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Michael Windle, Rebecca C Windle
BACKGROUND: Peer selection and socialization influences for alcohol and other substance use have been a prominent area of research especially, though not exclusively, across adolescence. This study used four-wave prospective data from 1004 young adults to evaluate selection and socialization influences for young adults' alcohol use and friends' alcohol use from late adolescence to later young adulthood, and incorporated the time-varying predictors of marital and parental status. In addition, sex differences in peer selection and socialization processes were tested...
September 24, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Helena H Hauta-Alus, Eero Kajantie, Elisa M Holmlund-Suila, Jenni Rosendahl, Saara M Valkama, Maria Enlund-Cerullo, Otto M Helve, Timo K Hytinantti, Heli Viljakainen, Sture Andersson, Outi Mäkitie
Context: The relationship of maternal and infant 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration [25(OH)D] with infant growth is unclear. Objective: Our objective was to explore whether 25(OH)D in pregnancy, umbilical cord blood (UCB) or in infancy are associated with infant growth. Design: This study involved 798 healthy infants and their mothers in Finland. We assessed 25(OH)D during pregnancy, from UCB at birth and from the infant at the age of 12 months...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Jessica S Ancker, Marianne Sharko, Matthew Hong, Hannah Mitchell, Lauren Wilcox
Objective: Parents routinely access young children's medical records, but medical societies strongly recommend confidential care during adolescence, and most medical centers restrict parental records access during the teen years. We sought to assess public opinion about adolescent medical privacy. Materials and Methods: The Cornell National Social Survey (CNSS) is an annual nationwide public opinion survey. We added questions about a) whether parents should be able to see their 16-year-old child's medical record, and b) whether teens would avoid discussing sensitive issues (sex, alcohol) with doctors if parents could see the record...
September 20, 2018: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
Carisa Parrish, Ashley Shields, Adam Morris, Anna George, Elizabeth Reynolds, Lindsay Borden, Jessica Hankinson, Susan Ziegfeld, Dylan Stewart, Rick Ostrander
Objective: Parents commonly report elevated distress following a child's burn injury, yet limited research has identified child or injury characteristics that may explain parent distress. The main goal of the current study is to examine prevalence and predictors of parent distress following children's burn injuries by evaluating distress symptoms in a clinic sample of parents whose children present for evaluation and treatment at a regional burn center. Methods: Participants included parents of 407 children who experienced a burn injury...
September 22, 2018: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
Amy Hughes Lansing, Maria Stoianova, Catherine Stanger
Objective: We previously tested via randomized controlled trial a novel intervention for adolescents with type 1 diabetes and above-target glycemic control that combined web-delivered incentives for self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) and brief web counseling with working memory training and parental contingency contracting training. Results showed improved SMBG and decreased glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) at 6- and 12-month follow-ups. However, it has not been elucidated if improvements in SMBG mediated the immediate benefits of this treatment on HbA1c nor if this intensive intervention uniquely benefited a subgroup of adolescents with higher problems in emotional control...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
Sasja A Schepers, Yuko Okado, Kathryn Russell, Alanna M Long, Sean Phipps
Objectives: Aims were to (1) determine whether the associations between parent psychological functioning and adjustment outcomes of childhood cancer survivors (CCS) were mediated by the parent-child relationship and (2) examine possible differences in pathways for CCS and healthy peers. Method: The study included CCS (n = 206), healthy peers (n = 132), and their primary caregivers. Youth (8-21 years) reported on the quality of the parent-child relationship and on their positive and negative adjustment outcomes...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Psychology
Ayane Yamaguchi, Hayate Ishikawa, Mana Furuoka, Masashi Yokozeki, Noriyuki Matsuda, Susumu Tanimura, Kohsuke Takeda
PGAM5 is a unique type of protein phosphatase that exists in mitochondria. It has been shown to exist in the inner mitochondrial membrane through its transmembrane domain and to be cleaved within the transmembrane domain upon mitochondrial dysfunction. However, its submitochondrial localization remains controversial; many researchers claim that PGAM5 localizes to the outer mitochondrial membrane based on the findings that PGAM5 associates with many cytoplasmic proteins. Here, we found that cleaved PGAM5 was released from mitochondria during mitophagy, a selective form of autophagy specific for mitochondria, and that the release was inhibited by proteasome inhibitors in HeLa cells stably expressing the E3 ubiquitin ligase Parkin...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Biochemistry
Lindsay V Clark, Xiaoli Jin, Karen Koefoed Petersen, Kossanou G Anzoua, Larissa Bagmet, Pavel Chebukin, Martin Deuter, Elena Dzyubenko, Nicolay Dzyubenko, Kweon Heo, Douglas A Johnson, Uffe Jørgensen, Jens Bonderup Kjeldsen, Hironori Nagano, Junhua Peng, Andrey Sabitov, Toshihiko Yamada, Ji Hye Yoo, Chang Yeon Yu, Stephen P Long, Erik J Sacks
Background and Aims: Miscanthus, a C4 perennial grass native to East Asia, is a promising biomass crop. Miscanthus sacchariflorus has a broad geographic range, is used to produce paper in China and is one of the parents (along with Miscanthus sinensis) of the important biomass species Miscanthus × giganteus. The largest study of M. sacchariflorus population genetics to date is reported here. Methods: Collections included 764 individuals across East Asia. Samples were genotyped with 34 605 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) derived from restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) and ten plastid microsatellites, and were subjected to ploidy analysis by flow cytometry...
