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Epileptiform

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432985/a-relatively-mild-phenotype-associated-with-mutation-of-scn8a
#1
Irene Bagnasco, Patrizia Dassi, Roberta Blé, Piernanda Vigliano
Mutations in SCN8A gene have been described in relation to infantile onset epilepsy with movement disorders and developmental delay. Recently various authors have reported patients carrying autosomal dominant heterozygous SCN8A mutations and a milder phenotype expression. We discuss the case of a 6-year-old girl with a positive family history for epilepsy, early benign focal epilepsy, well controlled by Carbamazepine, upper limb tremor since birth, ataxia, slight motor delay and normal cognitive development...
February 7, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428275/familial-cases-of-progressive-myoclonic-epilepsy-caused-by-maternal-somatic-mosaicism-of-a-recurrent-kcnc1-p-arg320his-mutation
#2
Hyuna Kim, Sangmoon Lee, Murim Choi, Hunmin Kim, Hee Hwang, JiEun Choi, Jong Hee Chae, Ki Joong Kim, Byung Chan Lim
PURPOSE: A recurrent de novo mutation in KCNC1 (c.959G > A, p.Arg320His) has been identified recently as one of the important genetic causes of progress myoclonic epilepsy (PME). The clinical phenotype resulting from this mutation has been named as myoclonus epilepsy and ataxia due to potassium channel mutation (MEAK). This finding carries important clinical implications in that autosomal dominant inheritance and de novo occurrence need to be considered when conducting genetic tests in patients with PME...
February 8, 2018: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427204/reduced-cooperativity-of-voltage-gated-sodium-channels-in-the-hippocampal-interneurons-of-an-aged-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
Carlos Perez, Ghanim Ullah
Beta amyloid (A[Formula: see text] ) associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) leads to abnormal behavior in inhibitory neurons, resulting in hyperactive neuronal networks, epileptiform behavior, disrupted gamma rhythms, and aberrant synaptic plasticity. Previously, we used a dual modeling-experimental approach to explain several observations, including failure to reliably produce action potentials (APs), smaller AP amplitudes, higher resting membrane potential, and higher membrane depolarization in response to a range of stimuli in hippocampal inhibitory neurons from 12- to 16-month-old female AP Pswe/PSEN1DeltaE9 (APdE9) AD mice as compared to age-matched non-transgenic (NTG) mice...
February 9, 2018: European Biophysics Journal: EBJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422636/childhood-epilepsy-and-adhd-comorbidity-in-an-indian-tertiary-medical-center-outpatient-population
#4
Anita Choudhary, Sheffali Gulati, Rajesh Sagar, Naveen Sankhyan, Kam Sripada
This study aimed to assess the prevalence of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and its characteristics and risk factors in children with epilepsy at a tertiary medical center in New Delhi. Children with active epilepsy, aged 6 to 12 years, were assessed for ADHD using DSM-IV-TR criteria. Epilepsy and psychiatric characteristics, sociodemographic indicators, and use of antiepileptic drugs were analyzed for differences between the ADHD and non-ADHD groups. Among the 73 children with epilepsy, 23% (n = 17) had comorbid ADHD, of whom 59% (n = 10) had predominantly inattentive type, 35% (n = 6) combined type, and 6% (n = 1) predominantly hyperactive-impulsive type...
February 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414525/electrographic-and-pharmacological-characterization-of-a-progressive-epilepsy-phenotype-in-female-mecp2-deficient-mice
#5
Robert G Wither, Sinisa Colic, Berj L Bardakjian, O Carter Snead, Liang Zhang, James H Eubanks
Rett Syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused primarily by mutations in the gene encoding Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MECP2). Spontaneous epileptiform activity is a common co-morbidity present in Rett syndrome, and hyper-excitable neural networks are present in MeCP2-deficient mouse models of Rett syndrome. In this study we conducted a longitudinal assessment of spontaneous cortical electrographic discharges in female MeCP2-deficient mice and defined the pharmacological responsiveness of these discharges to anti-convulsant drugs...
