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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230857/protein-phosphatase-4-coordinates-glial-membrane-recruitment-and-phagocytic-clearance-of-degenerating-axons-in-drosophila
#1
Lilly M Winfree, Sean D Speese, Mary A Logan
Neuronal damage induced by injury, stroke, or neurodegenerative disease elicits swift immune responses from glial cells, including altered gene expression, directed migration to injury sites, and glial clearance of damaged neurons through phagocytic engulfment. Collectively, these responses hinder further cellular damage, but the mechanisms that underlie these important protective glial reactions are still unclear. Here, we show that the evolutionarily conserved trimeric protein phosphatase 4 (PP4) serine/threonine phosphatase complex is a novel set of factors required for proper glial responses to nerve injury in the adult Drosophila brain...
February 23, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168573/increasing-cocoa-butter-like-lipid-production-of-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-by-expression-of-selected-cocoa-genes
#2
Yongjun Wei, Michael Gossing, David Bergenholm, Verena Siewers, Jens Nielsen
Cocoa butter (CB) extracted from cocoa beans mainly consists of three different kinds of triacylglycerols (TAGs), 1,3-dipalmitoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (POP, C16:0-C18:1-C16:0), 1-palmitoyl-3-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (POS, C16:0-C18:1-C18:0) and 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol (SOS, C18:0-C18:1-C18:0), but CB supply is limited. Therefore, CB-like lipids (CBL, which are composed of POP, POS and SOS) are in great demand. Saccharomyces cerevisiae produces TAGs as storage lipids, which are also mainly composed of C16 and C18 fatty acids...
December 2017: AMB Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116689/vegetation-phenology-gradients-along-the-west-and-east-coasts-of-greenland-from-2001-to-2015
#3
Mojtaba Karami, Birger Ulf Hansen, Andreas Westergaard-Nielsen, Jakob Abermann, Magnus Lund, Niels Martin Schmidt, Bo Elberling
The objective of this paper is to characterize the spatiotemporal variations of vegetation phenology along latitudinal and altitudinal gradients in Greenland, and to examine local and regional climatic drivers. Time-series from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) were analyzed to obtain various phenological metrics for the period 2001-2015. MODIS-derived land surface temperatures were corrected for the sampling biases caused by cloud cover. Results indicate significant differences between West and East Greenland, in terms of both observed phenology during the study period, as well as the climatic response...
February 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111000/seasonal-variability-of-different-biomarkers-in-mussels-mytilus-galloprovincialis-farmed-at-different-sites-of-the-gulf-of-la-spezia-ligurian-sea-italy
#4
Teresa Balbi, Rita Fabbri, Michele Montagna, Giulia Camisassi, Laura Canesi
Mussels (Mytilus spp.) are worldwide utilized in marine biomonitoring by a multi-biomarker approach. However, for a correct interpretation of different biomarker responses, information is needed on their natural seasonal variability due to environmental/physiological factors. In this work, the seasonal variations of different biomarkers were investigated in M. galloprovincialis from 4 different sites from the gulf of La Spezia (Ligurian sea, Italy), an intensive rearing area in the north-western Mediterranean near La Spezia harbor, an important commercial and touristic port...
January 20, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062853/antibacterial-and-antivirulence-effect-of-6-n-hydroxylaminopurine-in-listeria-monocytogenes
#5
Stefanie Sandra Krajewski, Isabelle Isoz, Jörgen Johansson
The emerging development of antibiotic resistant bacteria calls for novel types of antibacterial agents. In this work we examined the putative antibacterial effect of purine analogs in Listeria monocytogenes We show that, among several tested purine analogs, only 6-N-hydroxylaminopurine (6-N-HAP) reduces the viability of the Gram-positive pathogen Listeria monocytogenes As in Bacillus subtilis, 6-N-HAP terminates expression at guanine riboswitches in L. monocytogenes hence preventing expression of their downstream genes...
January 6, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061766/chemotherapy-induced-sinusoidal-injury-csi-score-a-novel-histologic-assessment-of-chemotherapy-related-hepatic-sinusoidal-injury-in-patients-with-colorectal-liver-metastasis
#6
Heather L Stevenson, Mariana M Prats, Eizaburo Sasatomi
BACKGROUND: Preoperative neoadjuvant therapy for colorectal liver metastases (CRLM) is increasing in use and can lead to chemotherapy-induced damage to sinusoidal integrity, namely sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS). SOS has been associated with an increased need for intraoperative blood transfusions, increased length of hospitalization post-surgery, decreased tumor response, and a shorter overall survival after resection due to liver insufficiency. It is critical for clinicians and pathologists to be aware of this type of liver injury, and for pathologists to include the status of the background, non-neoplastic liver parenchyma in their pathology reports...