September 20, 2018: Annals of Botany
Esma Altinel Acoglu, Melahat Melek Oguz, Eyup Sari, Husniye Yucel, Meltem Akcaboy, Pelin Zorlu, Sanliay Sahin, Saliha Senel
OBJECTIVES: Lumbar puncture (LP) is fundamental for diagnosis and treatment; however, some parents do not provide consent for their children to undergo the procedure, which can make diagnosis and determination of the optimal treatment difficult. The present study aimed to describe the level of knowledge and attitudes toward LP of parents whose children were scheduled to undergo the procedure. METHODS: A prospective cross-sectional descriptive study of a convenience sample of parents of 84 children aged 2 months to 17 years scheduled for LP at a single academic children's hospital between 2015 and 2017...
September 21, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
Koen Huysentruyt, Ilan Koppen, Marc Benninga, Tom Cattaert, Jiqiu Cheng, Charlotte De Geyter, Faure Christophe, Frédéric Gottrand, Badriul Hegar, Iva Hojsak, Mohamad Miqdady, Seksit Osatakul, Carmen Ribes-Koninckx, Silvia Salvatore, Miguel Saps, Raanan Shamir, Annamaria Staiano, Hania Szajewska, Mario Vieira, Yvan Vandenplas
OBJECTIVES: The Bristol Stool Form Scale (BSFS) is inadequate for non-toilet trained children. The Brussels Infant and Toddler Stool Scale (BITSS) was developed, consisting of 7 photographs of diapers containing stools of infants and toddlers. We aimed to evaluate inter-observer reliability of stool consistency assessment among parents, nurses and medical doctors (MDs) using the BITSS. METHODS: In this multicenter cross-sectional study (2016-2017), BITSS photographs were rated according to the BSFS...
September 20, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Laura E Simons, Amy Lewandowski Holley, Emily Phelps, Anna C Wilson
Having a child with chronic pain impacts a parent's life. Reciprocally, parent cognitive, affective, and behavioral responses to the child's chronic pain can influence the child's pain experience. The purpose of this study is to develop a brief self-report screening tool (Parent Risk and Impact Screening Measure; PRISM) of parent psychosocial functioning and behavioral responses to child pain. This measure assesses parents' reports of their own stress, health, psychosocial functioning, and disruption in activities due to their child's pain and related disability...
September 20, 2018: Pain
Tine Vervoort, Kai Karos, Dan Johnson, Stefan Sütterlin, Dimitri Van Ryckeghem
The present study investigated the moderating role of parental pain-related attention-set shifting and heart rate variability (HRV) for parental distress and pain control behaviour when faced with their child's pain. Participants were 54 school children and one of their parents. Parental HRV was assessed at study commencement followed by a cued switching task indexing parental ability to flexibly shift attention between pain-related and neutral attentional sets. In a subsequent phase, parents observed their child perform a CPT task, allowing assessment of parental pain control behavior (indexed by latency to stop their child's CPT performance) and parental distress - assessed via self-report following observation of child CPT performance...
