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Stefanie Braig, Jon Genuneit, Viola Walter, Stephanie Brandt, Martin Wabitsch, Lutz Goldbeck, Hermann Brenner, Dietrich Rothenbacher
Screen time is a central activity of children’s daily life and jeopardizes mental health. However, results appear inconclusive and are often based on small cross-sectional studies. We aimed to investigate the temporal sequence of the association between screen time and self-esteem taking into account further indirect effects through family or friendship relationship. In our population-based birth cohort study (baseline November 2000⁻November 2001, Ulm, Germany), these relationships were explored in n = 519 11- and 13-year-old children and their parents who both provided information on children’s screen time: time spent watching television or videos (TV), time spent on computers, video game consoles, mobile devices, or cell phones; so called “other screen time”, and children’s self-esteem (KINDL-R)...
June 16, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Wei Wang, Yi Guo, Liang He, Chengzhi Chen, Jing Luo, Yuanlin Ma, Jie Li, Yong Yang, Qin Yang, Chao Du, Yanke Zhang, Zhonggui Li, Xin Xu, Xin Tian, Xuefeng Wang
miRNA-137 is an extremely abundant miRNA in the central nervous system and is thought to be closely related to synaptic plasticity. Here, we report a previously unrecognized role of miRNA-137 in epilepsy. The expression of miRNA-137 was decreased both in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and in two different mouse models of epilepsy. Overexpression of miRNA-137 induced by an intrahippocampal injection of a specific agomir prolonged the latency to spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRSs) and reduced seizure severity in a mouse model of pilocarpine-induced epilepsy...
June 9, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Chandra Bhushan Mishra, Shikha Kumari, Fouzia Siraj, Rajesh Yadav, Sweta Kumari, Ankit Kumar Tiwari, Manisha Tiwari
Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder which affects 65 million worldwide population and characterized by recurrent seizure in epileptic patients. Recently, we reported a novel piperonylpiperazine derivative, BPPU "1-[4-(4-benzo [1,3]dioxol-5-ylmethyl-piperazin-1-yl)- phenyl]-3-phenyl-urea'' as a potent anticonvulsant agent. BPPU has shown excellent anticonvulsant activity in various in-vivo seizure models along with good anti-depressant activity. In this report, we have deeply examined the anti-epileptogenic potential of BPPU in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced kindling model and BPPU effectively reduced seizure episodes in kindled animals upto 35 days...
June 5, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Jesús-Servando Medel-Matus, Don Shin, Edward Dorfman, Raman Sankar, Andrey Mazarati
There has been growing interest in the role of intestinal microbiome in brain disorders. We examined whether dysbiosis can predispose to epilepsy. The study was performed in female and male Sprague-Dawley rats. To induce dysbiosis, the rats were subjected to chronic restraint stress (two 2-h long sessions per day, over 2 weeks). Cecal content from stressed and sham-stressed donors was transplanted via oral gavage to recipients, in which commensal microbiota had been depleted by the antibiotics. The study included the following groups: (1) Sham stress, no microbiota transplant; (2) Stress, no microbiota transplant; (3) Sham-stressed recipients transplanted with microbiota from sham-stressed donors; (4) Stressed recipients transplanted with microbiota from sham-stressed donors; (5) Sham-stressed recipients transplanted with microbiota from stressed donors; and (6) Stressed recipients transplanted with microbiota from stressed donors...
June 2018: Epilepsia open
Matthew A Kanzler, Adam M Van Dyke, Yan He, James A Hewett, Sandra J Hewett
Objective: Studies have addressed the potential involvement of L-12/15-lipoxygenases (LOs), a polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolizing enzyme, in experimental models of acute stroke and chronic neurodegeneration; however, none to our knowledge has explored its role in epilepsy development. Thus, this study characterizes the cell-specific expression of L-12/15 -LO in the brain and examines its contribution to epileptogenesis. Methods: L-12/15-LO messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression and activity were characterized via polymerase chain reaction (PCR), immunocytochemistry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), respectively...
June 2018: Epilepsia Open
Reza Narenji Sani, Keivan Keramati, Niloufar Saberi, Melika Moezifar, Ali Mahdavi
Length and weight of 14 day-old rat pups and also abortion rate and day on refractory epileptic pregnant rats after treatment with zonisamide (ZNS) are presented. Lamotrigine-resistant chemical kindling procedure was used for inducing of refractory epilepsy. For further interpretation follow the research article: Effect of zonisamide on refractory epilepsy during pregnancy in lamotrigine resistant kindled rats (Sani et al., 2017) [1].