January 7, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052848/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-oligoribonuclease-contributes-to-tolerance-to-ciprofloxacin-by-regulating-pyocin-biosynthesis
#7
Fei Chen, Gukui Chen, Yiwei Liu, Yongxin Jin, Zhihui Cheng, Yang Liu, Liang Yang, Shouguang Jin, Weihui Wu
Bacterial oligoribonuclease (Orn) is a conserved 3'-to-5' exonuclease. In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, it has been demonstrated that Orn plays a major role in the hydrolysis of pGpG, which is required for cyclic-di-GMP homeostasis. Meanwhile, Orn is involved in the degradation of nanoRNAs, which can alter global gene expression by serving as transcription initiation primers. Previously, we found that Orn is required for the type III secretion system and pathogenesis of P. aeruginosa, indicating a role of Orn in the bacterial response to environmental stimuli...
March 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045041/relaxation-oscillations-and-hierarchy-of-feedbacks-in-mapk-signaling
#8
Marek Kochańczyk, Paweł Kocieniewski, Emilia Kozłowska, Joanna Jaruszewicz-Błońska, Breanne Sparta, Michael Pargett, John G Albeck, William S Hlavacek, Tomasz Lipniacki
We formulated a computational model for a MAPK signaling cascade downstream of the EGF receptor to investigate how interlinked positive and negative feedback loops process EGF signals into ERK pulses of constant amplitude but dose-dependent duration and frequency. A positive feedback loop involving RAS and SOS, which leads to bistability and allows for switch-like responses to inputs, is nested within a negative feedback loop that encompasses RAS and RAF, MEK, and ERK that inhibits SOS via phosphorylation. This negative feedback, operating on a longer time scale, changes switch-like behavior into oscillations having a period of 1 hour or longer...
January 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039103/itraq-based-proteome-analysis-of-fluoroquinolone-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#9
Van Chi Thai, Teck Kwang Lim, Kim Phuong Uyen Le, Qingsong Lin, Thi Thu Hoai Nguyen
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare global protein expression changes during fluoroquinolone (FQ) exposure of Staphylococcus aureus. METHODS: Total protein extracts of wild-type S. aureus ATCC 29213 and six multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains derived from the wild-type under different FQ exposures were analysed using the 8-plex isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) method combined with LC-MS/MS analysis. Differentially expressed proteins were searched for their Gene Ontology (GO) annotation (UniProt database) and protein-protein interaction network (STRING v...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031197/ciprofloxacin-mediated-mutagenesis-is-suppressed-by-subinhibitory-concentrations-of-amikacin-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#10
Estela Ynés Valencia, Fernanda Esposito, Beny Spira, Jesús Blázquez, Rodrigo S Galhardo
Resistance to antibiotics is a global health problem. Activation of the SOS response, and the subsequent elevation in mutagenesis, contributes to the appearance of resistance mutations. Among currently used drugs, quinolones are the most potent inducers of the SOS response. In the present study, we show that amikacin inhibits ciprofloxacin-mediated SOS induction and mutagenesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
March 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013513/the-interaction-of-antimicrobial-peptides-with-the-membrane-and-intracellular-targets-of-staphylococcus-aureus-investigated-by-atp-leakage-dna-binding-analysis-and-the-expression-of-a-lexa-controlled-gene-reca
#11
Sanne Gottschalk, Line Elnif Thomsen
The analysis of how antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) interact with bacterial membranes and intracellular targets is important for our understanding of how these molecules affect bacteria. Increased knowledge may aid the design of AMPs that work on their target bacterium without inducing bacterial resistance. Here, we describe different methods to investigate the mode of action of peptides against the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. ATP leakage analysis can be used to evaluate the ability of AMPs to perturb bacteria...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000228/differential-regulation-of-ssb-genes-in-the-nitrogen-fixing-cyanobacterium-anabaena-sp-strain-pcc7120-1
#12
Anurag Kirti, Arvind Kumar, Hema Rajaram
Anabaena sp. PCC7120 possesses three genes coding for single-stranded DNA-binding (SSB) protein, of which ssb1 was a single gene, and ssb2 and ssb3 are the first genes of their corresponding operons. Regulation of the truncated ssb genes, ssb1 (alr0088) and ssb2 (alr7559), was unaffected by N-status of growth. They were negatively regulated by the SOS-response regulatory protein LexA, as indicated by the (i) binding of Anabaena LexA to the LexA box of regulatory regions of ssb1 and ssb2, and (ii) decreased expression of the downstream gfp reporter gene in Escherichia coli upon co-expression of LexA...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Phycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997135/subinhibitory-concentrations-of-disinfectants-promote-the-horizontal-transfer-of-multidrug-resistance-genes-within-and-across-genera
#13
Ye Zhang, April Z Gu, Miao He, Dan Li, Jianmin Chen
The greater abundances of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in point-of-use tap and reclaimed water than that in freshly treated water raise the question whether residual disinfectants in distribution systems facilitate the spread of ARGs. This study investigated three widely used disinfectants (free chlorine, chloramine, and hydrogen peroxide) on promoting ARGs transfer within Escherichia coli strains and across genera from Escherichia coli to Salmonella typhimurium. The results demonstrated that subinhibitory concentrations (lower than minimum inhibitory concentrations [MICs]) of these disinfectants, namely 0...
