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Nancy Zucker, Christian Mauro, Michelle Craske, H Ryan Wagner, Nandini Datta, Hannah Hopkins, Kristen Caldwell, Adam Kiridly, Samuel Marsan, Gary Maslow, Emeran Mayer, Helen Egger
Functional abdominal pain (FAP) is a common childhood somatic complaint that contributes to impairment in daily functioning (e.g., school absences) and increases risk for chronic pain and psychiatric illness. Cognitive behavioral treatments for FAP target primarily older children (9 + years) and employ strategies to reduce a focus on pain. The experience of pain may be an opportunity to teach viscerally hypersensitive children to interpret the function of a variety of bodily signals (including those of hunger, emotions) thereby reducing fear of bodily sensations and facilitating emotion awareness and self-regulation...
July 29, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Teresa P Mendes, Carla A Crespo, Joan K Austin
Parents play a key role in how children deal with epilepsy. When diagnosed with health conditions, people seek comparison information from fellow patients and families, and this information has consequences for how they evaluate their situation. This study examined the moderating role of parents' social comparison orientation in the associations between family management (parental perceptions of family life difficulties and child's daily life) and adaptation outcomes of children with epilepsy (HRQoL and perceived stigma)...
August 18, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Katharina Bühren, Beate Herpertz-Dahlmann, Astrid Dempfle, Katja Becker, Karin M Egberts, Stefan Ehrlich, Christian Fleischhaker, Alexander von Gontard, Freia Hahn, Charlotte Jaite, Michael Kaess, Tanja Legenbauer, Tobias J Renner, Ellen Schrötter, Ulrike Schulze, Judith Sinzig, Gisela Antony, Johannes Hebebrand, Manuel Föcker
OBJECTIVE: The first web-based registry for childhood and adolescent anorexia nervosa (AN) in Germany was established to systematically collect demographic and clinical data. These data as well as information on how young individuals with AN can find access to healthcare services are presented. METHOD: Patients´ data from child and adolescent psychiatry departments of 12 university hospitals and two major nonuniversity hospitals in Germany were collected between January 2015 and December 2016...
August 21, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie und Psychotherapie
Emma M Marshall, Manfred H M van Dulmen, Logan A Stigall
OBJECTIVE: To better understand the role earlier stressful environments have in predicting functional somatic symptoms (FSS) in late adolescence, this study explores the effect the occurrence of earlier changes in family dynamics and friendship conflict have on FSS. METHOD: We used data from the Consortium for Longitudinal Studies on Child Abuse and Neglect (N = 1,314), a large, prospective study of children at risk for maltreatment and their parent/caregiver from approximately 4 to 18 years of age...
August 21, 2017: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
Emma Bridger, Michael Daly
OBJECTIVE: Individual differences in childhood cognitive ability have been neglected in the study of how early life psychosocial factors may buffer the long-term health consequences of social disadvantage. In this study, we drew on rich data from two large British cohorts to test whether high levels of cognitive ability may protect children from experiencing the physical and mental health consequences of early life socioeconomic disadvantage. METHOD: Participants from the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS; N = 11,522) were followed from birth to age 42, and those from the 1958 National Child Development Study (NCDS; N = 13,213) were followed from birth to age 50...
August 21, 2017: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
Kyla Cordrey, Laura McLaughlin, Prithwijit Das, Ruth Milanaik
This study assessed pediatric residents' reported knowledge of and self-confidence in identifying/treating 8 vaccine-preventable diseases. Pediatric residents nationwide (n = 385) reported (1) if they had previously diagnosed measles, mumps, rubella, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, varicella, and/or polio; (2) their comfort level in treating these diseases; (3) the likelihood of identifying symptoms; and (4) 16 disease-related statements as true/false. More than 25% of residents were not comfortable treating 5 of the 8 diseases...
August 1, 2017: Clinical Pediatrics
Manuela Expósito-Ruiz, Juan Sánchez-López, Manuel Ruiz-Bailén, María Del Mar Rodríguez-Del Águila
OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency of use of Spanish pediatric emergency services, and to describe user profiles and geographic variations. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Descriptive study based on data from the Spanish National Health Survey. We calculated descriptive statistics and analyzed crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs). RESULTS: Thirty-five percent of the 5495 respondents had come to an emergency department in the past year, and 88.1% of them had used the services of a Spanish national health service hospital...
