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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812881/predicting-microbial-fuel-cell-biofilm-communities-and-bioreactor-performance-using-artificial-neural-networks
#1
Keaton Larson Lesnik, Hong Liu
The complex interactions that occur in mixed-species bioelectrochemical reactors, like microbial fuel cells (MFCs), make accurate predictions of performance outcomes under untested conditions difficult. While direct correlations between any individual waste stream characteristic or microbial community structure and reactor performance have not been able to be directly established, the increase in sequencing data and readily available computational power enables the development of alternate approaches. In the current study, 33 MFCs were evaluated under a range of conditions including 8 separate substrates and 3 different wastewaters...
August 16, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799927/heavy-metal-tolerance-and-removal-potential-in-mixed-species-biofilm
#2
Sandra Grujić, Sava Vasić, Ljiljana Čomić, Aleksandar Ostojić, Ivana Radojević
The aim of the study was to examine heavy metal tolerance (Cd(2+), Zn(2+), Ni(2+) and Cu(2+)) of single- and mixed-species biofilms (Rhodotorula mucilaginosa and Escherichia coli) and to determine metal removal efficiency (Cd(2+), Zn(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Pb(2+) and Hg(2+)). Metal tolerance was quantified by crystal violet assay and results were confirmed by fluorescence microscopy. Metal removal efficiency was determined by batch biosorption assay. The tolerance of the mixed-species biofilm was higher than the single-species biofilms...
August 2017: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776099/impact-of-dust-exposure-on-mixed-bacterial-cultures-and-during-eukaryotic-cell-co-culture-infections
#3
Mariam Bado, Syntia Kwende, Shishir Shishodia, Jason A Rosenzweig
On a daily basis, humans, and their colonizing microbiome, are exposed to both indoor and outdoor dust, containing both deleterious organic and inorganic contaminants, through dermal contact, inhalation, and ingestion. Recent studies evaluating the dust exposure responses of opportunistic pathogens, such as Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, revealed significant increases in biofilm formation following dust exposure. In this study, the effects of dust exposure on mixed bacterial cultures as well as HT-29 co-cultures were evaluated...
August 3, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769901/fluorescence-imaging-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-with-the-helix-pomatia-agglutinin-hpa-as-a-potential-rapid-diagnostic-tool
#4
Mirian Domenech, Ernesto García
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common human pathogen and a major causal agent of life-threatening infections that can either be respiratory or non-respiratory. It is well known that the Helix pomatia (edible snail) agglutinin (HPA) lectin shows specificity for terminal αGalNAc residues present, among other locations, in the Forssman pentasaccharide (αGalNAc1→3βGalNAc1→3αGal1→4βGal1→4βGlc). Based on experiments involving choline-independent mutants and different growth conditions, we propose here that HPA recognizes the αGalNAc terminal residues of the cell wall teichoic and lipoteichoic acids of S...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769900/intrinsic-and-extrinsic-aspects-on-campylobacter-jejuni-biofilms
#5
Roberta T Melo, Eliane P Mendonça, Guilherme P Monteiro, Mariana C Siqueira, Clara B Pereira, Phelipe A B M Peres, Heriberto Fernandez, Daise A Rossi
Biofilm represents a way of life that allows greater survival of microorganisms in hostile habitats. Campylobacter jejuni is able to form biofilms in vitro and on surfaces at several points in the poultry production chain. Genetic determinants related to their formation are expressed differently between strains and external conditions are decisive in this respect. Our approach combines phylogenetic analysis and the presence of seven specific genes linked to biofilm formation in association with traditional microbiology techniques, using Mueller Hinton and chicken juice as substrates in order to quantify, classify, determine the composition and morphology of the biomass of simple and mixed biofilms of 30 C...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769885/novel-pelagic-iron-oxidizing-zetaproteobacteria-from-the-chesapeake-bay-oxic-anoxic-transition-zone
#6
Beverly K Chiu, Shingo Kato, Sean M McAllister, Erin K Field, Clara S Chan
Chemolithotrophic iron-oxidizing bacteria (FeOB) could theoretically inhabit any environment where Fe(II) and O2 (or nitrate) coexist. Until recently, marine Fe-oxidizing Zetaproteobacteria had primarily been observed in benthic and subsurface settings, but not redox-stratified water columns. This may be due to the challenges that a pelagic lifestyle would pose for Zetaproteobacteria, given low Fe(II) concentrations in modern marine waters and the possibility that Fe oxyhydroxide biominerals could cause cells to sink...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752078/transcriptional-profiling-of-c-albicans-in-a-two-species-biofilm-with-rothia-dentocariosa
#7
Priya Uppuluri, Henk J Busscher, Jaideep Chakladar, Henny C van der Mei, W LaJean Chaffin
Biofilms on silicone rubber voice prostheses are the major cause for frequent failure and replacement of these devices. The presence of both bacterial and yeast strains has been suggested to be crucial for the development of voice prosthetic biofilms. Polymicrobial biofilms that include Candida albicans and Rothia dentocariosa are the leading cause of voice prosthesis failure. An in vitro biofilm comprising these two organisms was developed on silicone rubber, a material used for Groningen button voice prosthesis...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696232/community-composition-determines-activity-of-antibiotics-against-multispecies-biofilms
#8
Sarah Tavernier, Aurélie Crabbé, Mayram Tuysuz, Liesbeth Stuer, Silke Henry, Petra Rigole, Inne Dhondt, Tom Coenye
In young cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, Staphylococcus aureus is typically the most prevalent organism, while in adults, Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the major pathogen. More recently, it was observed that also Streptococcus anginosus plays an important role in exacerbations of respiratory symptoms. These species are often co-isolated from CF lungs, yet little is known about whether antibiotic killing of one species is influenced by the presence of others. In the present study, we compared the activity of various antibiotics against S...
