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Stephanie DeAnda, Laura Bosch, Diane Poulin-Dubois, Pascal Zesiger, Margaret Friend
Purpose: The aim of this study was to develop the Language Exposure Assessment Tool (LEAT) and to examine its cross-linguistic validity, reliability, and utility. The LEAT is a computerized interview-style assessment that requests parents to estimate language exposure. The LEAT yields an automatic calculation of relative language exposure and captures qualitative aspects of early language experience. Method: Relative language exposure as reported on the LEAT and vocabulary size at 17 months of age were measured in a group of bilingual language learners with varying levels of exposure to French and English or Spanish and English...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
Chen-Xu Ni, Yang Qi, Jin Zhang, Ying Liu, Wei-Heng Xu, Jing Xu, Hong-Gang Hu, Qiu-Ye Wu, Yan Wang, Jun-Ping Zhang
The eradication of cancer stem cells (CSCs) is significant for cancer therapy and prevention. In this study, we evaluated WM130, a novel derivative of matrine, for its effect on CSCs using human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines, their sphere cells, and sorted EpCAM+ cells. We revealed that WM130 could not only inhibit proliferation and colony formation of HCC cells, but also suppress the expression of some stemness-related genes and up-regulate some mature hepatocyte marker genes, indicating a promotion of differentiation from CSCs to hepatocytes...
October 22, 2016: Oncotarget
Ling Fu, Tao Huang, Shuo Wang, Xiaohong Wang, Limin Su, Chao Li, Yuanhui Zhao
Although modes of action (MOAs) play a key role in the understanding of the toxic mechanism of chemicals, the MOAs have not been investigated for antibiotics to green algae. This paper is to discriminate excess toxicity from baseline level and investigate the MOAs of 13 different antibiotics to algae by using the determined toxicity values. Comparison of the toxicities shows that the inhibitors of protein synthesis to bacteria, such as azithromycin, doxycycline, florfenicol and oxytetracycline, exhibit significantly toxic effects to algae...
October 23, 2016: Chemosphere
David S Wald, Jonathan P Bestwick, Joan K Morris, Ken Whyte, Lucy Jenkins, Nicholas J Wald
Background Child-parent screening for familial hypercholesterolemia has been proposed to identify persons at high risk for inherited premature cardiovascular disease. We assessed the efficacy and feasibility of such screening in primary care practice. Methods We obtained capillary blood samples to measure cholesterol levels and to test for familial hypercholesterolemia mutations in 10,095 children 1 to 2 years of age during routine immunization visits. Children were considered to have positive screening results for familial hypercholesterolemia if their cholesterol level was elevated and they had either a familial hypercholesterolemia mutation or a repeat elevated cholesterol level 3 months later...
October 27, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
Astrid Berg
Reflective practice forms a pivotal part of mental health intervention in a setting where language and cultural differences require working together with a community counselor for language interpretation. Reflective practice in infant mental health began with Esther Bick's () infant observations and continued with Selma Fraiberg's () parent-infant psychotherapy. These two models formed the basis of the practice of infant mental health in a community in South Africa. A clinical example will highlight the importance of culturally informed observation that is then reflected upon...
October 26, 2016: Infant Mental Health Journal
Carmen Rosa Noroña, Michelle L Acker
Recent implementation science in mental health has focused on identifying the most effective strategies to disseminate and implement evidence-based treatments (EBTs) into real-world practice settings. The learning collaborative training methodology and its use of expert trainers/consultants have become increasingly popular as one of these approaches. Moreover, there is preliminary evidence that ongoing expert consultation may increase the adoption, learning, and sustainability of EBTs by an already practicing workforce and, consequently, help trainers, practitioners, and organizations address implementation barriers...