2017: Emergencias
J Stritzelberger, L Distel, R Buslei, R Fietkau, F Putz
PURPOSE: Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common malignant primary brain tumor in adults. While the alkylating agent temozolomide (TMZ) has prolonged overall survival, resistance evolution represents an important clinical problem. Therefore, we studied the effectiveness of radiotherapy and CCNU in an in vitro model of acquired TMZ resistance. METHODS: We studied the MGMT-methylated GBM cell line U251 and its in vitro derived TMZ-resistant subline, U251/TMZ-R...
August 20, 2017: Clinical & Translational Oncology
Ashley Anderson, Zachary Taylor, Rebekah Georges, Margaret Carlson-Cosentino, Laura Nguyen, Monica Salas, Andrea Vice, Nathan Bernal, Tajudaullah Bhaloo
Hispanic populations have low HPV vaccination rates, although the vaccine is safe and efficacious. We surveyed a low-income Hispanic population to characterize knowledge gaps about the HPV vaccine and understand factors associated with the decision to vaccinate a child to determine how physicians can enhance vaccination rates. Surveys in English and Spanish were distributed to parents of children under age 18. Statistical analysis included logistic regression. Knowledge that the vaccine can prevent invasive cervical cancer most impacted intent to vaccinate...
August 19, 2017: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
Sarah A Orban, Mark D Rapport, Lauren M Friedman, Samuel J Eckrich, Michael J Kofler
Children with ADHD exhibit clinically impairing inattentive behavior during classroom instruction and in other cognitively demanding contexts. However, there have been surprisingly few attempts to validate anecdotal parent/teacher reports of intact sustained attention during 'preferred' activities such as watching movies. The current investigation addresses this omission, and provides an initial test of how ADHD-related working memory deficits contribute to inattentive behavior during classroom instruction...
August 19, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
Wen Li, Yiyi Ma, Shengqiang Yu, Ningxia Sun, Liang Wang, Dongping Chen, Guijiang Yang, Sijia Lu, Yangyang Li, Bo Yang, Changlin Mei
BACKGROUND: Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD, autosomal dominant PKD or adult-onset PKD) is the most prevalent and potentially lethal kidney disease that is hereditary and lacks effective treatment. Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) of embryos in assistant reproductive technology (ART) helps to select mutation-free embryos for blocking ADPKD inheritance from the parents to their offspring. However, there are multiple pseudogenes in the PKD1 coding region, which make blocking ADPKD inheritance by PGD complicated and difficult...
August 19, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
Kentaro Oh-Hashi, Naoki Sugiura, Fumimasa Amaya, Ken-Ichi Isobe, Yoko Hirata
Activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), which is ubiquitously expressed, plays a crucial role in regulating various stress-responsive genes under pathophysiological conditions. Further, growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible gene 34 (GADD34), a downstream target of ATF4, has been reported to negatively regulate ATF4 expression. To understand the relationship between intrinsic ATF4 and GADD34 under resting and ER stress conditions, we used a novel gene editing approach, CRISPR/Cas9, to integrate antibiotic-resistant genes into the target genes, ATF4 and GADD34...
August 19, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Fabian T Pfeffer, Robert F Schoeni
Liz, Mary, and Howard are three teenagers in the 1980s. Although unrelated, their families have much in common: stable two- parent households, at least one parent completed high school (though none of them went to college), and all three are white. They differ in one important aspect: their parents command quite different levels of wealth (here measured as net worth, that is, the total sum of financial and real assets minus debt). Liz's parents own less than $700 (inflation adjusted to 2013 dollars), meaning that Liz grows up at the bottom of the wealth distribution...