July 10, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680970/nbiochip-a-lab-on-a-chip-platform-of-mono-and-polymicrobial-biofilms-for-high-throughput-downstream-applications
#9
Anand Srinivasan, Nelson S Torres, Kai P Leung, Jose L Lopez-Ribot, Anand K Ramasubramanian
Current in vitro techniques for the culture of microorganisms, and particularly of delicate microbial biofilms, are still mostly limited to low-density plates and manual labor and are not amenable to automation and true high-throughput (HT) applications. We have developed a novel fully automated platform for the formation of mono- and polymicrobial biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans at the nanoscale level. The nBioChip is robotically printed, robustly handled, and scanned using a standard microarray reader...
May 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679746/bacillus-subtilis-protects-public-goods-by-extending-kin-discrimination-to-closely-related-species
#10
Nicholas A Lyons, Roberto Kolter
Kin discrimination systems are found in numerous communal contexts like multicellularity and are theorized to prevent exploitation of cooperative behaviors. The kin discrimination system in Bacillus subtilis differs from most other such systems because it excludes nonkin cells rather than including kin cells. Because nonkin are the target of the system, B. subtilis can potentially distinguish degrees of nonkin relatedness, not just kin versus nonkin. We examined this by testing a large strain collection of diverse Bacillus species against B...
July 5, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670307/synthetic-microbial-ecology-engineering-habitats-for-modular-consortia
#11
Sami Ben Said, Dani Or
The metabolic diversity present in microbial communities enables cooperation toward accomplishing more complex tasks than possible by a single organism. Members of a consortium communicate by exchanging metabolites or signals that allow them to coordinate their activity through division of labor. In contrast with monocultures, evidence suggests that microbial consortia self-organize to form spatial patterns, such as observed in biofilms or in soil aggregates, that enable them to respond to gradient, to improve resource interception and to exchange metabolites more effectively...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666415/soluble-factors-from-biofilm-of-candida-albicans-and-staphylococcus-aureus-promote-cell-death-and-inflammatory-response
#12
Kassia de Carvalho Dias, Paula Aboud Barbugli, Fernanda de Patto, Virginia Barreto Lordello, Letícia de Aquino Penteado, Alexandra Ivo Medeiros, Carlos Eduardo Vergani
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to better understand the effects of soluble factors from biofilm of single- and mixed-species Candida albicans (C. albicans) and methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) cultures after 36 h in culture on keratinocytes (NOK-si and HaCaT) and macrophages (J774A.1). Soluble factors from biofilms of C. albicans and MSSA were collected and incubated with keratinocytes and macrophages, which were subsequently evaluated by cell viability assays (MTT)...
June 30, 2017: BMC Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648294/tolerance-development-in-listeria-monocytogenes-escherichia-coli-dual-species-biofilms-after-sublethal-exposures-to-pronase-benzalkonium-chloride-combined-treatments
#13
Pedro Rodríguez-López, Marta López Cabo
This study was designed to assess the effects that sublethal exposures to pronase (PRN) and benzalkonium chloride (BAC) combined treatments have on Listeria monocytogenes-Escherichia coli dual-species biofilms grown on stainless steel in terms of tolerance development (TD) to these compounds. Additionally, fluorescence microscopy was used to observe the changes of the biofilm structure. PRN-BAC exposure was carried out using three different approaches and TD was evaluated treating biofilms with a final 100 μg/ml PRN followed by 50 μg/ml BAC combined treatment...