October 26, 2016: Infant Mental Health Journal
Cristhiene Montone Nunes Ramires, Fátima Cristina Alves Branco-Barreiro, Érica Toledo Piza Peluso
Hearing loss among children, particularly those with severe and profound hearing impairment, has an effect on their communication and development, which in turn can have a significant impact on their parents. This study aimed to evaluate the quality of life of parents of children with hearing loss and identify the associated factors. A cross-sectional study was carried out involving parents of children that went through phonoaudiological therapy at a public university clinic in the city of São Paulo. The research instruments used were: the World Health Organization Quality of Life Instrument, Short Form (WHOQOL-bref), the Social Support Questionnaire 6 (SSQ-6) and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12)...
October 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Manoel Antonio Dos Santos, Maria Laura de Paula Lopes Pereira-Martins
The tasks of caregiving for children with disabilities involve contextual life stressors. The study aimed to investigate the coping strategies used by parents of children with intellectual disabilities (ID). The search included articles published between 2001 and 2015 on the PubMed, LILACS and PsycINFO databases, using the following key words: intellectual disability, coping, parents, caregivers, family. Thirteen articles were selected, the majority of which adopt a cross-sectional, comparative and quantitative approach...
October 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Maysa Ferreira Martins Ribeiro, Luc Vandenberghe, Cejane Oliveira Martins Prudente, Vanessa da Silva Carvalho Vila, Celmo Celeno Porto
The aim of the study was to comprehend how the age group and the severity of the motor impairment of children with cerebral palsy modify the mothers' experiences of stress and to understand the coping strategies they use. A qualitative approach was used, with the method framed on Grounded Theory Analysis. Nineteen mothers of children and adolescents with different degrees of motor impairment participated in individual semi-structured interviews. A lack of support and increased time and effort invested in parenting, at the cost of other areas of life threaten participants' physical and emotional health...
October 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Clarissa Altina Cunha de Araújo, Berta Paz-Lourido, Sebastià Verger Gelabert
Different types of supports to families are among the aspects that contribute to family quality of life. This study aims to identify the types of supports that families of children with disabilities, users of early intervention services, consider relevant and how public administration influences the quality of this support. This is a qualitative study based on a critical social paradigm. Sixteen mothers and four fathers were interviewed and their contributions were analyzed using discourse analysis. The importance of family support and networks of parents of children with disabilities were highlighted...
October 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Bruna Rafaela de Batista, Márcia Duarte, Fabiana Cia
The presence of a disabled person causes transformations in the family that demand a redefinition of the role of each member. Siblings, like all other members, experience frustration, acceptance, guilt and adaptation. In this respect, an attempt was made to; (a) analyze the interaction between a sibling with standard development and a sibling with Down syndrome; (b) identify what information and reaction the siblings with standard development have regarding the diagnosis of Down syndrome; (c) verify whether or not there were changes in the family context and also changes in their own lives after the birth of the sibling with Down syndrome...
October 2016: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Neusa Barros Dantas-Neta, Lúcia de Fátima Almeida de Deus Moura, Priscila Figueiredo Cruz, Marcoeli Silva Moura, Saul Martins Paiva, Carolina Castro Martins, Marina de Deus Moura de Lima
This study evaluated the impact of molar-incisor hypomineralization (MIH) on oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) according to the perceptions of schoolchildren and their parents/caregivers. This cross-sectional study consisted of a sample of 594 schoolchildren between 11 and 14 years of age and their parents/caregivers who answered the questionnaires CPQ11-14ISF:16 and P-CPQ, respectively. The main independent variable of this study was MIH of the schoolchildren. Experience of dental caries, malocclusion, and socioeconomic status were treated as confounding variables...
October 24, 2016: Brazilian Oral Research
Colby Hansen, Dan Cushman, Nicholas Anderson, Wei Chen, Christine Cheng, Shirley D Hon, Man Hung
OBJECTIVE: Pediatric head injuries occur commonly and are being reported in increasing numbers. Balance testing is a key component in the evaluation of suspected concussion, and the balance error scoring system (BESS) is likely the most well-known and widely used measure. To date, normative BESS scores for adults have been reported but not for children. DESIGN: Normative data for BESS scores and modified BESS scores were created in a cohort of healthy children. Potential variables were analyzed as predictors of BESS performance...
