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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677945/automatic-recognition-of-epileptiform-eeg-abnormalities
#1
Alexander Brenner, Ekaterina Kutafina, Stephan M Jonas
Long term EEG examinations, for example during epilepsy diagnosis, can be performed more efficiently with support of automated abnormality detection. Currently, these methods are usually developed based on one specific database, which limits the possibilities of generalizations. Here, we present a machine learning solution for detection of interictal abnormal EEG segments optimized on the publically available TUH Abnormal EEG Corpus. The classifier is further re-trained and tested on several combinations of publicly available data sets...
2018: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677014/continuous-electroencephalography-in-the-critically-ill-clinical-and-continuous-electroencephalography-markers-for-targeted-monitoring
#2
Christopher R Newey, Tyler G Kinzy, Vineet Punia, Stephen Hantus
PURPOSE: Electrographic seizures detected by continuous electroencephalography (CEEG) in critically ill patients with altered mental status is becoming increasingly recognized. Data guiding the appropriate selection of patients to be monitored on CEEG are lacking. The aims of this article were to study the incidence of seizures in the critical care setting and to evaluate for clinical predictors to improve the efficiency of CEEG monitoring. METHODS: Retrospective review of the CEEG and clinical data on 1,123 consecutive patients who had continuous video EEG over a 24-month period...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672545/epileptiform-activity-during-inert-gas-euthanasia-of-mice
#3
Thomas C Gent, Carlotta Detotto, Alexei L Vyssotski, Regula Bettschart-Wolfensberger
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is one of the most commonly used euthanasia agents for mice, yet it is highly aversive and nociceptive. Inert gases are a possible alternative, however there are qualitative reports of seizures resulting from exposure. Here we evaluate epileptiform activity caused by inert gases (N2, He, Ar and Xe) and CO2 in mice chronically instrumented for EEG/EMG undergoing single-gas euthanasia. We found that N2, He and Ar caused epileptiform activity in all animals, CO2 in half of animals and no epileptiform activity produced by Xe...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672310/significance-of-fdg-pet-hypermetabolism-in-children-with-intractable-focal-epilepsy
#4
Solon Schur, Victoria Allen, Andrew White, David Mirsky, Nicholas Stence, Brent O'Neill, Michael Handler, Roy Dudley, Pramote Laoprasert
BACKGROUND: Interictal 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission topography (FDG-PET) hypometabolism is routinely used in the presurgical workup of children with medically intractable epilepsy (MIE). FDG-PET hypermetabolism, however, is rarely seen, and the significance of this finding in the epilepsy workup is not well established. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of patients who underwent FDG-PET during the presurgical workup of MIE over a 4-year period, between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2013, at the Children's Hospital Colorado, CO, USA...
April 19, 2018: Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672015/zebrafish-based-discovery-of-antiseizure-compounds-from-the-red-sea-pseurotin-a-2-and-azaspirofuran-a
#5
Daniëlle Copmans, Mostafa Rateb, Jioji N Tabudravu, Mercedes Pérez-Bonilla, Nina Dirkx, Riccardo Vallorani, Caridad Diaz, José Pérez Del Palacio, Alan J Smith, Rainer Ebel, Fernando Reyes, Marcel Jaspars, Peter A M de Witte
In search for novel antiseizure drugs (ASDs), the European FP7-funded PharmaSea project used zebrafish embryos and larvae as a drug discovery platform to screen marine natural products to identify promising antiseizure hits in vivo for further development. Within the framework of this project, seven known heterospirocyclic γ-lactams, namely, pseurotin A, pseurotin A2 , pseurotin F1, 11- O-methylpseurotin A, pseurotin D, azaspirofuran A, and azaspirofuran B, were isolated from the bioactive marine fungus Aspergillus fumigatus, and their antiseizure activity was evaluated in the larval zebrafish pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) seizure model...
