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SOS response

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334919/antibiotics-trigger-initiation-of-sccmec-transfer-by-inducing-sos-responses
#1
Pilong Liu, Zhaowei Wu, Huping Xue, Xin Zhao
The rise of antimicrobial resistance limits therapeutic options for infections by methicillin-resistant staphylococci. The staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) is a mobile genetic element as the only carrier of the methicillin-resistance determinants, the mecA or mecC gene. The use of antibiotics increases the spread of antibiotic resistance, but the mechanism by which antibiotics promote horizontal dissemination of SCCmec is largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that many antibiotics, including β-lactams, can induce the expression of ccrC1 and SCCmec excision from the bacterial chromosome...
March 3, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302859/inflammation-boosts-bacteriophage-transfer-between-salmonella-spp
#2
Médéric Diard, Erik Bakkeren, Jeffrey K Cornuault, Kathrin Moor, Annika Hausmann, Mikael E Sellin, Claude Loverdo, Abram Aertsen, Martin Ackermann, Marianne De Paepe, Emma Slack, Wolf-Dietrich Hardt
Bacteriophage transfer (lysogenic conversion) promotes bacterial virulence evolution. There is limited understanding of the factors that determine lysogenic conversion dynamics within infected hosts. A murine Salmonella Typhimurium (STm) diarrhea model was used to study the transfer of SopEΦ, a prophage from STm SL1344, to STm ATCC14028S. Gut inflammation and enteric disease triggered >55% lysogenic conversion of ATCC14028S within 3 days. Without inflammation, SopEΦ transfer was reduced by up to 10(5)-fold...
March 17, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300216/ein3-and-sos2-synergistically-modulate-plant-salt-tolerance
#3
Ruidang Quan, Juan Wang, Dexin Yang, Haiwen Zhang, Zhijin Zhang, Rongfeng Huang
Ethylene biosynthesis and the ethylene signaling pathway regulate plant salt tolerance by activating the expression of downstream target genes such as those related to ROS and Na(+)/K(+) homeostasis. The Salt Overly Sensitive (SOS) pathway regulates Na(+)/K(+) homeostasis in Arabidopsis under salt stress. However, the connection between these two pathways is unclear. Through genetic screening, we identified two sos2 alleles as salt sensitive mutants in the ein3-1 background. Neither Ethylene-Insensitive 2 (EIN2) nor EIN3 changed the expression patterns of SOS genes including SOS1, SOS2, SOS3 and SOS3-like Calcium Binding Protein 8 (SCaBP8), but SOS2 activated the expression of one target gene of EIN3, Ethylene and Salt-inducible ERF 1 (ESE1)...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298904/rna-primer-extension-hinders-dna-synthesis-by-escherichia-coli-mutagenic-dna-polymerase-iv
#4
Tommy F Tashjian, Ida Lin, Verena Belt, Tiziana M Cafarelli, Veronica G Godoy
In Escherichia coli the highly conserved DNA damage regulated dinB gene encodes DNA Polymerase IV (DinB), an error prone specialized DNA polymerase with a central role in stress-induced mutagenesis. Since DinB is the DNA polymerase with the highest intracellular concentrations upon induction of the SOS response, further regulation must exist to maintain genomic stability. Remarkably, we find that DinB DNA synthesis is inherently poor when using an RNA primer compared to a DNA primer, while high fidelity DNA polymerases are known to have no primer preference...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291380/beneficial-rhizobacterium-bacillus-amyloliquefaciens-sqr9-induces-plant-salt-tolerance-through-spermidine-production
#5
Lin Chen, Yunpeng Liu, Gengwei Wu, Nan Zhang, Qi-Rong Shen, Ruifu Zhang
The inoculation of plants with plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) has been an effective strategy for enhancing plant salt tolerance to diminish the loss of agricultural productivity caused by salt stress, but the signal transmitted from bacteria to the plant under salt stress is poorly understood. In this study, the salt tolerance of Arabidopsis thaliana and Zea mays was enhanced by inoculation with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens SQR9. Using dialysis bags with different molecular weight cutoffs, we sorted through the molecules secreted by SQR9 and found that spermidine is responsible for enhancing plant salt tolerance...