January 26, 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414407/epileptiform-and-periodic-eeg-activities-induced-by-rapid-sevoflurane-anaesthesia-induction
#6
Eila Sonkajärvi, Seppo Rytky, Seppo Alahuhta, Kalervo Suominen, Timo Kumpulainen, Pasi Ohtonen, Elina Karvonen, Ville Jäntti
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to compare the EEG findings and haemodynamic parameters of adult male patients while undergoing mask induction with sevoflurane anaesthesia with either controlled hyperventilation (CH) or spontaneous breathing (SB). METHODS: Twenty male patients, aged 23-52 (mean 42) years were anaesthetized randomly with either spontaneous breathing or mild controlled hyperventilation via mask. EEG was recorded using a full 10-20 electrode set...
January 11, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414405/eeg-synchronization-measures-predict-epilepsy-related-bold-fmri-fluctuations-better-than-commonly-used-univariate-metrics
#7
Rodolfo Abreu, Alberto Leal, Fernando Lopes da Silva, Patrícia Figueiredo
OBJECTIVE: We hypothesize that the hypersynchronization associated with epileptic activity is best described by EEG synchronization measures, and propose to use these as predictors of epilepsy-related BOLD fluctuations. METHODS: We computed the phase synchronization index (PSI) and global field synchronization (GFS), within two frequency bands, a broadband (1-45 Hz) and a narrower band focused on the presence of epileptic activity (3-10 Hz). The associated epileptic networks were compared with those obtained using conventional unitary regressors and two power-weighted metrics (total power and root mean square frequency), on nine simultaneous EEG-fMRI datasets from four epilepsy patients, exhibiting inter-ictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs)...
January 11, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412775/opposing-effects-of-2-deoxy-d-glucose-on-interictal-and-ictal-like-activity-when-k-currents-and-gabaa-receptors-are-blocked-in-rat-hippocampus-in-vitro
#8
Steen Nedergaard, Mogens Andreasen
The ketogenic diet (KD), a high-fat, carbohydrate-restricted diet, is used as an alternative treatment for drug-resistant epileptic patients. Evidence suggests that compromised glucose metabolism has a significant role in the anticonvulsant action of the KD, however, it is unclear what part of the glucose metabolism that is important. The present study investigates how selective alterations in glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation influence epileptiform activity induced by blocking K+ currents, GABAA and NMDA receptors in the hippocampal slice preparation...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409776/the-validation-of-simplified-eeg-derived-from-the-bispectral-index-monitor-in-post-cardiac-arrest-patients
#9
Jolien Haesen, Ward Eertmans, Cornelia Genbrugge, Ingrid Meex, Jelle Demeestere, Margot Vander Laenen, Willem Boer, Dieter Mesotten, Jo Dens, Frank Jans, Ludovic Ernon, Cathy De Deyne
AIMS: We aimed to validate retrospectively the accuracy of simplified electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring derived from the bispectral index (BIS) monitor in post-cardiac arrest (CA) patients. METHODS: Successfully resuscitated CA patients were transferred to the Catherization Lab followed by percutaneous coronary intervention when indicated. On arrival at the coronary care unit, bilateral BIS monitoring was started and continued up to 72 h. Raw simplified EEG tracings were extracted from the BIS monitor at a time point coinciding with the registration of standard EEG monitoring...
February 1, 2018: Resuscitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408225/partial-trkb-receptor-activation-suppresses-cortical-epileptogenesis-through-actions-on-parvalbumin-interneurons
#10
Feng Gu, Isabel Parada, Tao Yang, Frank M Longo, David A Prince
Post-traumatic epilepsy is one of the most common and difficult to treat forms of acquired epilepsy worldwide. Currently, there is no effective way to prevent post-traumatic epileptogenesis. It is known that abnormalities of interneurons, particularly parvalbumin-containing interneurons, play a critical role in epileptogenesis following traumatic brain injury. Thus, enhancing the function of existing parvalbumin interneurons might provide a logical therapeutic approach to prevention of post-traumatic epilepsy...