April 19, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667129/elevation-of-mmp-9-levels-promotes-epileptogenesis-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#6
Barbara Pijet, Marzena Stefaniuk, Agnieszka Kostrzewska-Ksiezyk, Photini-Effie Tsilibary, Athina Tzinia, Leszek Kaczmarek
Posttraumatic epilepsy (PTE) is a recurrent seizure disorder that often develops secondary to traumatic brain injury (TBI) that is caused by an external mechanical force. Recent evidence shows that the brain extracellular matrix plays a major role in the remodeling of neuronal connections after injury. One of the proteases that is presumably responsible for this process is matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). The levels of MMP-9 are elevated in rodent brain tissue and human blood samples after TBI. However, no studies have described the influence of MMP-9 on the development of PTE...
April 17, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666711/creutzfeldt-jakob-disease-presenting-as-expressive-aphasia-and-nonconvulsive-status-epilepticus
#7
Hafiz B Mahboob, Kazi H Kaokaf, Jeremy M Gonda
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), the most common form of human prion diseases, is a fatal condition with a mortality rate reaching 85% within one year of clinical presentation. CJD is characterized by rapidly progressive neurological deterioration in combination with typical electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings and positive cerebrospinal spinal fluid (CSF) analysis for 14-3-3 proteins. Unfortunately, CJD can have atypical clinical and radiological presentation in approximately 10% of cases, thus making the diagnosis often challenging...
2018: Case Reports in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665529/electroclinical-characteristics-and-syndromic-associations-of-eye-condition-related-visual-sensitive-epilepsies-a-cross-sectional-study
#8
Kalyani Dilip Karkare, Ramshekhar N Menon, Ashalatha Radhakrishnan, Ajith Cherian, Sanjeev V Thomas
PURPOSE: The systematic study of visual phenomena such as eye closure (ECLS), eye-closed/fixation-off sensitivity (FOS) [terminology proposed as eye-condition sensitive (ECS) epilepsy] distinct from photosensitivity is rarely explored in literature. METHODS: Clinical, electroencephalographic (EEG) and imaging records of patients attending an epilepsy clinic were screened. Inclusion criterion was demonstrable electrographic visual sensitivitiy in the form of ECS parameters with/without photosensitivity...
March 30, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660559/potassium-dynamics-and-seizures-why-is-potassium-ictogenic
#9
REVIEW
Marco de Curtis, Laura Uva, Vadym Gnatkovsky, Laura Librizzi
Potassium channels dysfunction and altered genes encoding for molecules involved in potassium homeostasis have been associated with human epilepsy. These observations are in agreement with a control role of extracellular potassium on neuronal excitability and seizure generation. Epileptiform activity, in turn, regulates potassium homeostasis through mechanisms that are still not well established. We review here how potassium-associated processes are regulated in the brain and examine the mechanisms that support the role of potassium in triggering epileptiform activities...
April 10, 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659050/continuous-electroencephalography-predicts-delayed-cerebral-ischemia-after-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-a-prospective-study-of-diagnostic-accuracy
#10
Eric S Rosenthal, Siddharth Biswal, Sahar F Zafar, Kathryn L O'Connor, Sophia Bechek, Apeksha V Shenoy, Emily J Boyle, Mouhsin M Shafi, Emily J Gilmore, Brandon P Foreman, Nicolas Gaspard, Thabele M Leslie-Mazwi, Jonathan Rosand, Daniel B Hoch, Cenk Ayata, Sydney S Cash, Andrew J Cole, Aman B Patel, M Brandon Westover
OBJECTIVE: Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) is a common, disabling complication of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Preventing DCI is a key focus of neurocritical care, but interventions carry risk and cannot be applied indiscriminately. While retrospective studies have identified continuous EEG (cEEG) measures associated with DCI, no study has characterized the accuracy of cEEG with sufficient rigor to justify using it to triage patients to interventions or clinical trials. We therefore prospectively assessed the accuracy of cEEG for predicting DCI, following the Standards for Reporting Diagnostic Accuracy Studies...