March 14, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273172/altering-the-n-terminal-arms-of-the-polymerase-manager-protein-umud-modulates-protein-interactions
#6
David A Murison, Jaylene N Ollivierre, Qiuying Huang, David E Budil, Penny J Beuning
Escherichia coli cells that are exposed to DNA damaging agents invoke the SOS response that involves expression of the umuD gene products, along with more than 50 other genes. Full-length UmuD is expressed as a 139-amino-acid protein, which eventually cleaves its N-terminal 24 amino acids to form UmuD'. The N-terminal arms of UmuD are dynamic and contain recognition sites for multiple partner proteins. Cleavage of UmuD to UmuD' dramatically affects the function of the protein and activates UmuC for translesion synthesis (TLS) by forming DNA Polymerase V...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262820/a-temporal-proteome-dynamics-study-reveals-the-molecular-basis-of-induced-phenotypic-resistance-in-mycobacterium-smegmatis-at-sub-lethal-rifampicin-concentrations
#7
Alexander D Giddey, Elise de Kock, Kehilwe C Nakedi, Shaun Garnett, Andrew J M Nel, Nelson C Soares, Jonathan M Blackburn
In the last 40 years only one new antitubercular drug has been approved, whilst resistance to current drugs, including rifampicin, is spreading. Here, we used the model organism Mycobacterium smegmatis to study mechanisms of phenotypic mycobacterial resistance, employing quantitative mass spectrometry-based proteomics to investigate the temporal effects of sub-lethal concentrations of rifampicin on the mycobacterial proteome at time-points corresponding to early response, onset of bacteriostasis and early recovery...
March 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262707/management-of-e-coli-sister-chromatid-cohesion-in-response-to-genotoxic-stress
#8
Elise Vickridge, Charlene Planchenault, Charlotte Cockram, Isabel Garcia Junceda, Olivier Espéli
Aberrant DNA replication is a major source of the mutations and chromosomal rearrangements associated with pathological disorders. In bacteria, several different DNA lesions are repaired by homologous recombination, a process that involves sister chromatid pairing. Previous work in Escherichia coli has demonstrated that sister chromatid interactions (SCIs) mediated by topological links termed precatenanes, are controlled by topoisomerase IV. In the present work, we demonstrate that during the repair of mitomycin C-induced lesions, topological links are rapidly substituted by an SOS-induced sister chromatid cohesion process involving the RecN protein...
March 6, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259424/long-term-incidence-of-female-specific-cancer-after-bariatric-surgery-or-usual-care-in-the-swedish-obese-subjects-study
#9
Åsa Anveden, Magdalena Taube, Markku Peltonen, Peter Jacobson, Johanna C Andersson-Assarsson, Kajsa Sjöholm, Per-Arne Svensson, Lena M S Carlsson
OBJECTIVE: To examine the long-term effects of bariatric surgery on female-specific cancer in women with obesity. METHODS: The prospective, matched Swedish Obese Subjects (SOS) study was designed to examine outcomes after bariatric surgery. This study includes 1420 women from the SOS cohort that underwent bariatric surgery and 1447 contemporaneously matched controls who received conventional obesity treatment. Age was 37-60years and BMI was ≥38kg/m(2). Information on cancer events was obtained from the Swedish National Cancer Registry...
March 1, 2017: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255536/central-role-of-pi3k-syk-interaction-in-fibrinogen-induced-lamellipodia-and-filopodia-formation-in-platelets
#10
Raghvendra Singh
The WAVE complex-1, a complex of WAVE, Abi1, NAP1, PIR121, HSPC300, RacGTP and Arp2/3 proteins, and WASP complex-1, a complex of WASP, Cdc42, PIP2, and Arp2/3 proteins, are involved in lamellipodia and filopodia formation, respectively. It is known that the two complexes have opposite dynamics. Furthermore, Rac has two guanine nucleotide exchange factors, Vav and Sos, whose role in activating Rac is not well understood. In this work, by the construction of signaling network, analysis, and mathematical modeling, I show that Sos generates a pulse of WAVE complex-1, decreasing the response time of WAVE complex-1 formation upon the stimulation of platelets by fibrinogen...