February 2, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402632/prospective-longitudinal-overnight-video-eeg-evaluation-in-phelan-mcdermid-syndrome
#11
Omar I Khan, Xiangping Zhou, Jill Leon, Riley Kessler, Thomas Gaughan, Precilla D'Souza, Andrea Gropman, Ninette Cohen, Owen Rennert, Ashura Buckley, Sara Inati, Audrey Thurm
OBJECTIVE: Phelan-McDermid Syndrome (PMS) is a rare genetic condition associated with loss of function mutations, including deletions, in the chromosome 22q13 region. This PMS phenotype includes intellectual disability, often minimal to absent verbal skills, and other neurologic features including autism spectrum disorder and seizures. Reports indicate seizures and abnormal electroencephalograms (EEGs) in this population, but previous studies do not describe EEG findings during sleep or prognostic value of abnormal EEG over any time period...
February 2, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29389846/long-term-electroclinical-and-employment-follow-up-in-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-surgery-a-cuban-comprehensive-epilepsy-surgery-program
#12
Lilia Maria Morales Chacón, Ivan Garcia Maeso, Margarita M Baez Martin, Juan E Bender Del Busto, María Eugenia García Navarro, Nelson Quintanal Cordero, Bárbara Estupiñan Díaz, Lourdes Lorigados Pedre, Ricardo Valdés Yerena, Judith Gonzalez, Randy Garbey Fernandez, Abel Sánchez Coroneux
The purpose of this paper is to present a long- term electroclinical and employment follow up in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients in a comprehensive epilepsy surgery program. Forty adult patients with pharmacoresistant TLE underwent detailed presurgical evaluation. Electroencephalogram (EEG) and clinical follow up assessment for each patient were carried out. The occurrence of interictal epileptiform activity (IEA) and absolute spike frequency (ASF) were tabulated before and after 1, 6, 12, 24 and 72 months surgical treatment...
February 1, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29378446/characterizing-eeg-cortical-dynamics-and-connectivity-with-responses-to-single-pulse-electrical-stimulation-spes
#13
Gonzalo Alarcón, Diego Jiménez-Jiménez, Antonio Valentín, David Martín-López
OBJECTIVES: To model cortical connections in order to characterize their oscillatory behavior and role in the generation of spontaneous electroencephalogram (EEG). METHODS: We studied averaged responses to single pulse electrical stimulation (SPES) from the non-epileptogenic hemisphere of five patients assessed with intracranial EEG who became seizure free after contralateral temporal lobectomy. Second-order control system equations were modified to characterize the systems generating a given response...
November 23, 2017: International Journal of Neural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368690/bad-and-katp-channels-regulate-neuron-excitability-and-epileptiform-activity
#14
Juan Ramón Martínez-François, María Carmen Fernández-Agüera, Nidhi Nathwani, Carolina Lahmann, Veronica L Burnham, Nika N Danial, Gary Yellen
Brain metabolism can profoundly influence neuronal excitability. Mice with genetic deletion or alteration of Bad (BCL-2 agonist of cell death) exhibit altered brain-cell fuel metabolism, accompanied by resistance to acutely induced epileptic seizures; this seizure protection is mediated by ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels. Here we investigated the effect of BAD manipulation on KATP channel activity and excitability in acute brain slices. We found that BAD's influence on neuronal KATP channels was cell-autonomous and directly affected dentate granule neuron (DGN) excitability...
January 25, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367722/slow-moving-neural-source-in-the-epileptic-hippocampus-can-mimic-progression-of-human-seizures
#15
Chia-Chu Chiang, Xile Wei, Arvind Keshav Ananthakrishnan, Rajat S Shivacharan, Luis E Gonzalez-Reyes, Mingming Zhang, Dominique M Durand
Fast and slow neural waves have been observed to propagate in the human brain during seizures. Yet the nature of these waves is difficult to study in a surgical setting. Here, we report an observation of two different traveling waves propagating in the in-vitro epileptic hippocampus at speeds similar to those in the human brain. A fast traveling spike and a slow moving wave were recorded simultaneously with a genetically encoded voltage sensitive fluorescent protein (VSFP Butterfly 1.2) and a high speed camera...