November 2016: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
Pavlo Kyryakov, Alejandra Gomez-Perez, Anastasia Glebov, Nimara Asbah, Luigi Bruno, Carolynne Meunier, Tatiana Iouk, Vladimir I Titorenko
We recently selected 3 long-lived mutant strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by a lasting exposure to exogenous lithocholic acid. Each mutant strain can maintain the extended chronological lifespan after numerous passages in medium without lithocholic acid. In this study, we used these long-lived yeast mutants for empirical verification of evolutionary theories of aging. We provide evidence that the dominant polygenic trait extending longevity of each of these mutants 1) does not affect such key features of early-life fitness as the exponential growth rate, efficacy of post-exponential growth and fecundity; and 2) enhances such features of early-life fitness as susceptibility to chronic exogenous stresses, and the resistance to apoptotic and liponecrotic forms of programmed cell death...
October 25, 2016: Aging
Heitor F N de Oliveira, Matthew T Clough, Roberto Rinaldi
Organic electrolyte solutions (OES)-binary mixtures of an ionic liquid (IL) with a neutral polar aprotic co-solvent-are being recognized as excellent candidate solvents for the dissolution, derivatization, and sustainable processing of cellulose. These solutions exhibit the beneficially combined properties of rapid-to-instantaneous cellulose dissolution, raised thermal stability, and reduced viscosity, compared to cellulose solutions in the parent ILs. Herein, we report the reversible, thermally triggered phase separation of cellulose solutions in 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate with 1,3-dimethyl-2-imidazolidinone...
October 26, 2016: ChemSusChem
Maria João Janeiro, David W Coltman, Marco Festa-Bianchet, Fanie Pelletier, Michael B Morrissey
Integral projection models (IPMs) are extremely flexible tools for ecological and evolutionary inference. IPMs track the distribution of phenotype in populations through time, using functions describing phenotype-dependent development, inheritance, survival and fecundity. For evolutionary inference, two important features of any model are the ability to (i) characterize relationships among traits (including values of the same traits across ages) within individuals, and (ii) characterize similarity between individuals and their descendants...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
E Kalthan, J P Dondo-Fongbia, S Yambele, L R Dieu-Creer, R Zepio, C M Pamatika
An outbreak of monkeypox occurred in the district of Bangassou in 2015. The monkeypox is a re-emerging zoonosis of viral origin highly contagious. It is an eruptive fever which evolves in an epidemic manner. An investigation was held December 10, 2015, to February 10, 2016 in the focus of the epidemic. Its objective was to describe the epidemic according to the time, places and people and to determine the incidence and lethality of the disease. This was a descriptive study. The data collection was made by interview and using a linear plug composed of several sections...
October 25, 2016: Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique
William Schneider
Family structure as a risk for child maltreatment has long been viewed as a static state in the child maltreatment literature. Drawing on data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, the author uses a series of individual fixed-effects models to investigate whether particular types of relationship transitions over children's first decade of life are associated with increased risk for maternal and paternal child abuse and maternal neglect. Findings question and confirm a number of long-standing theoretical and empirical findings from the child maltreatment literature...
October 25, 2016: Demography
Xi Song
In recent years, sociological research investigating grandparent effects in three-generation social mobility has proliferated, mostly focusing on the question of whether grandparents have a direct effect on their grandchildren's social attainment. This study hypothesizes that prior research has overlooked family structure as an important factor that moderates grandparents' direct effects. Capitalizing on a counterfactual causal framework and multigenerational data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, this study examines the direct effect of grandparents' years of education on grandchildren's years of educational attainment and heterogeneity in the effects associated with family structure...
October 25, 2016: Demography
Bozena Karbowska
Thallium is released into the biosphere from both natural and anthropogenic sources. It is generally present in the environment at low levels; however, human activity has greatly increased its content. Atmospheric emission and deposition from industrial sources have resulted in increased concentrations of thallium in the vicinity of mineral smelters and coal-burning facilities. Increased levels of thallium are found in vegetables, fruit and farm animals. Thallium is toxic even at very low concentrations and tends to accumulate in the environment once it enters the food chain...
November 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
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