September 21, 2018: Pain
Jung Soo Kim, Derrick VanGennep, James J Hamlin, Xiaoping Wang, Athena S Sefat, Gregory R Stewart
Recent superconducting transition temperatures (T<sub>c</sub>) over 100 K for monolayer FeSe on SrTiO<sub>3</sub> have renewed interest in the bulk parent compound. In KCl:AlCl<sub>3</sub> flux-transport-grown crystals of FeSe<sub>0.94</sub>Be<sub>0.06</sub>, FeSe<sub>0.97</sub>Be<sub>0.03</sub> and, for comparison, FeSe, this work reports doping of FeSe using Be - among the smallest of possible dopants, corresponding to an effective 'chemical pressure'...
September 24, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Érick Tássio Barbosa Neves, Matheus França Perazzo, Monalisa Cesarino Gomes, Isabella Lima Arrais Ribeiro, Saul Martins Paiva, Ana Flávia Granville-Garcia
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate factors associated with the clinical consequences of untreated dental caries in children attending public and private preschools. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with a complex, preschool-based sample of 769 children, 5 years of age, from public and private preschools in the city of Campina Grande, Brazil. Clinical examinations to diagnose the consequences of untreated caries were performed using the criteria of the pufa index (p - pulp exposure; u - ulceration caused by movement of tooth fragments; f - fistula; a - abscess)...
September 24, 2018: International Dental Journal
Ágata Sabine Brito, Marayza Alves Clementino, Monalisa Cesarino Gomes, Érick Tássio Barbosa Neves, Aline de Sousa Barbosa, Camila Andurandy de Medeiros, Mayra Macedo de Aquino, Ana Flávia Granville-Garcia, Valdenice Aparecida de Menezes
Background: Untreated dental caries can result a negative impact on oral health-related quality of life. Aims: The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of dental caries and associated factors in children enrolled in public preschools in the city of Recife, Brazil. Settings and Design: A descriptive, analytical, cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative random sample of 556 children aged 3-5 years. Materials and Methods: Data were collected through clinical examinations using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System...
July 2018: Journal of the Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry
Emanuela Colasante, Francesco Fabi, Sabrina Molinaro, Carla Rossi, Gianpaolo Scalia Tomba
BACKGROUND: Drug use indicators that are capable of measuring the individual levels of harm following drug use, and in particular poly-drug use, have previously been proposed, based on individual drug and frequency of use data and expert rankings of harms related to various substances. These indicators allow the estimation of risk profiles for selected groups of individuals and comparisons, both over time and between populations. Recent advances regarding the ranking of drug use harms allow a refinement of these indicators, separating the effects on self and others...
September 24, 2018: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
Taishi Kawamoto, Kazuo Hiraki
External feedback plays an important role in adapting to the environment; however, feedback processing in preschoolers has not been fully understood. The present event-related brain potential (ERP) study sought to understand the influence of parental presence with encouragement on feedback processing by focusing on reward positivity (RewP: mean amplitude between 200-350 ms). Five-year-old children (N = 21) completed an animal search task both alone (the alone condition) and with a parent who offered words of encouragement (the with a parent condition)...
September 22, 2018: Social Neuroscience
Leanne Tamm, Jeffery N Epstein, Stephen P Becker
Reaction time variability (RTV) is a ubiquitous phenomenon in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Few studies have examined RTV in relation to functional outcomes such as social impairment in children with ADHD. In this exploratory study, we investigated whether RTV is associated with social functioning in children at risk for ADHD. Specifically, we explored the association between RTV (tau derived from correct go trials of a Stop-Signal task) and social functioning in 198 children ages 7-12 years referred for an ADHD evaluation...
September 24, 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
Leila Jouybari, Ezzat Abbariki, Maryam Jebeli, Fatemeh Mehravar, Leila Asadi, Negarin Akbari, Akram Sanagoo, Zahra Moradi
OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to examine the effect of narrative writing and art therapy on maternal stress in the neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) during infants' hospitalization. MATERIAL AND METHODS: randomized controlled clinical trial with three parallel arms study was conducted among three groups of mothers with preterm infants in the NICUs of two teaching hospitals of Shahroud University of Medical Sciences. Pre- and post-tests were administered to a sample size of 105 during 9 months...
September 23, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Youngmee Lee
PURPOSE: The Intelligibility in Context Scale (ICS) is a parent-reported screening tool focussed on parents' perception of their child's speech intelligibility. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Korean version of the ICS (ICS-K) and to investigate whether the ICS-K is a useful tool for distinguishing between Korean-speaking children with typical development (TD) and those with speech sound disorder (SSD). METHOD: A total of 178 Korean-speaking pre-school children (145 children with TD and 33 children with SSD) participated in this study...
September 23, 2018: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
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