January 3, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988975/response-of-vegetation-phenology-to-urbanization-in-the-conterminous-united-states
#14
Xuecao Li, Yuyu Zhou, Ghassem R Asrar, Jiafu Mao, Xiaoma Li, Wenyu Li
The influence of urbanization on vegetation phenology is gaining considerable attention due to its implications for human health, cycling of carbon and other nutrients in Earth system. In this study, we examined the relationship between change in vegetation phenology and urban size, an indicator of urbanization, for the conterminous United States. We studied more than 4500 urban clusters of varying size to determine the impact of urbanization on plant phenology, with the aids of remotely sensed observations since 2003-2012...
December 18, 2016: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977665/hierarchical-post-transcriptional-regulation-of-colicin-e2-expression-in-escherichia-coli
#15
Matthias Lechner, Mathias Schwarz, Madeleine Opitz, Erwin Frey
Post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression plays a crucial role in many bacterial pathways. In particular, the translation of mRNA can be regulated by trans-acting, small, non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) or mRNA-binding proteins, each of which has been successfully treated theoretically using two-component models. An important system that includes a combination of these modes of post-transcriptional regulation is the Colicin E2 system. DNA damage, by triggering the SOS response, leads to the heterogeneous expression of the Colicin E2 operon including the cea gene encoding the toxin colicin E2, and the cel gene that codes for the induction of cell lysis and release of colicin...
December 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976011/sinapic-acid-as-inhibitor-of-the-sos-response-in-eschericha-coli-induced-by-ciprofloxacin
#16
L C Nascimento da Silva, S R Madsen, C Crocoll, B Halkier, A Løbner-Olesen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965652/identification-and-characterization-of-novel-compounds-blocking-shiga-toxin-expression-in-escherichia-coli-o157-h7
#17
Alejandro Huerta-Uribe, Zoe R Marjenberg, Nao Yamaguchi, Stephen Fitzgerald, James P R Connolly, Nuria Carpena, Hanna Uvell, Gillian Douce, Michael Elofsson, Olwyn Byron, Rudi Marquez, David L Gally, Andrew J Roe
Infections caused by Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing E. coli strains constitute a health problem, as they are problematic to treat. Stx production is a key virulence factor associated with the pathogenicity of enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) and can result in the development of haemolytic uremic syndrome in infected patients. The genes encoding Stx are located on temperate lysogenic phages integrated into the bacterial chromosome and expression of the toxin is generally coupled to phage induction through the SOS response...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957791/development-of-a-novel-index-for-electronically-excited-states-analysis
#18
Mojtaba Alipour, Samaneh Damiri
Concerning the leading factors in the context of excited states analyses, namely charge centroids of the orbitals involved in the excitations, distance between orbital centroids, and overlap integrals a new metric denominated as index is proposed to assign the characters and optical properties of electronically excited states. Using several molecules from different categories and also a well-studied standard database regarding time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) studies as benchmark criteria, accountability of the developed index has numerically been assessed for local, charge transfer, and Rydberg excitations...
December 13, 2016: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915231/predominant-role-of-dna-polymerase-eta-and-p53-dependent-translesion-synthesis-in-the-survival-of-ultraviolet-irradiated-human-cells
#19
Leticia K Lerner, Guilherme Francisco, Daniela T Soltys, Clarissa R R Rocha, Annabel Quinet, Alexandre T Vessoni, Ligia P Castro, Taynah I P David, Silvina O Bustos, Bryan E Strauss, Vanesa Gottifredi, Anne Stary, Alain Sarasin, Roger Chammas, Carlos F M Menck
Genome lesions trigger biological responses that help cells manage damaged DNA, improving cell survival. Pol eta is a translesion synthesis (TLS) polymerase that bypasses lesions that block replicative polymerases, avoiding continued stalling of replication forks, which could lead to cell death. p53 also plays an important role in preventing cell death after ultraviolet (UV) light exposure. Intriguingly, we show that p53 does so by favoring translesion DNA synthesis by pol eta. In fact, the p53-dependent induction of pol eta in normal and DNA repair-deficient XP-C human cells after UV exposure has a protective effect on cell survival after challenging UV exposures, which was absent in p53- and Pol H-silenced cells...
December 2, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806931/the-mechanism-of-ros-regulation-of-antibiotic-resistance-and-antimicrobial-lethality
#20
Ma Lina, Mi Hongfei, Xue Yunxin, Wang Dai, Zhao Xilin
Misuse and overuse of antibiotics have led to serious resistance problems that pose a grave threat to human health. How to solve the increasing antibiotic resistance problem is a huge challenge. Besides the traditional strategy of developing novel antimicrobial agents, exploring ways to enhance the lethal activity of antibiotics currently available is another feasible approach to fight against resistance. Recent studies showed that ROS plays an important role in regulating both antibiotic resistance and antimicrobial lethality...
October 20, 2016: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
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