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Epileptiform

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045814/role-of-kcc2-dependent-potassium-efflux-in-4-aminopyridine-induced-epileptiform-synchronization
#1
Oscar C González, Zahra Shiri, Giri P Krishnan, Timothy L Myers, Sylvain Williams, Massimo Avoli, Maxim Bazhenov
A balance between excitation and inhibition is necessary to maintain stable brain network dynamics. Traditionally, seizure activity is believed to arise from the breakdown of this delicate balance in favor of excitation with loss of inhibition. Surprisingly, recent experimental evidence suggests that this conventional view may be limited, and that inhibition plays a prominent role in the development of epileptiform synchronization. Here, we explored the role of the KCC2 co-transporter in the onset of inhibitory network-induced seizures...
October 15, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042214/synthetic-cannabinoid-am2201-induces-seizures-involvement-of-cannabinoid-cb1-receptors-and-glutamatergic-transmission
#2
Masahiko Funada, Mika Takebayashi-Ohsawa
Abuse of synthetic cannabinoids is a serious social problem worldwide. Intentional ingestion of synthetic cannabinoids can cause severe toxicity, including seizures. Here we investigated the effects of acute administration of synthetic cannabinoids on the induction of epileptic seizures by monitoring electroencephalographic activity in freely moving mice. The synthetic cannabinoid, AM2201, induced abnormal, high-amplitude (>2-fold baseline amplitude), sharp-wave activity. The abnormal spike-wave discharges were accompanied by epileptiform behavior: rigid posture, tail extension, rearing with forepaws extended, jumping, and intermittent tonic-clonic jerking movements...
October 14, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040672/unsupervised-learning-of-spatiotemporal-interictal-discharges-in-focal-epilepsy
#3
Maxime O Baud, Jonathan K Kleen, Gopala K Anumanchipalli, Liberty S Hamilton, Yee-Leng Tan, Robert Knowlton, Edward F Chang
BACKGROUND: Interictal epileptiform discharges are an important biomarker for localization of focal epilepsy, especially in patients who undergo chronic intracranial monitoring. Manual detection of these pathophysiological events is cumbersome, but is still superior to current rule-based approaches in most automated algorithms. OBJECTIVE: To develop an unsupervised machine-learning algorithm for the improved, automated detection and localization of interictal epileptiform discharges based on spatiotemporal pattern recognition...
October 10, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039074/the-usefulness-of-stereo-electroencephalography-seeg-in-the-surgical-management-of-focal-epilepsy-associated-with-hidden-temporal-pole-encephalocele-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#4
João Paulo Sant Ana Santos de Souza, Jeff Mullin, Connor Wathen, Juan Bulacio, Patrick Chauvel, Lara Jehi, Jorge Gonzalez-Martinez
The authors report a case of 18-year-old woman with partial complex seizures compatible with temporal epilepsy by semiology. Due to medical refractoriness, she was referred to pre-surgical evaluation. Initially, MRI showed no significant structural abnormality and superficial scalp EEG demonstrated epileptiform activity in the frontotemporal areas. Due to the lack of clear MRI abnormalities and the potential involvement of dominant mesial temporal structures by seizure semiology and non-invasive data, extra-operative invasive evaluation using stereo-electroencephalography (SEEG) methodology was indicated...
October 16, 2017: Neurosurgical Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035369/epigenetic-suppression-of-hippocampal-calbindin-d28k-by-%C3%AE-fosb-drives-seizure-related-cognitive-deficits
#5
Jason C You, Kavitha Muralidharan, Jin W Park, Iraklis Petrof, Mark S Pyfer, Brian F Corbett, John J LaFrancois, Yi Zheng, Xiaohong Zhang, Carrie A Mohila, Daniel Yoshor, Robert A Rissman, Eric J Nestler, Helen E Scharfman, Jeannie Chin
The calcium-binding protein calbindin-D28k is critical for hippocampal function and cognition, but its expression is markedly decreased in various neurological disorders associated with epileptiform activity and seizures. In Alzheimer's disease (AD) and epilepsy, both of which are accompanied by recurrent seizures, the severity of cognitive deficits reflects the degree of calbindin reduction in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). However, despite the importance of calbindin in both neuronal physiology and pathology, the regulatory mechanisms that control its expression in the hippocampus are poorly understood...
