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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076384/anti-epileptic-drug-combination-efficacy-in-an-in-vitro-seizure-model-phenytoin-and-valproate-lamotrigine-and-valproate
#1
Kim Det Taing, Terence J O'Brien, David A Williams, Chris R French
In this study, we investigated the relative efficacy of different classes of commonly used anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) with different mechanisms of action, individually and in combination, to suppress epileptiform discharges in an in vitro model. Extracellular field potential were recorded in 450 μm thick transverse hippocampal slices prepared from juvenile Wistar rats, in which "epileptiform discharges" (ED's) were produced with a high-K+ (8.5 mM) bicarbonate-buffered saline solution. Single and dual recordings in stratum pyramidale of CA1 and CA3 regions were performed with 3-5 MΩ glass microelectrodes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071688/epileptiform-activity-in-the-mouse-visual-cortex-interferes-with-cortical-processing-in-connected-areas
#2
L Petrucco, E Pracucci, M Brondi, G M Ratto, S Landi
Epileptiform activity is associated with impairment of brain function even in absence of seizures, as demonstrated by failures in various testing paradigm in presence of hypersynchronous interictal spikes (ISs). Clinical evidence suggests that cognitive deficits might be directly caused by the anomalous activity rather than by its underlying etiology. Indeed, we seek to understand whether ISs interfere with neuronal processing in connected areas not directly participating in the hypersynchronous activity in an acute model of epilepsy...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060325/interictal-high-frequency-oscillations-detected-with-simultaneous-magnetoencephalography-and-electroencephalography-as-biomarker-of-pediatric-epilepsy
#3
Christos Papadelis, Eleonora Tamilia, Steven Stufflebeam, Patricia E Grant, Joseph R Madsen, Phillip L Pearl, Naoaki Tanaka
Crucial to the success of epilepsy surgery is the availability of a robust biomarker that identifies the Epileptogenic Zone (EZ). High Frequency Oscillations (HFOs) have emerged as potential presurgical biomarkers for the identification of the EZ in addition to Interictal Epileptiform Discharges (IEDs) and ictal activity. Although they are promising to localize the EZ, they are not yet suited for the diagnosis or monitoring of epilepsy in clinical practice. Primary barriers remain: the lack of a formal and global definition for HFOs; the consequent heterogeneity of methodological approaches used for their study; and the practical difficulties to detect and localize them noninvasively from scalp recordings...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060294/manipulation-of-epileptiform-electrocorticograms-ecogs-and-sleep-in-rats-and-mice-by-acupuncture
#4
Pei-Lu Yi, Shuo-Bin Jou, Yi-Jou Wu, Fang-Chia Chang
Ancient Chinese literature has documented that acupuncture possesses efficient therapeutic effects on epilepsy and insomnia. There is, however, little research to reveal the possible mechanisms behind these effects. To investigate the effect of acupuncture on epilepsy and sleep, several issues need to be addressed. The first is to identify the acupoints, which correspond between humans, rats, and mice. Furthermore, the depth of insertion of the acupuncture needle, the degree of needle twist in manual needle acupuncture, and the stimulation parameters for electroacupuncture (EA) need to be determined...
December 22, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057450/antiepileptic-drugs-prevent-seizures-in-hyperbaric-oxygen-a-novel-model-of-epileptiform-activity
#5
Ivan T Demchenko, Sergei Yu Zhilyaev, Alexander N Moskvin, Alexander I Krivchenko, Claude A Piantadosi, Barry W Allen
Breathing oxygen at sufficiently elevated pressures can trigger epileptiform seizures. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that pre-treatment with FDA-approved antiepileptic drugs could prevent seizure onset in hyperoxia at 5 atmospheres absolute. We selected drugs from two putative functional categories, Na(+)-channel antagonists and GABA enhancers, each administered intraperitoneally at four doses in separate groups of C57BL/6 mice. The drugs varied in efficacy at the doses used. Of the five tested Na(+)-channel antagonists, carbamazepine and lamotrigine more than tripled seizure latency compared to values seen in vehicle controls...
