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SOS response

Oihane Irazoki, Jesús Aranda, Timo Zimmermann, Susana Campoy, Jordi Barbé
In addition to its role in DNA damage repair and recombination, the RecA protein, through its interaction with CheW, is involved in swarming motility, a form of flagella-dependent movement across surfaces. In order to better understand how SOS response modulates swarming, in this work the location of RecA and CheW proteins within the swarming cells has been studied by using super-resolution microscopy. Further, and after in silico docking studies, the specific RecA and CheW regions associated with the RecA-CheW interaction have also been confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis and immunoprecipitation techniques...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Francisco Javier Del Río, Francisco Cabello-Santamaría, Marina A Cabello-García, Jerónimo Aragón-Vela
BACKGROUND: The impact of pain in sexuality, couple relationships and the quality of life is very well known. OBJECTIVES: The relationship between substance abuse and the presence of sexual pain disorder is assessed, together with anxiety and sexual attitudes . METHOD: Two samples were selected. One sample for women with a history of substance abuse (n = 129), and another one of women nonconsumers (n = 129). The Golombok Rust Inventory of Sexual Satisfaction (GRISS), the Sexual Opinion Survey (SOS) and the State Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) questionnaires were used...
October 19, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Ilya A Osterman, Ekaterina S Komarova, Dmitry I Shiryaev, Ilya A Korniltsev, Irina M Khven, Dmitry A Lukyanov, Vadim N Tashlitsky, Marina V Serebryakova, Olga V Efremenkova, Yan A Ivanenkov, Alexey A Bogdanov, Petr V Sergiev, Olga A Dontsova
In order to accelerate drug discovery, a simple, reliable and cost-effective system for high-throughput identification of a potential antibiotic mechanism of action is required. To facilitate such screening of new antibiotics, we created a double reporter system for not only antimicrobial activity detection, but also for simultaneous sorting of potential antimicrobials into those that cause ribosome stalling, and others that induce SOS response due to DNA damage. In this reporter system the red fluorescent protein gene rfp was placed under the control of the SOS-inducible sulA promoter...
October 10, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
John Coutsouvelis, Sharon Avery, Michael Dooley, Carl Kirkpatrick, Andrew Spencer
Sinusoidal obstruction syndrome, previously known as veno-occlusive disease (VOD/SOS), is a complication in patients undergoing haemopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Severe VOD/SOS, including progression to multi-organ failure, has resulted in a mortality of greater than 80%. Defibrotide's varying pharmacological actions, particularly on endothelial cells, make it is a useful agent to consider for prophylaxis and treatment of VOD/SOS. Barriers to its routine use include the high acquisition cost and the fact that neither the oral or parenteral formulations are licensed products in many countries at this time...
September 30, 2016: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Nidhi Bharti, Shiv Shanker Pandey, Deepti Barnawal, Vikas Kumar Patel, Alok Kalra
Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) hold promising future for sustainable agriculture. Here, we demonstrate a carotenoid producing halotolerant PGPR Dietzia natronolimnaea STR1 protecting wheat plants from salt stress by modulating the transcriptional machinery responsible for salinity tolerance in plants. The expression studies confirmed the involvement of ABA-signalling cascade, as TaABARE and TaOPR1 were upregulated in PGPR inoculated plants leading to induction of TaMYB and TaWRKY expression followed by stimulation of expression of a plethora of stress related genes...
October 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
Michael R Gillings
Lateral gene transfer (LGT) has significantly influenced bacterial evolution since the origins of life. It helped bacteria generate flexible, mosaic genomes and enables individual cells to rapidly acquire adaptive phenotypes. In turn, this allowed bacteria to mount strong defenses against human attempts to control their growth. The widespread dissemination of genes conferring resistance to antimicrobial agents has precipitated a crisis for modern medicine. Our actions can promote increased rates of LGT and also provide selective forces to fix such events in bacterial populations...