October 16, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033811/altered-local-spatiotemporal-consistency-of-resting-state-bold-signals-in-patients-with-generalized-tonic-clonic-seizures
#6
Shuai Ma, Sisi Jiang, Rui Peng, Qiong Zhu, Hongbin Sun, Jianfu Li, Xiaoyan Jia, Ilan Goldberg, Liang Yu, Cheng Luo
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the spatiotemporal Consistency of spontaneous activities in local brain regions in patients with generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS). The resting-state fMRI data were acquired from nineteen patients with GTCS and twenty-two matched healthy subjects. FOur-dimensional (spatiotemporal) Consistency of local neural Activities (FOCA) metric was used to analyze the spontaneous activity in whole brain. The FOCA difference between two groups were detected using a two sample t-test analysis...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031218/termination-patterns-of-stimulus-induced-rhythmic-periodic-or-ictal-patterns-and-spontaneous-electrographic-seizures
#7
Emily L Johnson, Peter W Kaplan, Eva K Ritzl
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the ability of the evolution and termination patterns to distinguish stimulus-induced rhythmic, periodic, or ictal discharges (SIRPIDs) from spontaneous electrographic seizures, a challenge to the neurophysiologist and clinician. METHODS: We screened the prospectively collected database of patients undergoing continuous EEG (cEEG) and identified 25 cases of SIRPIDs. We compared patients with SIRPIDs to 25 patients with spontaneous seizures...
September 28, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024712/brief-activation-of-gabaergic-interneurons-initiates-the-transition-to-ictal-events-through-post-inhibitory-rebound-excitation
#8
Michael Chang, Joshua A Dian, Suzie Dufour, Lihua Wang, Homeira Moradi-Chameh, Meera Ramani, Liang Zhang, Peter L Carlen, Thilo Womelsdorf, Taufik A Valiante
Activation of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAA) receptors have been associated with the onset of epileptiform events. To investigate if a causal relationship exists between GABAA receptor activation and ictal event onset, we activated inhibitory GABAergic networks in the superficial layer (2/3) of the somatosensory cortex during hyperexcitable conditions using optogenetic techniques in mice expressing channelrhodopsin-2 in all GABAergic interneurons. We found that a brief 30ms light pulse reliably triggered either an interictal-like event (IIE) or ictal-like ("ictal") event in the in vitro cortical 4-Aminopyridine (4-AP) slice model...
October 9, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024662/loss-of-clock-results-in-dysfunction-of-brain-circuits-underlying-focal-epilepsy
#9
Peijun Li, Xiaoqin Fu, Nathan A Smith, Julie Ziobro, Julian Curiel, Milagros J Tenga, Brandon Martin, Samuel Freedman, Christian A Cea-Del Rio, Livio Oboti, Tammy N Tsuchida, Chima Oluigbo, Amanda Yaun, Suresh N Magge, Brent O'Neill, Amy Kao, Tesfaye G Zelleke, Dewi T Depositario-Cabacar, Svetlana Ghimbovschi, Susan Knoblach, Chen-Ying Ho, Joshua G Corbin, Howard P Goodkin, Stefano Vicini, Molly M Huntsman, William D Gaillard, Gregorio Valdez, Judy S Liu
Because molecular mechanisms underlying refractory focal epilepsy are poorly defined, we performed transcriptome analysis on human epileptogenic tissue. Compared with controls, expression of Circadian Locomotor Output Cycles Kaput (CLOCK) is decreased in epileptogenic tissue. To define the function of CLOCK, we generated and tested the Emx-Cre; Clock(flox/flox) and PV-Cre; Clock(flox/flox) mouse lines with targeted deletions of the Clock gene in excitatory and parvalbumin (PV)-expressing inhibitory neurons, respectively...