December 2016: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230857/protein-phosphatase-4-coordinates-glial-membrane-recruitment-and-phagocytic-clearance-of-degenerating-axons-in-drosophila
#11
Lilly M Winfree, Sean D Speese, Mary A Logan
Neuronal damage induced by injury, stroke, or neurodegenerative disease elicits swift immune responses from glial cells, including altered gene expression, directed migration to injury sites, and glial clearance of damaged neurons through phagocytic engulfment. Collectively, these responses hinder further cellular damage, but the mechanisms that underlie these important protective glial reactions are still unclear. Here, we show that the evolutionarily conserved trimeric protein phosphatase 4 (PP4) serine/threonine phosphatase complex is a novel set of factors required for proper glial responses to nerve injury in the adult Drosophila brain...
February 23, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168573/increasing-cocoa-butter-like-lipid-production-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-by-expression-of-selected-cocoa-genes
#12
Yongjun Wei, Michael Gossing, David Bergenholm, Verena Siewers, Jens Nielsen
Cocoa butter (CB) extracted from cocoa beans mainly consists of three different kinds of triacylglycerols (TAGs), 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (POP, C16:0-C18:1-C16:0), 1-palmitoyl-3-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (POS, C16:0-C18:1-C18:0) and 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (SOS, C18:0-C18:1-C18:0), but CB supply is limited. Therefore, CB-like lipids (CBL, which are composed of POP, POS and SOS) are in great demand. Saccharomyces cerevisiae produces TAGs as storage lipids, which are also mainly composed of C16 and C18 fatty acids...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116689/vegetation-phenology-gradients-along-the-west-and-east-coasts-of-greenland-from-2001-to-2015
#13
Mojtaba Karami, Birger Ulf Hansen, Andreas Westergaard-Nielsen, Jakob Abermann, Magnus Lund, Niels Martin Schmidt, Bo Elberling
The objective of this paper is to characterize the spatiotemporal variations of vegetation phenology along latitudinal and altitudinal gradients in Greenland, and to examine local and regional climatic drivers. Time-series from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) were analyzed to obtain various phenological metrics for the period 2001-2015. MODIS-derived land surface temperatures were corrected for the sampling biases caused by cloud cover. Results indicate significant differences between West and East Greenland, in terms of both observed phenology during the study period, as well as the climatic response...
February 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111000/seasonal-variability-of-different-biomarkers-in-mussels-mytilus-galloprovincialis-farmed-at-different-sites-of-the-gulf-of-la-spezia-ligurian-sea-italy
#14
Teresa Balbi, Rita Fabbri, Michele Montagna, Giulia Camisassi, Laura Canesi
Mussels (Mytilus spp.) are worldwide utilized in marine biomonitoring by a multi-biomarker approach. However, for a correct interpretation of different biomarker responses, information is needed on their natural seasonal variability due to environmental/physiological factors. In this work, the seasonal variations of different biomarkers were investigated in M. galloprovincialis from 4 different sites from the gulf of La Spezia (Ligurian sea, Italy), an intensive rearing area in the north-western Mediterranean near La Spezia harbor, an important commercial and touristic port...
January 20, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062853/antibacterial-and-antivirulence-effect-of-6-n-hydroxylaminopurine-in-listeria-monocytogenes
#15
Stefanie Sandra Krajewski, Isabelle Isoz, Jörgen Johansson
The emerging development of antibiotic resistant bacteria calls for novel types of antibacterial agents. In this work we examined the putative antibacterial effect of purine analogs in Listeria monocytogenes We show that, among several tested purine analogs, only 6-N-hydroxylaminopurine (6-N-HAP) reduces the viability of the Gram-positive pathogen Listeria monocytogenes As in Bacillus subtilis, 6-N-HAP terminates expression at guanine riboswitches in L. monocytogenes hence preventing expression of their downstream genes...