April 2018: Data in Brief
Peter A Kindle
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 5, 2018: Journal of Evidence-informed Social Work
Magteld Zeitler, Peter A Tass
A characteristic pattern of abnormal brain activity is abnormally strong neuronal synchronization, as found in several brain disorders, such as tinnitus, Parkinson's disease, and epilepsy. As observed in several diseases, different therapeutic interventions may induce a placebo effect that may be strong and hinder reliable clinical evaluations. Hence, to distinguish between specific, neuromodulation-induced effects and unspecific, placebo effects, it is important to mimic the therapeutic procedure as precisely as possibly, thereby providing controls that actually lack specific effects...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Hongmei Song, Uilki Tufa, Jonathan Chow, Nila Sivanenthiran, Chloe Cheng, Stellar Lim, Chiping Wu, Jiachun Feng, James H Eubanks, Liang Zhang
Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder characterized by naturally-occurring spontaneous recurrent seizures and comorbidities. Kindling has long been used to model epileptogenic mechanisms and to assess antiepileptic drugs. In particular, extended kindling can induce spontaneous recurrent seizures without gross brain lesions, as seen clinically. To date, the development of spontaneous recurrent seizures following extended kindling, and the effect of the antiepileptic drugs on these seizures are not well understood...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Crystal Li, Juliana Silva, Ezgi Ozturk, Gabriella Dezsi, Terence J O'Brien, Thibault Renoir, Nigel C Jones
Patients with epilepsy often have mood disorders, and these are commonly treated with antidepressant drugs. Although these drugs are often successful in mitigating depressive symptoms, how they affect the epileptogenic processes has been little studied. Recent evidence has demonstrated that treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressant drugs adversely promotes epileptogenesis, which may be of great concern considering the number of patients exposed to these drugs. This study investigated 5-HT2A receptor signaling as a potential mechanism driving the pro-epileptogenic effects of the prototypical SSRI fluoxetine...
June 1, 2018: Epilepsia
Pallavi Sharma, Supriya Sharma, Damanpreet Singh
OBJECTIVES: Apigenin is the most common bioflavonoid known to be biologically active after systemic administration and show multiple pharmacological effects. The present study was designed to explore the role of apigenin in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) kindling associated cognitive and behavioural impairments in the mouse model. METHODS: The animals were kindled by injecting a sub-convulsive dose of PTZ (35 mg/kg) on every alternate day, followed by 20 days treatment with apigenin at two different doses (10 and 20 mg/kg)...
May 30, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
Karim M Tawfik, Yasser M Moustafa, Mona F El-Azab
Epilepsy is one of the furthermost common neurodegenerative diseases affecting above 50 million individuals worldwide. The pathogenesis of epileptic seizures is not satisfactorily explored, and hence more effective anti-convulsive therapies are indispensable. Current study aimed to investigate the mechanisms of the potential neuroprotective effects of sildenafil/selenium on chemically-induced convulsions in mice. Kindling model was induced using pentylenetetrazol (PTZ; 35mg/Kg, 11 doses, intraperitoneally, every other day)...
May 25, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Parastoo Mardani, Shahrbanoo Oryan, Abdolrahman Sarihi, Elham Alaei, Alireza Komaki, Javad Mirnajafi-Zadeh
INTRODUCTION: Administration of low-frequency electrical stimulation (LFS) at the kindling site has an antiepileptogenic effect. In the present study, we investigated the role of cannabinoid receptors type 1 (CB1) in mediating the inhibitory effects of LFS on the development of perforant path kindled seizures. METHODS: For seizure generation, rats were kindled by electrical stimulation of perforant path in semi-rapid kindling manner (12 stimulations per day at 10 min intervals at afterdischarge threshold intensity)...
May 22, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Daniel W M Acker, Irene Wong, Mihwa Kang, Suzanne Paradis
OBJECTIVE: We previously discovered a role for the extracellular domain of the transmembrane protein semaphorin 4D (Sema4D) as a fast-acting, selective, and positive regulator of functional γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic synapse formation in hippocampal neuronal culture. We also demonstrated that Sema4D treatment increases inhibitory tone and suppresses hyperexcitability in an organotypic hippocampal slice culture model of epilepsy. Here, we investigate the ability of Sema4D to promote GABAergic synapse formation and suppress seizure activity in vivo in adult mice...