January 2, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054328/magnetoencephalography-and-new-imaging-modalities-in-epilepsy
#6
REVIEW
Jessica Falco-Walter, Christian Owen, Mishu Sharma, Christopher Reggi, Mandy Yu, Travis R Stoub, Michael A Stein
The success of epilepsy surgery is highly dependent on correctly identifying the entire epileptogenic region. Current state-of-the-art for localizing the extent of surgically amenable areas involves combining high resolution three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) source modeling of interictal epileptiform activity. Coupling these techniques with newer quantitative structural MRI techniques, such as cortical thickness measurements, however, may improve the extent to which the abnormal epileptogenic region can be visualized...
January 4, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042998/photosensitivity-in-dravet-syndrome-is-under-recognized-and-related-to-prognosis
#7
Nienke Verbeek, Dorothée Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenité, Merel Wassenaar, Jolien van Campen, Anja Sonsma, W Boudewijn Gunning, Al de Weerd, Nine Knoers, Willy Spetgens, Thea Gutter, Frans Leijten, Eva Brilstra
OBJECTIVE: To detect determinants for photoparoxysmal EEG response (PPR) in SCN1A-related Dravet syndrome (DS). METHODS: Data were studied from nationwide medical histories and EEGs of DS-patients (n=53; 31 males, age 2-19years). Detailed questionnaires on visual stimuli were completed by parents (n=49). RESULTS: PPR was found in 22 patients (42%; median age 1.25yr), and repeatedly in 17%. PPR (17% of 249 intermittent photic stimulation (IPS)-EEGs) occurred more often with optimal IPS protocols (OR 2...
December 6, 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034485/the-photosensitivity-model-is-also-a-model-for-focal-partial-seizures
#8
Dorothee Kasteleijn-Nolst Trenite, Pierre Genton, Christian Brandt, Ronald C Reed
The 'Photosensitivity Model' uses a standardized stimulation protocol of repeated intermittent photic stimulation (IPS) over a three-day period, with administration of a single dose of an investigational antiepileptic drug (AED) after a baseline IPS day in photosensitive patients, followed by a third IPS day to determine duration of effect. This 'Photosensitivity Model' has shown its' value in the development of new AEDs. Levetiracetam (LEV), currently a first-line AED in new-onset focal epilepsies, was not effective in classical animal models, but showed dose-dependent efficacy in the human 'Photosensitivity Model'...
December 2, 2016: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030998/the-role-of-thalamus-versus-cortex-in-epilepsy-evidence-from-human-ictal-centromedian-recordings-in-patients-assessed-for-deep-brain-stimulation
#9
David Martín-López, Diego Jiménez-Jiménez, Lidia Cabañés-Martínez, Richard P Selway, Antonio Valentín, Gonzalo Alarcón
BACKGROUND: The onset of generalized seizures is a long debated subject in epilepsy. The relative roles of cortex and thalamus in initiating and maintaining the different seizure types are unclear. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the study is to estimate whether the cortex or the centromedian thalamic nucleus is leading in initiating and maintaining seizures in humans. METHODS: We report human ictal recordings with simultaneous thalamic and cortical electrodes from three patients without anesthesia being assessed for deep brain stimulation (DBS)...
October 24, 2016: International Journal of Neural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018466/a-young-child-of-anti-nmda-receptor-encephalitis-presenting-with-epilepsia-partialis-continua-the-first-pediatric-case-in-korea
#10
Eun-Hee Kim, Yeo Jin Kim, Tae-Sung Ko, Mi-Sun Yum, Jun Hwa Lee
Anti-N-methyl D-aspartate receptor (anti-NMDAR) encephalitis, recently recognized as a form of paraneoplastic encephalitis, is characterized by a prodromal phase of unspecific illness with fever that resembles a viral disease. The prodromal phase is followed by seizures, disturbed consciousness, psychiatric features, prominent abnormal movements, and autonomic imbalance. Here, we report a case of anti-NMDAR encephalitis with initial symptoms of epilepsia partialis continua in the absence of tumor. Briefly, a 3-year-old girl was admitted to the hospital due to right-sided, complex partial seizures without preceding febrile illness...