April 16, 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656097/treatment-of-epilepsy-in-multiple-sclerosis
#11
Ioanna Dagiasi, Victor Vall, Eva Kumlien, Joachim Burman, Johan Zelano
PURPOSE: The prevalence of epilepsy is increased in multiple sclerosis (MS), but information on AED treatment and seizure outcome is scarce. We describe epilepsy characteristics including the use of AEDs and proportion of seizure-free patients at two tertiary hospitals in Sweden. METHOD: We retrospectively studied electronic medical records of all patients with a diagnosis of MS and seizures at Sahlgrenska university hospital and Uppsala university hospital. Clinical data were reviewed until 2017...
April 5, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649700/detailed-spectral-profile-analysis-of-electrocorticograms-during-freezing-against-penicillin-induced-epileptiform-discharges-in-the-anesthetized-rat
#12
Tatsuji Tokiwa, Lev Zimin, Takao Inoue, Sadahiro Nomura, Michiyasu Suzuki, Takeshi Yamakawa
OBJECTIVES: Cryosurgery is an alternative technique for minimally invasive treatment of lesions. We have recently examined cryosurgery for epilepsy in animal models, and found that penicillin G (PG)-induced epileptiform discharges (EDs) mostly vanished after freezing. However, EDs were provoked again after insufficient freezing. Inadequate freezing is not visually detectable during and just after freezing and is not predictable beforehand. To manage this problem, we examined whether intraoperative monitoring of electrocorticograms (ECoGs) can predict recurrence of EDs after cryosurgery...
March 29, 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649454/association-between-scn1a-and-scn2a-mutations-and-clinical-eeg-features-in-chinese-patients-from-epilepsy-or-severe-seizures
#13
Yanting Kong, Kai Yan, Liyuan Hu, Mingbang Wang, Xinran Dong, Yulan Lu, Bingbing Wu, Huijun Wang, Lin Yang, Wenhao Zhou
BACKGROUND: We investigated the association between SCN1A and SCN2A mutations and clinical phenotype and electroencephalography (EEG) features. METHODS: In this study, 48 patients suffered from epilepsy or severe seizures with SCN1A and SCN2A mutations were recruited. Medical data and molecular diagnosis were analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 47 mutations were identified, including 33 novel mutations. The onset of most epilepsy caused by SCN1A mutations (1-6 m) was later than that of SCN2A mutations (neonatal)...
April 9, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649013/eeg-patterns-in-patients-with-calcified-neurocysticercosis-with-or-without-hippocampal-atrophy
#14
Naoum P Issa, Mark J Sedler, Victor J Del Brutto, Elizabeth Darsan, Lucía Milla, Jessica Montes, Mauricio Zambrano, Oscar H Del Brutto
PURPOSE: To assess whether hippocampal atrophy develops in conjunction with clinical or subclinical epileptiform or encephalopathic activity in subjects with neurocysticercosis (NCC). METHODS: Using a population-based and nested case-control study design, scalp EEGs and brain MRIs were performed in Atahualpa residents aged ≥40 years, who have imaging-confirmed NCC (case patients), as well as in age- and sex-matched NCC-free control subjects. RESULTS: Sixty-two case patients and 62 control subjects were included...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644724/a-novel-missense-mutation-in-grin2a-causes-a-nonepileptic-neurodevelopmental-disorder
#15
Ana Fernández-Marmiesse, Hirofumi Kusumoto, Saray Rekarte, Iria Roca, Jin Zhang, Scott J Myers, Stephen F Traynelis, Mª Luz Couce, Luis Gutierrez-Solana, Hongjie Yuan
BACKGROUND: Mutations in the GRIN2A gene, which encodes the GluN2A (glutamate [NMDA] receptor subunit epsilon-1) subunit of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor, have been identified in patients with epilepsy-aphasia spectrum disorders, idiopathic focal epilepsies with centrotemporal spikes, and epileptic encephalopathies with severe developmental delay. However, thus far, mutations in this gene have not been associated with a nonepileptic neurodevelopmental disorder with dystonia. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to identify the disease-causing gene in 2 siblings with neurodevelopmental and movement disorders with no epileptiform abnormalities...
