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E Westhall, I Rosén, M Rundgren, J Bro-Jeppesen, J Kjaergaard, C Hassager, H Lindehammar, J Horn, S Ullén, N Nielsen, H Friberg, T Cronberg
OBJECTIVE: Investigate the temporal development of EEG and prognosis. METHODS: Prospective observational substudy of the Target Temperature Management trial. Six sites performed simplified continuous EEG-monitoring (cEEG) on comatose patients after cardiac arrest, blinded to treating physicians. We determined time-points of recovery of a normal-voltage continuous background activity and the appearance of an epileptiform EEG, defined as abundant epileptiform discharges, periodic/rhythmic discharges or electrographic seizure activity...
June 9, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Dana Khaled Almedallah, Dana Yousef Alshamlan, Erum Mubbashir Shariff
Myoclonus is an abnormal involuntary movement that has been previously reported with administration of high doses of opioids for prolonged periods of time. In this case, however, we report an acute myoclonic reaction and review the literature on the possible causative pathophysiology. We report the case of a 24-year-old woman who was admitted for postdated cesarean section. She started to have abnormal involuntary movements after administration of an epidural anesthesia containing 700 μg of fentanyl with 115 mL (0...
May 2018: Case Reports in Neurology
Hirotsugu Yamamoto, Hiromichi Naito, Takaaki Osako, Kohei Tsukahara, Taihei Yamada, Tetsuya Yumoto, Atsuyoshi Iida, Yoshinori Kosaki, Makio Oka, Fumika Endo, Akira Gochi, Atsunori Nakao
A healthy 10-year-old boy vomited during sleep and later complained of abdominal pain; he became drowsy and uncommunicative. At the nearby hospital E.R., he deteriorated rapidly, and his respiratory movements were absent with cardiac arrest. He was immediately resuscitated. Brain MRI showed no abnormalities. EEG revealed an abnormal pattern with recurrent multifocal epileptiform activity over the bilateral occipital and frontal regions during sleep. Based on the clinical/radiological findings we diagnosed Panayiotopoulos syndrome (PS), a benign form of early-onset pediatric epilepsy characterized by autonomic symptoms...
June 2018: Acta Medica Okayama
Susanne Koch, Leopold Rupp, Christine Prager, Rudolf Mörgeli, Sylvia Kramer, Klaus Dieter Wernecke, Astrid Fahlenkamp, Claudia Spies
OBJECTIVE: In pediatric patients, anaesthesia induction is often performed with intravenous Propofol or Sevoflurane inhalation. Although epileptiform discharges have been observed during inductions with Sevoflurane, their occurrence has not been investigated for i.v. Propofol inductions. The aim of this study is to compare the incidence of epileptiform discharges in children during anaesthesia induction using Propofol versus Sevoflurane. METHODS: Prospective, observational cohort study in children aged 0...
June 8, 2018: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Murat Mert Atmaca, Nerses Bebek, Elif Kocasoy-Orhan, Candan Gürses
OBJECTIVE: Epilepsia partialis continua (EPC) is a special form of cortical epilepsy. Several studies have described the ictal and interictal electroencephalography (EEG) findings in patients with EPC; however, lateralizing and localizing values of these findings have been evaluated rarely. This study investigated the correlation of semiologic and EEG findings, and outcomes in patients with EPC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Clinical and EEG findings and outcomes, and their correlations were studied prospectively in 15 patients who were diagnosed as having EPC upon presentation to Istanbul Medical Faculty Hospital between January 2010 and April 2014, and retrospectively in 5 previously evaluated patients...
June 9, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Lin-Yan Hu, Xiu-Yu Shi, Hui Li, Meng-Na Zhang, Shu-Fang Ma, Li-Ping Zou
BACKGROUND: In previous study, we have found intermittent oral levetiracetam (LEV) can effectively prevent recurrence of febrile seizure (FS). This study aimed to analyze the effects of the preventive on the patients with frequent FS accompanied with epileptiform discharge. METHODS: Patients with frequent FS were assigned to undergo Electroencephalogram (EEG). At the onset of fever, the patients who presented epileptiform discharge were orally administered with LEV with a dose of 15-30 mg/kg per day twice daily for 1 week, thereafter, the dosage was gradually reduced until totally discontinued in the second week...