November 2016: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017780/acute-effects-of-aceclofenac-cox-2-inhibitor-on-penicillin-induced-epileptiform-activity
#11
Mehmet Taşkıran, Abdulkadir Taşdemir, Nusret Ayyıldız
PURPOSE: The effects of COX-2 inhibitors on seizure activity are controversial. The aim of the current study was to determine the post-treatment effect of aceclofenac on penicillin-induced experimental epilepsy. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were used in all experiments (n=18). The seizure activity was triggered by penicillin (i.c.). Aceclofenac was injected intraperitoneally at doses of 10mg/kg and 20mg/kg. RESULTS: Intraperitoneal administration of 10 and 20mg/kg aceclofenac doses, exhibited proconvulsant properties on seizure activity on rats...
December 23, 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007640/the-insecticide-esfenvalerate-modulates-neuronal-excitability-in-mammalian-central-nervous-system-in-vitro
#12
Petra Varró, Melinda Kovács, Ildikó Világi
Pyrethroids are neurotoxic insecticides showing significant selective toxicity on insects over mammals, but effects on mammalian nervous system are not negligible. These substances act on the voltage-gated sodium channel, prolonging the duration of the open state. The present study focused on the effect of the pyrethroid esfenvalerate on the excitability of neuronal networks in vitro. From isolated rat brain slices, neocortical and hippocampal evoked field potentials were recorded; four concentrations (5-40μM) of esfenvalerate were tested using in vitro administration of the commercial product Sumi-Alpha 5 EC(®)...
December 19, 2016: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005050/-genetics-and-treatment-of-early-infantile-epileptic-encephalopathies
#13
A A Sharkov, I V Sharkova, E D Belousova, E L Dadali
Epileptic encephalopathies (EE) are the group of progressive conditions with various etiologies that can produce neurocognitive deficit both per se and due to constant epileptiform discharges. Epileptic encephalopathies constitute about 15% of epilepsy in childhood and 40% of all seizures occurring in the first 3 years of life. Ten syndrome forms of EE are identified. Genetic factors contribute to 70-80% of all epileptic diseases and approximately 40% of idiopathic epilepsies have a monogenic mode of inheritance...
2016: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997922/continuous-intraoperative-monitoring-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-surgery
#14
Rémi Tyrand, Shahan Momjian, Claudio Pollo, Christopher Lysakowski, Agustina M Lascano, Serge Vulliémoz, Karl Schaller, Colette Boëx
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The monitoring of interictal epileptiform discharge rates (IEDRs) all along anterior temporal lobe resections (ATLRs) has never been reported. Here the effect of ATLR on continuous IEDR monitoring is described. METHODS: IEDRs computed automatically during entire interventions were recorded in 34 patients (38.2%, 13/34 depth; 61.8%, 21/34 scalp electrodes only). Monitorings were invalidated when burst suppression occurred or if initial IEDRs were <5...
December 21, 2016: Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992323/the-concept-of-effective-inflow-application-to-interictal-localization-of-the-epileptogenic-focus-from-ieeg
#15
Ioannis Vlachos, Balu Krishnan, David Treiman, Konstantinos Tsakalis, Dimitris Kugiumtzis, Leon D Iasemidis
GOAL: Accurate determination of the epileptogenic focus is of paramount diagnostic and therapeutic importance in epilepsy. The current gold standard for focus localization is from ictal (seizure) onset and thus requires the occurrence and recording of multiple typical seizures of a patient. Localization of the focus from seizure-free (interictal) periods remains a challenging problem, especially in the absence of interictal epileptiform activity. METHODS: By exploring the concept of effective inflow, we developed a focus localization algorithm (FLA) based on directed connectivity between brain sites...