January 6, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061766/chemotherapy-induced-sinusoidal-injury-csi-score-a-novel-histologic-assessment-of-chemotherapy-related-hepatic-sinusoidal-injury-in-patients-with-colorectal-liver-metastasis
#16
Heather L Stevenson, Mariana M Prats, Eizaburo Sasatomi
BACKGROUND: Preoperative neoadjuvant therapy for colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) is increasing in use and can lead to chemotherapy-induced damage to sinusoidal integrity, namely sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS). SOS has been associated with an increased need for intraoperative blood transfusions, increased length of hospitalization post-surgery, decreased tumor response, and a shorter overall survival after resection due to liver insufficiency. It is critical for clinicians and pathologists to be aware of this type of liver injury, and for pathologists to include the status of the background, non-neoplastic liver parenchyma in their pathology reports...
January 7, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052848/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-oligoribonuclease-contributes-to-tolerance-to-ciprofloxacin-by-regulating-pyocin-biosynthesis
#17
Fei Chen, Gukui Chen, Yiwei Liu, Yongxin Jin, Zhihui Cheng, Yang Liu, Liang Yang, Shouguang Jin, Weihui Wu
Bacterial oligoribonuclease (Orn) is a conserved 3'-to-5' exonuclease. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, it has been demonstrated that Orn plays a major role in the hydrolysis of pGpG, which is required for cyclic-di-GMP homeostasis. Meanwhile, Orn is involved in the degradation of nanoRNAs, which can alter global gene expression by serving as transcription initiation primers. Previously, we found that Orn is required for the type III secretion system and pathogenesis of P. aeruginosa, indicating a role of Orn in the bacterial response to environmental stimuli...
March 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045041/relaxation-oscillations-and-hierarchy-of-feedbacks-in-mapk-signaling
#18
Marek Kochańczyk, Paweł Kocieniewski, Emilia Kozłowska, Joanna Jaruszewicz-Błońska, Breanne Sparta, Michael Pargett, John G Albeck, William S Hlavacek, Tomasz Lipniacki
We formulated a computational model for a MAPK signaling cascade downstream of the EGF receptor to investigate how interlinked positive and negative feedback loops process EGF signals into ERK pulses of constant amplitude but dose-dependent duration and frequency. A positive feedback loop involving RAS and SOS, which leads to bistability and allows for switch-like responses to inputs, is nested within a negative feedback loop that encompasses RAS and RAF, MEK, and ERK that inhibits SOS via phosphorylation. This negative feedback, operating on a longer time scale, changes switch-like behavior into oscillations having a period of 1 hour or longer...
January 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039103/itraq-based-proteome-analysis-of-fluoroquinolone-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#19
Van Chi Thai, Teck Kwang Lim, Kim Phuong Uyen Le, Qingsong Lin, Thi Thu Hoai Nguyen
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare global protein expression changes during fluoroquinolone (FQ) exposure of Staphylococcus aureus. METHODS: Total protein extracts of wild-type S. aureus ATCC 29213 and six multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains derived from the wild-type under different FQ exposures were analysed using the 8-plex isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) method combined with LC-MS/MS analysis. Differentially expressed proteins were searched for their Gene Ontology (GO) annotation (UniProt database) and protein-protein interaction network (STRING v...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031197/ciprofloxacin-mediated-mutagenesis-is-suppressed-by-subinhibitory-concentrations-of-amikacin-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#20
Estela Ynés Valencia, Fernanda Esposito, Beny Spira, Jesús Blázquez, Rodrigo S Galhardo
Resistance to antibiotics is a global health problem. Activation of the SOS response, and the subsequent elevation in mutagenesis, contributes to the appearance of resistance mutations. Among currently used drugs, quinolones are the most potent inducers of the SOS response. In the present study, we show that amikacin inhibits ciprofloxacin-mediated SOS induction and mutagenesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
March 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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