April 11, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629658/comparative-study-of-the-effects-exerted-by-n-valproyl-l-phenylalanine-and-n-valproyl-l-tryptophan-on-ca1-hippocampal-epileptiform-activity-in-rat
#16
Fabio Carletti, Valerio Rizzo, Giuditta Gambino, Viviana De Caro, Flavia Maria Sutera, Libero Italo Giannola, Giuseppe Ferraro, Pierangelo Sardo
BACKGROUND: Research about improvement of epilepsy therapy is constantly growing. Valproyl-L-Phenylalanine (VPA-Phen) and N-valproyl-L-tryptophan (VPA-Tryp) were synthesized to increase the antiepileptic valproic acid efficacy. METHODS: VPA-Phen and VPA-Tryp were comparatively tested on CA1 hippocampal epileptiform bursting activity obtained by increasing potassium and lowering calcium and magnesium concentrations in the fluid perfusing rat brain slices. Each slice was treated with a single concentration (0...
April 8, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628910/the-sub-regional-functional-organization-of-neocortical-irritative-epileptic-networks-in-pediatric-epilepsy
#17
Radek Janca, Pavel Krsek, Petr Jezdik, Roman Cmejla, Martin Tomasek, Vladimir Komarek, Petr Marusic, Premysl Jiruska
Between seizures, irritative network generates frequent brief synchronous activity, which manifests on the EEG as interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs). Recent insights into the mechanism of IEDs at the microscopic level have demonstrated a high variance in the recruitment of neuronal populations generating IEDs and a high variability in the trajectories through which IEDs propagate across the brain. These phenomena represent one of the major constraints for precise characterization of network organization and for the utilization of IEDs during presurgical evaluations...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625197/a-single-subconvulsant-dose-of-domoic-acid-at-mid-gestation-does-not-cause-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-in-mice
#18
Fanny Demars, Kristen Clark, Megan S Wyeth, Emily Abrams, Paul S Buckmaster
Harmful blooms of domoic acid (DA)-producing algae are a problem in oceans worldwide. DA is a potent glutamate receptor agonist that can cause status epilepticus and in survivors, temporal lobe epilepsy. In mice, one-time low-dose in utero exposure to DA was reported to cause hippocampal damage and epileptiform activity, leading to the hypothesis that unrecognized exposure to DA from contaminated seafood in pregnant women can damage the fetal hippocampus and initiate temporal lobe epileptogenesis. However, development of epilepsy (i...
April 3, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625107/cephalosporin-antibiotics-are-weak-blockers-of-gabaa-receptor-mediated-synaptic-transmission-in-rat-brain-slices
#19
Dmitry V Amakhin, Elena B Soboleva, Aleksey V Zaitsev
Cephalosporins are beta-lactam antibiotics that are extensively used in medical practice and are reported to cause epileptic seizures in some patients. The primary cause of cephalosporin-induced convulsions is believed to be their ability to block GABAa receptors. However, direct evidence for the involvement of this mechanism has not yet been provided. The present study aims to investigate the ability of two cephalosporins - cefepime and ceftriaxone - to block inhibitory synaptic transmission in entorhinal cortex slices of rats...
April 3, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623027/preclinical-to-clinical-translation-of-studies-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-in-the-treatment-of-epilepsy-a-systematic-review
#20
Gabriela G Regner, Patrícia Pereira, Douglas T Leffa, Carla de Oliveira, Rafael Vercelino, Felipe Fregni, Iraci L S Torres
Epilepsy is a chronic brain syndrome characterized by recurrent seizures resulting from excessive neuronal discharges. Despite the development of various new antiepileptic drugs, many patients are refractory to treatment and report side effects. Non-invasive methods of brain stimulation, such as transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), have been tested as alternative approaches to directly modulate the excitability of epileptogenic neural circuits. Although some pilot and initial clinical studies have shown positive results, there is still uncertainty regarding the next steps of investigation in this field...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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