November 29, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27992068/exploring-two-novel-cases-of-suspected-ictal-epileptic-headache-a-rare-form-of-paediatric-epilepsy
#16
Emanuele G Coci, Joachim Riedel
AIM: Ictal epileptic headache (IEH) is a rare and underestimated epileptic form, characterised by epileptiform discharges and headache attacks without any other ictal sensory-motor manifestations. IEH is difficult to diagnose, because the epileptiform discharges have to be registered during the headache attack and the headache has to disappear after the intravenous administration of an anti-epileptic drug, according to the last diagnostic criteria. This study explored the clinical, neuro-physiological and therapeutic features of IEH in the paediatric population...
December 19, 2016: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988323/a-semi-automated-method-for-rapid-detection-of-ripple-events-on-interictal-voltage-discharges-in-the-scalp-electroencephalogram
#17
Catherine J Chu, Arthur Chan, Dan Song, Kevin J Staley, Steven M Stufflebeam, Mark A Kramer
BACKGROUND: High frequency oscillations are emerging as a clinically important indicator of epileptic networks. However, manual detection of these high frequency oscillations is difficult, time consuming, and subjective, especially in the scalp EEG, thus hindering further clinical exploration and application. Semi-automated detection methods augment manual detection by reducing inspection to a subset of time intervals. We propose a new method to detect high frequency oscillations that co-occur with interictal epileptiform discharges...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984701/watch-the-language-language-and-linguistic-cognitive-abilities-in-children-with-nocturnal-epileptiform-activity
#18
Silje Systad, Marit Bjørnvold, Rune Markhus, Solveig-Alma H Lyster
We studied the language and linguistic-cognitive abilities of a group of children with nocturnal epileptiform activity (NEA; N=33) who were hospitalized at a tertiary epilepsy hospital. The children were compared with two groups: one age- and gender-matched group (N=33) and one group matched on language ability (vocabulary) and gender (N=66). We also examined how NEA-related variables affected language abilities. Overall, the children with NEA showed delayed language abilities and a trend for specific difficulties with phonology and naming speed...
December 13, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984177/hydrogen-sulfide-inhibits-giant-depolarizing-potentials-and-abolishes-epileptiform-activity-of-neonatal-rat-hippocampal-slices
#19
Aleksey V Yakovlev, Evgeniya D Kurmasheva, Rashid Giniatullin, Ilgam Khalilov, Guzel F Sitdikova
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is an endogenous gasotransmitter with neuroprotective properties that participates in the regulation of transmitter release and neuronal excitability in various brain structures. The role of H2S in the growth and maturation of neural networks however remains unclear. The aim of the present study is to reveal the effects of H2S on neuronal spontaneous activity relevant to neuronal maturation in hippocampal slices of neonatal rats. Sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS) (100 μM), a classical donor of H2S produced a biphasic effect with initial activation and subsequent concentration-dependent suppression of network-driven giant depolarizing potentials (GDPs) and neuronal spiking activity...
October 27, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27969087/forced-normalization-an-overlooked-entity-in-epileptic-patients
#20
Andac Topkan, Sule Bilen, Ayse Pinar Titiz, Esra Eruyar, Fikri Ak
The "forced normalization" phenomenon is characterized by acute/subacute onset of psychotic symptoms in the early post-ictal period with dramatic improvement of electrophysiological epileptiform activity. A 56 years old female with going on personality changes, maladaptive behaviours and a mild cognitive impairment since last seizure which was forty-five days ago has been admitted. An evident increase was observed in her maladaptive behaviours with the use of levetiracetam. She began describing visual hallucinations and déjàvu...
October 2016: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
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