May 25, 2018: Epilepsia
E Samokhina, Alexander Samokhin
Epilepsy is a complex neurological disease characterized by spontaneous episodes of abnormal, simultaneous firing of a neuronal population and disturbances of consciousness (so-called seizures) of unknown cause. Antiepileptic drugs are only symptomatic treatment, and there is a strong demand for the search of an alternative treatment of epilepsy. For this purpose, animal models of epilepsy are an important prerequisite. There are various animal models with chronic brain dysfunctions thought to reflect the processes underlying human epilepsy...
May 23, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
Toshiki Nozaki, Hiroyuki Ura, Ichiro Takumi, Shiro Kobayashi, Eiichi Maru, Akio Morita
Blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown and the subsequent exposure of the cerebral cortex to serum albumin are known to activate transforming growth factor β (TGF- β) signaling in astrocytes and to play key roles in epileptogenesis after brain injury. It was recently reported that the angiotensin II type I receptor antagonist losartan suppresses activation of TGF- β signaling and prevents epileptogenesis in a rat vascular injury model. Here, we investigated the effects of losartan on epileptogenesis following amygdala kindling in rats...
May 19, 2018: Brain Research
J M Witkin, J L Smith, X Ping, S D Gleason, M M Poe, G Li, X Jin, J Hobbs, J M Schkeryantz, J S McDermott, A I Alatorre, J N Siemian, J W Cramer, D C Airey, K R Methuku, V V N P B Tiruveedhula, T M Jones, J Crawford, M J Krambis, J L Fisher, J M Cook, R Cerne
HZ-166 has previously been characterized as an α2,3-selective GABAA receptor modulator with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, and anti-nociceptive properties but reduced motor effects. We discovered a series of ester bioisosteres with reduced metabolic liabilities, leading to improved efficacy as anxiolytic-like compounds in rats. In the present study, we evaluated the anticonvulsant effects KRM-II-81 across several rodent models. In some models we also evaluated key structural analogs. KRM-II-81 suppressed hyper-excitation in a network of cultured cortical neurons without affecting the basal neuronal activity...
May 3, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Bo Gao, Yu Wu, Yuan-Jian Yang, Wei-Zu Li, Kun Dong, Jun Zhou, Yan-Yan Yin, Da-Ke Huang, Wen-Ning Wu
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder and is not well controlled by available antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Inflammation is considered to be a critical factor in the pathophysiology of epilepsy. Sinomenine (SN), a bioactive alkaloid with anti-inflammatory effect, exerts neuroprotective activity in many nervous system diseases. However, little is known about the effect of SN on epilepsy. METHODS: The chronic epilepsy model was established by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) kindling...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Bin Wang, Gaurav Gupta, Mahaveer Singh, Kasturi Vishwanatha Setty Veerabhadrappa, Anurag Mishra, Gopala Krishna Chinnaboina
The present study was designed to explore the effect of chronic administration of a new flavone [morusflavone, 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-8-(γ,γ-dimethylallyl)-2',3'-(10'-hydroxy-9',10'-dimethyl-cyclohex-8-enyl)-flavone (compound 1)] at doses of 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg, orally (p.o.) to pentylenetetrazole-induced kindling in rats (a model of human epilepsy). Compound 1 and four other compounds were isolated from the stem bark of Morus alba. The structure of compound 1 was elucidated and established using standard spectroscopic techniques, and malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) were estimated as oxidative markers in brain tissues of rodents...
2018: Journal of Environmental Pathology, Toxicology and Oncology
Vincenzo Bronte
The clinical benefits that have been achieved for a group of cancer patients with metastatic disease on checkpoint inhibitor therapy have kindled intense interest in understanding tumor-induced escape from T lymphocyte control. Other lymphoid cells also participate in tumor control; in particular, NK cells can limit hematogenous cancer metastasis spread and are also subject to negative regulation by developing cancers. In this issue of the JCI, Li and colleagues define an unanticipated role for the stress-induced protein CD155 in cancer metastasis...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
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