October 11, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023307/interrater-agreement-of-eeg-interpretation-after-pediatric-cardiac-arrest-using-standardized-critical-care-eeg-terminology
#10
Nicholas S Abend, Shavonne L Massey, Mark Fitzgerald, France Fung, Natalie J Atkin, Rui Xiao, Alexis A Topjian
PURPOSE: We evaluated interrater agreement of EEG interpretation in a cohort of critically ill children resuscitated after cardiac arrest using standardized EEG terminology. METHODS: Four pediatric electroencephalographers scored 10-minute EEG segments from 72 consecutive children obtained 24 hours after return of circulation using the American Clinical Neurophysiology Society's (ACNS) Standardized Critical Care EEG terminology. The percent of perfect agreement and the kappa coefficient were calculated for each of the standardized EEG variables and a predetermined composite EEG background category...
October 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022116/two-dimensional-temporal-clustering-analysis-for-patients-with-epilepsy-detecting-epilepsy-related-information-in-eeg-fmri-concordant-discordant-and-spike-less-patients
#11
Danilo Maziero, Tonicarlo R Velasco, Carlos E G Salmon, Victoria L Morgan
EEG acquired simultaneously with fMRI (EEG-fMRI) is a multimodal method that has shown promise in mapping the seizure onset zone in patients with focal epilepsy. However, there are many instances when this method is unsuccessful or not applicable, and other data driven fMRI methods may be utilized. One such method is the two-dimensional temporal clustering analysis (2dTCA). In this study we compared the classic EEG-fMRI and 2dTCA performance in mapping regions related to the seizure onset region in 18 focal epilepsy patients (12 presenting interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs), during EEG-fMRI acquisition) with Engel I or II surgical outcome...
October 11, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017369/the-success-rate-of-neurology-residents-in-eeg-interpretation-after-formal-training
#12
Nese Dericioglu, Pınar Ozdemir
EEG is an important tool for neurologists in both diagnosis and classification of seizures. It is not uncommon in clinical practice to see patients who were erroneously diagnosed as epileptic. Most of the time incorrect interpretation of EEG contributes significantly to this problem. In this study, we aimed to investigate the success rate of neurology residents in EEG interpretation after formal training. Eleven neurology residents were included in the study. Duration of EEG training (3 vs 4 months) and time since completion of EEG education were determined...
October 1, 2017: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017080/prognostic-significance-of-postoperative-spikes-varied-in-different-surgical-procedures-for-mesial-temporal-sclerosis
#13
Hsiang-Yu Yu, Sanford P C Hsu, Chun-Fu Lin, Yang-Hsin Shih, Der-Jen Yen, Shang-Yeong Kwan, Chien Chen, Chien-Chen Chou
PURPOSE: We conducted this study to compare the occurrence and prognostic significance of early postoperative interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) on seizure outcomes between corticoamygdalohippocampectomy (CAH) and selective amygdalohippocampectomy (SAH). METHODS: We reviewed our database of patients who had epilepsy surgery with hippocampus atrophy or signal changes on brain MRIs and pathology of mesial temporal sclerosis. One hundred and seventy-seven CAH and 39 SAH patients were enrolled...
October 3, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993753/electroencephalography-in-the-diagnosis-of-genetic-generalized-epilepsy-syndromes
#14
REVIEW
Udaya Seneviratne, Mark J Cook, Wendyl Jude D'Souza
Genetic generalized epilepsy (GGE) consists of several syndromes diagnosed and classified on the basis of clinical features and electroencephalographic (EEG) abnormalities. The main EEG feature of GGE is bilateral, synchronous, symmetric, and generalized spike-wave complex. Other classic EEG abnormalities are polyspikes, epileptiform K-complexes and sleep spindles, polyspike-wave discharges, occipital intermittent rhythmic delta activity, eye-closure sensitivity, fixation-off sensitivity, and photoparoxysmal response...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989834/the-change-of-picrotoxin-induced-epileptiform-discharges-to-the-beta-oscillation-by-carbachol-in-rat-hippocampal-slices
#15
Ayumi Hashimoto, Toyohiro Sawada, Kiyohisa Natsume
The study aimed to determine whether and how the activation of the acetylcholine receptor affects epileptiform discharges in the CA3 region in a rat hippocampus. Picrotoxin (100 μM), a GABAA receptor antagonist, was applied to a hippocampal slice to induce epileptiform discharges. The effects of the cholinergic agonist, carbachol, on the discharges were examined at the several concentrations (1-30 μM). Carbachol had different impacts on epileptiform discharges at the different concentrations. Relatively low concentrations of carbachol (<10 μM) increased the frequency but decreased the amplitude of the discharges...