January 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367179/childhood-onset-generalized-epilepsy-in-bainbridge-ropers-syndrome
#16
Kenneth A Myers, Susan M White, Shehla Mohammed, Kay A Metcalfe, Andrew E Fry, Elisabeth Wraige, Pradeep C Vasudevan, Meena Balasubramanian, Ingrid E Scheffer
Bainbridge-Ropers syndrome is a genetic syndrome caused by heterozygous loss-of-function pathogenic variants in ASXL3, which encodes a protein involved in transcriptional regulation. Affected individuals have multiple abnormalities including developmental impairment, hypotonia and characteristic facial features. Seizures are reported in approximately a third of cases; however, the epileptology has not been thoroughly studied. We identified three patients with pathogenic ASXL3 variants and seizures at Austin Health and in the DECIPHER database...
January 20, 2018: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367178/ictal-and-interictal-meg-in-pediatric-patients-with-tuberous-sclerosis-and-drug-resistant-epilepsy
#17
A Koptelova, R Bikmullina, M Medvedovsky, S Novikova, A Golovteev, O Grinenko, M Korsakova, A Kozlova, N Arkhipova, A Vorobyev, A Melikyan, R Paetau, T Stroganova, L Metsähonkala
PURPOSE: Drug resistant epilepsy (DRE) is common in patients with tuberous sclerosis (TS). Interictal MEG has been shown as a valuable instrument in the presurgical workup. The goal of our study was to evaluate the role of ictal MEG in epileptogenic tuber selection, especially in patients with multiple irritative zones. METHODS: The clinical and MEG data of 23 patients with TS and DRE from two medical/research centers were reviewed. Seven pediatric patients, who had seizures during MEG recording and underwent resection or disconnection surgery, were included into the study...
December 27, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362494/seizure-development-in-the-acute-intrahippocampal-epileptic-focus
#18
Lin Li, Kseniia Kriukova, Jerome Engel, Anatol Bragin
Currently, an epileptic seizure is considered to involve a temporary network that exists for a finite period of time. Formation of this network evolves through spread of epileptiform activity from a seizure onset zone (SOZ). Propagation of seizures evoked by kainic acid injection in hippocampus to different brain areas was analyzed at macro- and micro-intervals. The mean latency of seizure occurrence in different brain areas varied between 0.5 sec and 85 sec (mean 14.9 ± 14.5 (SD)), and it increased after each consecutive seizure in areas located contralateral to the area of injection, but not in the ipsilateral sites...
January 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360612/intracranial-electrodes-monitoring-improves-seizure-control-and-complication-outcomes-for-patients-with-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#19
Yan-En Lyu, Xiao-Fei Xu, Shuang Dai, Xiao-Bo Dong, Shao-Ping Shen, Yao Wang, Chong Liu
BACKGROUND: Anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL) is the standard surgical treatment for temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), but patients may suffer from recurrent seizures post-surgery. Invasive electrical monitoring plays a critical role in precisely identifying the epileptic foci. This study aimed to evaluate and compare the benefits of long-term invasive electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring and two-stage surgery with the classical approach to examine their effect on post-surgical brain function and complications...
January 19, 2018: International Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358111/simultaneous-surface-and-depth-neural-activity-recording-with-graphene-transistor-based-dual-modality-probes
#20
Mingde Du, Xianchen Xu, Long Yang, Yichuan Guo, Shouliang Guan, Jidong Shi, Jinfen Wang, Ying Fang
Subdural surface and penetrating depth probes are widely applied to record neural activities from the cortical surface and intracortical locations of the brain, respectively. Simultaneous surface and depth neural activity recording is essential to understand the linkage between the two modalities. Here, we develop flexible dual-modality neural probes based on graphene transistors. The neural probes exhibit stable electrical performance even under 90° bending because of the excellent mechanical properties of graphene, and thus allow multi-site recording from the subdural surface of rat cortex...
January 19, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
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