October 2017: Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642749/rna-seq-reveals-enhanced-sugar-metabolism-in-streptococcus-mutans-co-cultured-with-candida-albicans-within-mixed-species-biofilms
#14
Jinzhi He, Dongyeop Kim, Xuedong Zhou, Sang-Joon Ahn, Robert A Burne, Vincent P Richards, Hyun Koo
Early childhood caries (ECC), which can lead to rampant tooth-decay that is painful and costly to treat, is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases affecting children worldwide. Previous studies support that interactions between Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans are associated with the pathogenesis of ECC. The presence of Candida enhances S. mutans growth, fitness and accumulation within biofilms in vitro, although the molecular basis for these behaviors is undefined. Using an established co-cultivation biofilm model and RNA-Seq, we investigated how C...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641671/occurrence-of-aerobic-and-anaerobic-bacteria-in-the-consumer-end-of-a-water-distribution-system
#15
Süleyman Hoca, Miray Üstüntürk-Onan, Esra Ilhan-Sungur
  In this study, mixed species biofilm formation including sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) on polypropylene surface and bacteriology of network water were investigated in a model water distribution system during a nine-month period. Water and biofilm samples were analyzed for the enumeration of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria (AHB), anaerobic heterotrophic bacteria (ANHB) and SRB. The number of live/dead bacteria was also analyzed by epifluorescence microscopy. In addition, extracellular polysaccharide substances (EPS) extraction, carbohydrate analysis and scanning electron microscope observation were performed...
July 1, 2017: Water Environment Research: a Research Publication of the Water Environment Federation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625992/flow-cytometry-is-a-powerful-tool-for-assessment-of-the-viability-of-fungal-conidia-in-metalworking-fluids
#16
D Vanhauteghem, K Demeyere, N Callaert, A Boelaert, G Haesaert, K Audenaert, E Meyer
Fungal contamination of metalworking fluids (MWF) is a dual problem in automated processing plants because resulting fungal biofilms obstruct cutting, drilling, and polishing machines. Moreover, some fungal species of MWF comprise pathogens such as Fusarium solani Therefore, the development of an accurate analytical tool to evaluate conidial viability in MWF is important. We developed a flow cytometric method to measure fungal viability in MWF using F. solani as the model organism. To validate this method, viable and dead conidia were mixed in several proportions and flow was cytometrically analyzed...
August 15, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624271/coagulase-negative-staphylococci-species-affect-biofilm-formation-of-other-coagulase-negative-and-coagulase-positive-staphylococci
#17
Coralie Goetz, Yannick D N Tremblay, Daphnée Lamarche, Andréanne Blondeau, Annie M Gaudreau, Josée Labrie, François Malouin, Mario Jacques
Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are considered to be commensal bacteria in humans and animals, but are now also recognized as etiological agents in several infections, including bovine mastitis. Biofilm formation appears to be an important factor in CNS pathogenicity. Furthermore, some researchers have proposed that CNS colonization of the intramammary environment has a protective effect against other pathogens. The mechanisms behind the protective effect of CNS have yet to be characterized. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of CNS isolates with a weak-biofilm phenotype on the biofilm formation of other staphylococcal isolates...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622460/antifungal-activity-of-tyrosol-and-farnesol-used-in-combination-against-candida-species-in-the-planktonic-state-or-forming-biofilms
#18
D R Monteiro, L S Arias, R A Fernandes, L F Deszo da Silva, M O V F de Castilho, T O da Rosa, A P M Vieira, F G Straioto, D B Barbosa, A C B Delbem
AIM: This study examined the antifungal activity of the combination of tyrosol and farnesol against Candida albicans and Candida glabrata in the planktonic state or forming biofilms. METHODS AND RESULTS: The effect of drug association against Candida planktonic cells was assessed by the fractional inhibitory concentration index. Mono- and dual-species biofilms were developed during 24 h and then treated with the compounds for 3 days, with two daily treatments of 1 min each...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617874/candida-albicans-mannans-mediate-streptococcus-mutans-exoenzyme-gtfb-binding-to-modulate-cross-kingdom-biofilm-development-in-vivo
#19
Geelsu Hwang, Yuan Liu, Dongyeop Kim, Yong Li, Damian J Krysan, Hyun Koo
Candida albicans is frequently detected with heavy infection by Streptococcus mutans in plaque-biofilms from children with early-childhood caries (ECC). This cross-kingdom biofilm contains an extensive matrix of extracellular α-glucans that is produced by an exoenzyme (GtfB) secreted by S. mutans. Here, we report that mannans located on the outer surface of C. albicans cell-wall mediates GtfB binding, enhancing glucan-matrix production and modulating bacterial-fungal association within biofilms formed in vivo...
June 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605597/bacterial-gtfb-augments-candida-albicans-accumulation-in-cross-kingdom-biofilms
#20
K Ellepola, Y Liu, T Cao, H Koo, C J Seneviratne
Streptococcus mutans is a biofilm-forming oral pathogen commonly associated with dental caries. Clinical studies have shown that S. mutans is often detected with Candida albicans in early childhood caries. Although the C. albicans presence has been shown to enhance bacterial accumulation in biofilms, the influence of S. mutans on fungal biology in this mixed-species relationship remains largely uncharacterized. Therefore, we aimed to investigate how the presence of S. mutans influences C. albicans biofilm development and coexistence...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
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