June 15, 2018: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
José Pimentel, Sara Varanda, Pedro Guimarães, Fernando Lopes da Silva
Idiopathic generalised epilepsies are characterised by widespread, symmetric, bilateral spike-and-wave discharges on EEG. Onset typically occurs in children and adolescents, but may also start in adulthood. These forms of adult onset constitute the focus of this review. A critical analysis of the medical literature was conducted through a narrative review search of PubMed and Medline databases. Cases of idiopathic generalised epilepsies with adult onset, in general, are not considered to be independent nosological entities...
June 15, 2018: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
Wei Wang, Yi Guo, Liang He, Chengzhi Chen, Jing Luo, Yuanlin Ma, Jie Li, Yong Yang, Qin Yang, Chao Du, Yanke Zhang, Zhonggui Li, Xin Xu, Xin Tian, Xuefeng Wang
miRNA-137 is an extremely abundant miRNA in the central nervous system and is thought to be closely related to synaptic plasticity. Here, we report a previously unrecognized role of miRNA-137 in epilepsy. The expression of miRNA-137 was decreased both in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and in two different mouse models of epilepsy. Overexpression of miRNA-137 induced by an intrahippocampal injection of a specific agomir prolonged the latency to spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRSs) and reduced seizure severity in a mouse model of pilocarpine-induced epilepsy...
June 9, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Michael G Young, Sumeet Vadera, Jack J Lin, Lilit Mnatsakanyan
BACKGROUND: The effect of direct brain responsive neurostimulation on the frequency of electrographic seizures in patients with medically refractory focal epilepsy has not been evaluated by chronic ambulatory electrocorticographic monitoring. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 9 patients who underwent implantation of the responsive neurostimulator (RNS) system from 2015 to 2017 at the University of California, Irvine. Leads were placed at the ictal onset zone as determined by intracranial electroencephalography (EEG)...
June 8, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Yunli Liu, Baohua Hou, Yusong Zhang, Yuanteng Fan, Biwen Peng, Wanhong Liu, Song Han, Jun Yin, Xiaohua He
Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder with a complex etiology. Our previous study demonstrated that dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP4) may be associated with the pathogenesis of epilepsy. However, whether the DPP4 inhibitor sitagliptin has an anticonvulsant effect and the underlying mechanism remain to be elucidated. In this study, we determined that sitagliptin remarkably attenuated the severity of seizures in a pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced rat model. In addition, sitagliptin decreased epileptiform activity measured by electroencephalography (EEG) recordings and patch-clamp methods...
June 6, 2018: Experimental Neurology
Piero Perucca, Gregory Smith, Cesar Santana-Gomez, Anatol Bragin, Richard Staba
Post-traumatic epilepsy is the architype of acquired epilepsies, wherein a brain insult initiates an epileptogenic process culminating in an unprovoked seizure after weeks, months or years. Identifying biomarkers of such process is a prerequisite for developing and implementing targeted therapies aimed at preventing the development of epilepsy. Currently, there are no validated electrophysiological biomarkers of post-traumatic epileptogenesis. Experimental EEG studies using the lateral fluid percussion injury model have identified three candidate biomarkers of post-traumatic epileptogenesis: pathological high-frequency oscillations (HFOs, 80-300 Hz); repetitive HFOs and spikes (rHFOSs); and reduction in sleep spindle duration and dominant frequency at the transition from stage III to rapid eye movement sleep...
June 5, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Carla Bentes, Hugo Martins, Ana Rita Peralta, Carlos Morgado, Carlos Casimiro, Ana Catarina Franco, Ana Catarina Fonseca, Ruth Geraldes, Patrícia Canhão, Teresa Pinho E Melo, Teresa Paiva, José M Ferro
Objective: Electroencephalography (EEG) can identify biomarkers of epileptogenesis and ictogenesis. However, few studies have used EEG in the prediction of poststroke seizures. Our primary aim was to evaluate whether early EEG abnormalities can predict poststroke epilepsy. Methods: A prospective study of consecutive acute anterior circulation ischemic stroke patients, without previous epileptic seizures, who were admitted to a stroke unit over 24 months and followed for 1 year...
June 2018: Epilepsia open
Fatemeh Ghasemi, Hanieh Tamadon, Narges Hosseinmardi, Mahyar Janahmadi
Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disease which disrupts the neuronal electrical activity. One-third of patients are resistant to treatment with available antiepileptic agents. The use of herbal medicine for treating several diseases including epilepsy is on the rise. Therefore, further investigation is required to verify the safety and effectiveness of Phytomedicine in treating diseases. The current study is an attempt to elucidate the electrophysiological mechanism of the effect of Dorema ammoniacum gum on a cellular model of epilepsy, using intracellular recording method...