October 2016: Russell Sage Foundation Journal of the Social Sciences: RSF
Donaldson F Conserve, Michelle Teti, Grace Shin, Juliet Iwelunmor, Lara Handler, Suzanne Maman
INTRODUCTION: Disclosure of parental human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection to their children remains a difficult process for parents living with HIV (PLWH). In order to identify the best strategies to facilitate parental HIV disclosure, it is necessary to examine the efficacy of existing interventions designed to help PLWH parents with the disclosure process to their children. OBJECTIVES: To systematically review the efficacy of interventions designed to assist PLWH disclose their HIV status to their children...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
Richard C Kevin, Timothy W Lefever, Rodney W Snyder, Purvi R Patel, Timothy R Fennell, Jenny L Wiley, Iain S McGregor, Brian F Thomas
CUMYL-PICA [1-pentyl-N-(2-phenylpropan-2-yl)-1H-indole-3-carboxamide] and 5F-CUMYL-PICA [1-(5-fluoropentyl)-N-(2-phenylpropan-2-yl)-1H-indole-3-carboxamide] are recently identified recreationally used/abused synthetic cannabinoids, but have uncharacterized pharmacokinetic profiles and metabolic processes. This study characterized clearance and metabolism of these compounds by human and rat liver microsomes and hepatocytes, and then compared these parameters with in vivo rat plasma and urine sampling. It also evaluated hypothermia, a characteristic cannabimimetic effect...
2017: Forensic Toxicology
Rebecca Waller, Luke Hyde
Antisocial behavior is costly and harmful to families, communities, and society. With roots in early childhood, antisocial behavior puts children at risk for poor physical and mental health outcomes across development. Callous-unemotional (CU) traits identify a subgroup of youth with particularly severe and stable antisocial behavior. While much literature has examined CU traits in late childhood and adolescence, researchers are just beginning to elucidate the developmental origins of CU traits. In this article, we review research examining the measurement and correlates of CU behaviors in early childhood, along with evidence that these early behaviors predict later measures of CU traits...
June 2017: Child Development Perspectives
Ewa Witalis, Bozena Mikoluc, Radoslaw Motkowski, Jolanta Sawicka-Powierza, Agnieszka Chrobot, Bozena Didycz, Agata Lange, Renata Mozrzymas, Andrzej Milanowski, Maria Nowacka, Mariola Piotrowska-Depta, Hanna Romanowska, Ewa Starostecka, Jolanta Wierzba, Magdalena Skorniewska, Barbara Iwona Wojcicka-Bartlomiejczyk, Maria Gizewska, Halina Car
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to assess both patients' and their parents' knowledge of phenylketonuria (PKU) treatment and compliance with PKU diet. METHODS: The study included 173 PKU patients aged 10-19 and 110 parents of PKU children who were enrolled in the study on the basis of questionnaire data. The study also included 45 patients aged ≥20. RESULTS: Our study demonstrated that only 45% (n = 74) of PKU patients knew daily Phe intake recommendations, 27% of patients (n = 41) knew the Phe content in a minimum of three out of four researched food products...
2017: Nutrition & Metabolism
Deepak Venkanna, Christian Südfeld, Thomas Baier, Sarah V Homburg, Anant V Patel, Lutz Wobbe, Olaf Kruse
The protein superfamily of short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases (SDR), including members of the atypical type (aSDR), covers a huge range of catalyzed reactions and in vivo substrates. This superfamily also comprises isoflavone reductase-like (IRL) proteins, which are aSDRs highly homologous to isoflavone reductases from leguminous plants. The molecular function of IRLs in non-leguminous plants and green microalgae has not been identified as yet, but several lines of evidence point at their implication in reactive oxygen species homeostasis...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Daniel Thorogood, Steven Yates, Chloé Manzanares, Leif Skot, Matthew Hegarty, Tina Blackmore, Susanne Barth, Bruno Studer
Self-incompatibility (SI) is a mechanism that many flowering plants employ to prevent fertilisation by self- and self-like pollen ensuring heterozygosity and hybrid vigour. Although a number of single locus mechanisms have been characterised in detail, no multi-locus systems have been fully elucidated. Historically, examples of the genetic analysis of multi-locus SI, to make analysis tractable, are either made on the progeny of bi-parental crosses, where the number of alleles at each locus is restricted, or on crosses prepared in such a way that only one of the SI loci segregates...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Zhiyuan Liu, Jianli Liang, Shuning Zheng, Jifang Zhang, Jian Wu, Feng Cheng, Wencai Yang, Xiaowu Wang
Sulforaphane, the hydrolytic product of glucoraphanin glucosinolate, is a potent anticarcinogen that reduces the risk of several human cancers. However, in most B. rapa vegetables, glucoraphanin is undetectable or only present in trace amounts, since the glucoraphanin that is present is converted to gluconapin by three functional BrAOP2 genes. In this study, to enrich beneficial glucoraphanin content in B. rapa, the functional BrAOP2 alleles were replaced by non-functional counterparts through marker-assisted backcrossing (MAB)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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