weiss
Infection with Shiga toxin (Stx) producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 can cause the potentially fatal complication hemolytic uremic syndrome, and currently only supportive therapy is available. Lack of suitable animal models has hindered study of this disease. Induced human intestinal organoids (iHIOs), generated by in vitro differentiation of pluripotent stem cells, represent differentiated human intestinal tissue. We show that iHIOs with addition of human neutrophils can model E. coli intestinal infection and innate cellular responses...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599872/hepatotoxicity-following-systemic-therapy-for-colorectal-liver-metastases-and-the-impact-of-chemotherapy-associated-liver-injury-on-outcomes-after-curative-liver-resection
#14
REVIEW
G Duwe, S Knitter, S Pesthy, A S Beierle, M Bahra, M Schmelzle, R B Schmuck, P Lohneis, N Raschzok, R Öllinger, M Sinn, B Struecker, I M Sauer, J Pratschke, A Andreou
Patients with colorectal liver metastases (CLM) have remarkably benefited from the advances in medical multimodal treatment and surgical techniques over the last two decades leading to significant improvements in long-term survival. More patients are currently undergoing liver resection following neoadjuvant chemotherapy, which has been increasingly established within the framework of curative-indented treatment strategies. However, the use of several cytotoxic agents has been linked to specific liver injuries that not only impair the ability of liver tissue to regenerate but also decrease long-term survival...
May 18, 2017: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591134/global-gene-expression-profiling-and-antibiotic-susceptibility-after-repeated-exposure-to-the-carbon-monoxide-releasing-molecule-2-corm-2-in-multidrug-resistant-esbl-producing-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli
#15
Charlotte Sahlberg Bang, Isak Demirel, Robert Kruse, Katarina Persson
Treatment of urinary tract infections is today a challenge due to the increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant ESBL-producing uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC). There is an urgent need for new treatment strategies for multidrug-resistant UPEC and preferably with targets that have low potential for development of resistance. Carbon monoxide-releasing molecules (CORMs) are novel and potent antibacterial agents. The present study examines the transcriptomic targets of CORM-2 in a multidrug-resistant ESBL-producing UPEC isolate in response to a single exposure to CORM-2 and after repeated exposure to CORM-2...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572812/halophytes-potential-resources-for-salt-stress-tolerance-genes-and-promoters
#16
REVIEW
Avinash Mishra, Bhakti Tanna
Halophytes have demonstrated their capability to thrive under extremely saline conditions and thus considered as one of the best germplasm for saline agriculture. Salinity is a worldwide problem, and the salt-affected areas are increasing day-by-day because of scanty rainfall, poor irrigation system, salt ingression, water contamination, and other environmental factors. The salinity stress tolerance mechanism is a very complex phenomenon, and some pathways are coordinately linked for imparting salinity tolerance...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552980/salt-stress-responsiveness-of-a-wild-cotton-species-gossypium-klotzschianum-based-on-transcriptomic-analysis
#17
Yangyang Wei, Yanchao Xu, Pu Lu, Xingxing Wang, Zhenqing Li, Xiaoyan Cai, Zhongli Zhou, Yuhong Wang, Zhenmei Zhang, Zhongxu Lin, Fang Liu, Kunbo Wang
Cotton is a pioneer of saline land crop, while salt stress still causes its growth inhibition and fiber production decrease. Phenotype identification showed better salt tolerance of a wild diploid cotton species Gossypium klotzschianum. To elucidate the salt-tolerant mechanisms in G. klotzschianum, we firstly detected the changes in hormones, H2O2 and glutathione (GSSH and GSH), then investigated the gene expression pattern of roots and leaves treated with 300 mM NaCl for 0, 3, 12, 48 h, and each time control by RNA-seq on the Illumina-Solexa platform...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549868/the-impact-of-fatigue-on-satisfaction-of-search-in-chest-radiography
#18
Elizabeth A Krupinski, Kevin S Berbaum, Kevin M Schartz, Robert T Caldwell, Mark T Madsen
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: To assess the nature of the satisfaction of search (SOS) effect in chest radiography when observers are fatigued; determine if we could replicate recent findings that have documented the nature of the SOS effect to be due to a threshold shift rather than a change in diagnostic accuracy as in earlier film-based studies. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nearing or at the end of a clinical workday, 20 radiologists read 64 chest images twice, once with and once without the addition of a simulated pulmonary nodule...
May 23, 2017: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546542/low-cesium-rice-mutation-in-ossos2-reduces-radiocesium-in-rice-grains
#19
Satoru Ishikawa, Shimpei Hayashi, Tadashi Abe, Masato Igura, Masato Kuramata, Hachidai Tanikawa, Manaka Iino, Takashi Saito, Yuji Ono, Tetsuya Ishikawa, Shigeto Fujimura, Akitoshi Goto, Hiroki Takagi
In Japan, radiocesium contamination in foods has become of great concern and it is a primary issue to reduce grain radiocesium concentration in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Here, we report a low-cesium rice mutant 1 (lcs1) with the radiocesium concentration in grain about half that in the wild-type cultivar. Genetic analyses revealed that a mutation in OsSOS2, which encodes a serine/threonine-protein kinase required for the salt overly sensitive (SOS) pathway in plants, is responsible for the decreased cesium (Cs) concentrations in lcs1...
May 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542496/zinc-blocks-sos-induced-antibiotic-resistance-via-inhibition-of-reca-in-escherichia-coli
#20
Bryan E Bunnell, Jillian F Escobar, Kirsten L Bair, Mark D Sutton, John K Crane
Zinc inhibits the virulence of diarrheagenic E. coli by inducing the envelope stress response and inhibiting the SOS response. The SOS response is triggered by damage to bacterial DNA. In Shiga-toxigenic E. coli, the SOS response strongly induces the production of Shiga toxins (Stx) and of the bacteriophages that encode the Stx genes. In E. coli, induction of the SOS response is accompanied by a higher mutation rate, called the mutator response, caused by a shift to error-prone DNA polymerases when DNA damage is too severe to be repaired by canonical DNA polymerases...
2017: PloS One
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