2018: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
Paolo Curatolo, Rima Nabbout, Lieven Lagae, Eleonora Aronica, Josè Carlos Ferreira, Martha Feucht, Christoph Hertzberg, Anna C Jansen, Floor Jansen, Katarzyna Kotulska, Romina Moavero, Finbar O'Callaghan, Antigone Papavasiliou, Michal Tzadok, Sergiusz Jóźwiak
Patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) are at very high risk for developing epilepsy, and the majority experience seizure onset during the first year of life. Early targeted interventions increase the probability of seizure-freedom and may protect neurodevelopment. In 2012, clinical recommendations for the management of epilepsy in patients with TSC were published by a panel of European experts. Since that time novel studies, reports, and expert opinions in preclinical and clinical TSC-related sciences prompted the need for updated recommendations, including epileptogenesis in TSC, the potential role of predictive biomarkers, the possible benefits of presymptomatic diagnosis and preventive treatment, and new treatment options including mTOR inhibitors...
May 24, 2018: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Vimal Doshi Veerappan, B Sweetha, H R Kavitha, B Sivalingam, Shanthi Nambi, Leema Pauline
Context: A significant subset of autistic children exhibit abnormal isolated epileptiform discharges (IEDs) in the absence of clinical epilepsy. The etiological significance of such IEDs is under much debate. Aims: The aim is to study the relationship between IEDs with risk factors, clinical severity, behavioral problems, and social-quotient and follow-up for the occurrence of new seizures. Settings and Design: This study was a prospective double-blind comparative study of autistic children with and without IEDs...
May 2018: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
Abhay Deshmukh, Jared Leichner, Jihye Bae, Yinchen Song, Pedro A Valdés-Hernández, Wei-Chiang Lin, Jorge J Riera
Current clinical practice in focal epilepsy involves brain source imaging (BSI) to localize brain areas where from interictal epileptiform discharges (IEDs) emerge. These areas, named irritative zones , have been useful to define candidate seizures-onset zones during pre-surgical workup. Since human histological data are mostly available from final resected zones, systematic studies characterizing pathophysiological mechanisms and abnormal molecular/cellular substrates in irritative zones-independent of them being epileptogenic-are challenging...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Mehmet Alp Dirik, Burcin Sanlidag
INTRODUCTION: Epilepsy is one of the most frequently diagnosed chronic neurological disorders in children. Diagnosis is often based on seizure history and electroencephalography (EEG) assessment. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is recommended for etiologic workup and intervention requirements. We aimed to detect by MRI if focal structural abnormalities are present in the brain in relation to interictal epileptiform discharges (IED). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was designed retrospectively...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
N A Ermolenko, V P Zykov, E I Zakharova
AIM: To determine the comorbidity of epilepsy and chronic tic disorders (HTR) in children and adolescents based on the results of video-EEG monitoring and treatment efficacy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: One hundred and sixteen patients diagnosed with HTR, 83 boys and 33 girls, aged from 3 to 15 years, were studied. Clinical psychoneurological examination, psychological testing and video-EEG monitoring were performed at the first stage of the study. An effect of treatment was assessed at the second stage...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Gabriella Panuccio, Ilaria Colombi, Michela Chiappalone
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is the most common partial complex epileptic syndrome and the least responsive to medications. Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a promising approach when pharmacological treatment fails or neurosurgery is not recommended. Acute brain slices coupled to microelectrode arrays (MEAs) represent a valuable tool to study neuronal network interactions and their modulation by electrical stimulation. As compared to conventional extracellular recording techniques, they provide the added advantages of a greater number of observation points and a known inter-electrode distance, which allow studying the propagation path and speed of electrophysiological signals...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Amrutha Swaminathan, Rahma Hassan-Abdi, Solène Renault, Aleksandra Siekierska, Raphaëlle Riché, Meijiang Liao, Peter A M de Witte, Constantin Yanicostas, Nadia Soussi-Yanicostas, Pierre Drapeau, Éric Samarut
Mutations in DEPDC5 are causal factors for a broad spectrum of focal epilepsies, but the underlying pathogenic mechanisms are still largely unknown. To address this question, a zebrafish depdc5 knockout model showing spontaneous epileptiform events in the brain, increased drug-induced seizure susceptibility, general hypoactivity, premature death at 2-3 weeks post-fertilization, as well as the expected hyperactivation of mTOR signaling was developed. Using this model, the role of DEPDC5 in brain development was investigated using an unbiased whole-transcriptomic approach...
May 22, 2018: Current Biology: CB
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