2017: Biophysics and Physicobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988516/quinine-and-carbenoxolone-enhance-the-anticonvulsant-activity-of-some-classical-antiepileptic-drugs
#16
Javier Franco-Pérez, Joaquín Manjarrez-Marmolejo, Cesar Rodríguez-Balderas, Nelly Castro, Paola Ballesteros-Zebadua
Objective Quinine (QUIN) and carbenoxolone (CNX) elicit anticonvulsant effects typically characterized by the reduction of the epileptiform activity as well as changes in behavioral parameters related to seizures. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the effects of these molecules on the anticonvulsant activity of some classical antiepileptic drugs. Methods Male Wistar rats were used. Valproate (VPA), phenytoin (PHT), or carbamazepine (CBZ) was administered at sub-therapeutic doses for intraperitoneal via...
October 8, 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985901/systemic-manifestations-in-pyridox-am-ine-5-phosphate-oxidase-deficiency
#17
Réjean M Guerriero, Archana A Patel, Brian Walsh, Fiona M Baumer, Ankoor S Shah, Jurriaan M Peters, Lance H Rodan, Pankaj B Agrawal, Phillip L Pearl, Masanori Takeoka
OBJECTIVE: Pyridoxine is converted to its biologically active form pyridoxal-5-phosphate (P5P) by the enzyme pyridox(am)ine 5'-phosphate oxidase and serves as a cofactor in nearly 200 reactions in the central nervous system. Pyridox(am)ine 5'-phosphate oxidase deficiency leads to P5P dependent epilepsy, typically a neonatal- or infantile-onset epileptic encephalopathy treatable with P5P or in some cases, pyridoxine. Following identification of retinopathy in a patient with pyridox(am)ine 5'-phosphate oxidase deficiency that was reversible with P5P therapy, we describe the systemic manifestations of pyridox(am)ine 5'-phosphate oxidase deficiency...
June 3, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984294/perinatal-immune-activation-produces-persistent-sleep-alterations-and-epileptiform-activity-in-male-mice
#18
Galen Missig, Emery L Mokler, James O Robbins, Abigail J Alexander, Christopher J McDougle, William A Carlezon
Increasing evidence suggests a role for inflammation in neuropsychiatric conditions including autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Previous work in rodents has established that immune activation during critical developmental periods can cause phenotypes that reproduce core features of ASD, including decreased social interaction, aberrant communication, and increased repetitive behavior. In humans, ASD is frequently associated with co-morbid medical conditions including sleep disorders, motor hyperactivity, and seizures...
October 6, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983917/influence-of-the-location-and-type-of-epileptogenic-lesion-on-scalp-interictal-epileptiform-discharges-and-high-frequency-oscillations
#19
Carolina Cuello-Oderiz, Nicolas von Ellenrieder, François Dubeau, Jean Gotman
OBJECTIVE: To increase the diagnostic power of scalp electroencephalography (EEG) by investigating whether lesion type and location influence the morphology of interictal epileptic discharges (IEDs) and the likelihood that IEDs and high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) are present. METHODS: We studied EEG activity in epilepsy patients with lesional epilepsy. Lesions were classified by type and by location (region and depth). We marked a maximum of 50 IEDs during deep non-rapid eye movement sleep...
October 6, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983801/electronic-health-data-predict-outcomes-after-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#20
Sahar F Zafar, Eva N Postma, Siddharth Biswal, Lucas Fleuren, Emily J Boyle, Sophia Bechek, Kathryn O'Connor, Apeksha Shenoy, Durga Jonnalagadda, Jennifer Kim, Mouhsin S Shafi, Aman B Patel, Eric S Rosenthal, M Brandon Westover
BACKGROUD: Using electronic health data, we sought to identify clinical and physiological parameters that in combination predict neurologic outcomes after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). METHODS: We conducted a single-center retrospective cohort study of patients admitted with aSAH between 2011 and 2016. A set of 473 predictor variables was evaluated. Our outcome measure was discharge Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS). For laboratory and physiological data, we computed the minimum, maximum, median, and variance for the first three admission days...
October 5, 2017: Neurocritical Care
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