October 5, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
James P R Connolly, Andrew J Roe
: We recently discovered that exposure of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) to D-serine resulted in accumulation of this unusual amino acid, induction of the SOS regulon and downregulation of type III secretion that is essential for efficient colonization of the host. Here, we have investigated the physiological relevance of this elevated SOS response, which is of particular interest given the presence of Stx-toxin carrying lysogenic prophages on the EHEC chromosome that are activated during the SOS response...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
Brittany Barreto, Elizabeth Rogers, Jun Xia, Ryan L Frisch, Megan Richters, Devon M Fitzgerald, Susan M Rosenberg
: Microbes and human cells possess mechanisms of mutagenesis activated by stress responses. Stress-inducible mutagenesis mechanisms may provide important models for mutagenesis that drives host-pathogen interactions, antibiotic resistance, and possibly much of evolution generally. In Escherichia coli, repair of DNA double-strand breaks is switched to a mutagenic mode, using error-prone DNA polymerases, via the SOS DNA-damage and the general (σ(S)) stress responses. We investigated small RNA (sRNA) clients of Hfq, an RNA chaperone that promotes mutagenic break repair (MBR), and found that GcvB promotes MBR by allowing a robust σ(S) response, achieved via opposing the membrane stress (σ(E)) response...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Bacteriology
Rajko Martinović, Stoimir Kolarević, Margareta Kračun-Kolarević, Jovana Kostić, Sandra Jokanović, Zoran Gačić, Danijela Joksimović, Mirko Đurović, Zoran Kljajić, Branka Vuković-Gačić
This study gives an insight in sensitivity of heart rate (Hr) of Mytilus galloprovincialis as a physiological biomarker. Impact of tributyltin chloride (TBT-Cl) on Hr was studied in parallel with evaluation of mutagenic, genotoxic and cytotoxic potential of TBT-Cl (10, 100 and 1000μg/L) within 96h treatment in static conditions. Mutagenic potential was assessed by SOS/umuC assay while genotoxicity was assessed in haemocytes of M. galloprovincialis by using the comet assay and the micronucleus test. Benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) was used as a positive control...
September 27, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Ashley B Williams, Björn Schumacher
The critical need for species preservation has driven the evolution of mechanisms that integrate stress signals from both exogenous and endogenous sources. Past research has been largely focused on cell-autonomous stress responses; however, recently their systemic outcomes within an organism and their implications at the ecological and species levels have emerged. Maintenance of species depends on the high fidelity transmission of the genome over infinite generations; thus, many pathways exist to monitor and restore the integrity of the genome and to coordinate DNA repair with other cellular processes, such as cell division and growth...
September 26, 2016: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Magali Guffroy, Hadi Falahatpisheh, Kathleen Biddle, John Kreeger, Leslie Obert, Karen Walters, Richard Goldstein, Germaine Boucher, Tim Coskran, William Reagan, Danielle Sullivan, Chunli Huang, Sharon A Sokolowski, Richard Giovanelli, Hans-Peter Gerber, Martin B Finkelstein, Nasir K Khan
PURPOSE: Adverse reactions reported in patients treated with antibody-calicheamicin conjugates such as gemtuzumab ozogamicin (GO, Mylotarg®) and inotuzumab ozogamicin (IO) include thrombocytopenia and sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS). The objective of this experimental work was to investigate the mechanism for thrombocytopenia, characterize the liver injury and identify potential safety biomarkers. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Cynomolgus monkeys were dosed intravenously at 6 mg/m2/dose once every 3 weeks with a non-binding antibody-calicheamicin conjugate (PF-0259) containing the same linker-payload as GO and IO...
September 28, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Andrea Arfè, Lorenza Scotti, Cristina Varas-Lorenzo, Federica Nicotra, Antonella Zambon, Bianca Kollhorst, Tania Schink, Edeltraut Garbe, Ron Herings, Huub Straatman, René Schade, Marco Villa, Silvia Lucchi, Vera Valkhoff, Silvana Romio, Frantz Thiessard, Martijn Schuemie, Antoine Pariente, Miriam Sturkenboom, Giovanni Corrao
OBJECTIVES:  To investigate the cardiovascular safety of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and estimate the risk of hospital admission for heart failure with use of individual NSAIDs. DESIGN:  Nested case-control study. SETTING:  Five population based healthcare databases from four European countries (the Netherlands, Italy, Germany, and the United Kingdom). PARTICIPANTS:  Adult individuals (age ≥18 years) who started NSAID treatment in 2000-10...
September 28, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
G Smirnova, K Bezmaternykh, O Oktyabrsky
AIMS: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) on the susceptibility of growing Escherichia coli to antibiotics. METHODS AND RESULTS: Susceptibility of E. coli to antibiotics in the presence of 20E was estimated by determination of the colony-forming ability and the specific growth rate. Pretreatment with 20E decreased the bactericidal effect of ciprofloxacin (0.3 and 3.0 μg ml(-1) ), streptomycin (10 and 40 μg ml(-1) ) and kanamycin (10 μg ml(-1) ) and increased the bactericidal action of 0...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Alexander Bolsunovsky, Tatiana Frolova, Dmitry Dementyev, Olga Sinitsyna
This study addresses use of two bacterial test systems (the Ames test and the SOS chromotest) to estimate the effects of low doses of γ-radiation. The most substantial increases in induction of SOS response and mutation frequencies were observed in the first 24h of exposure to γ-radiation as compared to the cells in the exposure-free control. Gamma-radiation also impaired growth and survival of S. typhimurium cells in the first 24h. The effects were attenuated at lower exposure doses and at longer exposure times...
September 14, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Keesha E Erickson, Peter B Otoupal, Anushree Chatterjee
The root cause of the antibiotic resistance crisis is the ability of bacteria to evolve resistance to a multitude of antibiotics and other environmental toxins. The regulation of adaptation is difficult to pinpoint due to extensive phenotypic heterogeneity arising during evolution. Here, we investigate the mechanisms underlying general bacterial adaptation by evolving wild-type Escherichia coli populations to dissimilar chemical toxins. We demonstrate the presence of extensive inter- and intrapopulation phenotypic heterogeneity across adapted populations in multiple traits, including minimum inhibitory concentration, growth rate, and lag time...
November 13, 2015: ACS Infectious Diseases
Timothy J Opperman, Steven M Kwasny, Jessica Bo Li, Mark A Lewis, Daniel Aiello, John D Williams, Norton P Peet, Donald T Moir, Terry L Bowlin, Eric C Long
We previously reported the synthesis and biological activity of a series of cationic bis-indoles with potent, broad spectrum antibacterial properties. Here, we describe mechanism of action studies to test the hypothesis that these compounds bind to DNA and that this target plays an important role in their antibacterial outcome. Results reported here indicate that the bis-indoles bind selectively to DNA at A/T rich sites, which is correlated with the inhibition of DNA and RNA synthesis in representative Gram-positive (S...
September 12, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Jason G Glanzer, Jennifer L Endres, Brendan M Byrne, Shengqin Liu, Kenneth W Bayles, Greg G Oakley
OBJECTIVES: The increasing threat of drug-resistant bacteria establishes a continuing need for the development of new strategies to fight infection. We examine the inhibition of the essential single-stranded DNA-binding proteins (SSBs) SSBA and SSBB as a potential antimicrobial therapy due to their importance in DNA replication, activating the SOS response and promoting competence-based mechanisms of resistance by incorporating new DNA. METHODS: Purified recombinant SSBs from Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus anthracis) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Francisella tularensis) bacteria were assessed in a high-throughput screen for inhibition of duplex DNA unwinding by small molecule inhibitors...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Honsoul Kim, Song-Ee Baek, Jieun Mo On, Yun Ho Roh, Narae Lee, Arthur Cho
PURPOSE: Imaging features of sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS), an increasingly common drawback of chemotherapy, were evaluated via 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET/CT). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: This retrospective study was approved by our Institutional Review Board, with a waiver of informed consent. FDG PET/CT studies of 35 patients (male, 24; female, 11; median age, 53.2 years) obtained between January, 2005 and December, 2012 were analyzed before and after systemic chemotherapy...
September 1, 2016: Oncotarget
Lina Sheng, Barbara Rasco, Mei-Jun Zhu
: This study evaluated the inhibitory effect of cinnamon oil against E. coli O157:H7 Shiga toxin (Stx) production and further explored underlying mechanisms. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of cinnamon oil against E. coli O157:H7 were 0.025% and 0.05% (v/v), respectively. Cinnamon oil significantly reduced Stx2 production and stx2 mRNA expression associated with diminished Vero cell cytotoxicity. Consistently, the Stx-converting phage where the stx2 gene is located along with the total number of phages was decreased proportionally to cinnamon oil concentration...
September 2, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Clare L Kirkpatrick, Daniel Martins, Peter Redder, Antonio Frandi, Johann Mignolet, Julien Bortoli Chapalay, Marc Chambon, Gerardo Turcatti, Patrick H Viollier
Bacterial toxin-antitoxin systems (TASs) are thought to respond to various stresses, often inducing growth-arrested (persistent) sub-populations of cells whose housekeeping functions are inhibited. Many such TASs induce this effect through the translation-dependent RNA cleavage (RNase) activity of their toxins, which are held in check by their cognate antitoxins in the absence of stress. However, it is not always clear whether specific mRNA targets of orthologous RNase toxins are responsible for their phenotypic effect, which has made it difficult to accurately place the multitude of TASs within cellular and adaptive regulatory networks...
2016: Nature Microbiology
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