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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230325/serum-phosphatidylinositol-as-a-biomarker-for-bipolar-disorder-liability
#1
Emma Em Knowles, Peter J Meikle, Kevin Huynh, Harald Hh Göring, Rene L Olvera, Samuel R Mathias, Ravi Duggirala, Laura Almasy, John Blangero, Joanne E Curran, David C Glahn
OBJECTIVES: Individuals with bipolar disorder (BPD) exhibit alterations in their phospholipid levels. It is unclear whether these alterations are a secondary consequence of illness state, or if phospholipids and illness risk overlap genetically. If the latter were true, then phospholipids might provide key insights into the pathophysiology of the illness. Therefore, we rank-ordered phospholipid classes by their genetic overlap with BPD risk in order to establish which class might be most informative in terms of increasing our understanding of illness pathophysiology...
February 23, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229379/a-novel-frameshift-mutation-in-the-sterol-27-hydroxylase-gene-in-an-egyptian-family-with-cerebrotendinous-xanthomatosis-without-cataract
#2
Mohamed S Abdel-Hamid, Mahmoud Y Issa, Ghada A Otaify, Maha S Zaki
Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is a rare autosomal recessive lipid storage disorder caused by deficiency of the mitochondrial cytochrome P450 sterol 27-hydroxylase enzyme encoded by CYP27A1 gene. CTX is characterized by tendon xanthomas, juvenile cataracts and multiple progressive neurological symptoms. Here we report on the clinical and molecular findings of a 35-years old Egyptian patient with CTX without cataract. Parents were first cousins with family history of two deceased sibs with mild impaired cognitive functions and epilepsy without appearance of tendon xanthomas...
February 22, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229303/phospholipase-d1-expression-analysis-in-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#3
Mohammad Mahdi Eftekharian, Tahereh Azimi, Soudeh Ghafouri-Fard, Arezou Sayad, Mir Davood Omrani, Shaghayegh Sarrafzadeh, Roghayeh Abbasalipourkabir, Mehrdokht Mazdeh, Mohammad Taheri
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disorder resulting from destruction of the myelin or insulating covers of neurons in the central nervous system (CNS). Several lines of evidence suggest a role for immune response in the occurrence and progression of this disorder. Several disease-modifying agents (DMA) including β-interferons (IFNβ) are being used in MS patients in order to stop the disease at the early inflammatory stage, postpone disease progression and diminish future disability. Phospholipase D1 (PLD1) is a critical enzyme responsible for the making lipid second messenger phosphatidic acid...
February 22, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228103/disease-manifestations-and-burden-of-illness-in-patients-with-acid-sphingomyelinase-deficiency-asmd
#4
REVIEW
Margaret M McGovern, Ruzan Avetisyan, Bernd-Jan Sanson, Olivier Lidove
Acid sphingomyelinase deficiency (ASMD), a rare lysosomal storage disease, is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder caused by different SMPD1 mutations. Historically, ASMD has been classified as Niemann-Pick disease (NPD) types A (NPD A) and B (NPD B). NPD A is associated with a uniformly devastating disease course, with rapidly progressing psychomotor degeneration, leading to death typically by the age of 3 years, most often from respiratory failure. In contrast, the clinical phenotype and life expectancy of patients with NPD B may vary widely...
February 23, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226412/rage-polymorphisms-and-oxidative-stress-levels-in-hashimoto-s-thyroiditis
#5
Maria Giannakou, Katerina Saltiki, Emily Mantzou, Eleni Loukari, Georgios Philippou, Konstantinos Terzidis, Kiriaki Lili, Charalampos Stavrianos, Miltiades Kyprianou, Maria Alevizaki
BACKGROUND: Polymorphisms of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) gene have been studied in various autoimmune disorders, but not in Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Also, increased oxidative stress has been described in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible role of two common RAGE polymorphisms (-429T>C, -374T>A) in Hashimoto's thyroiditis; in parallel we studied oxidative stress levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 300 consecutive euthyroid women were examined and classified into three groups: Hashimoto's thyroiditis with treatment (n=96), Hashimoto's thyroiditis without treatment (n=109) and controls (n=95)...
February 22, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225543/cuba-s-aging-and-alzheimer-longitudinal-study
#6
Juan de Jesús Llibre-Rodríguez, Adolfo Valhuerdi-Cepero, Ana M López-Medina, Lisseth Noriega-Fernández, Rutbeskia Porto-Álvarez, Milagros A Guerra-Hernández, Rodolfo I Bosch-Bayard, Tania Zayas-Llerena, Elaine Hernandez-Ulloa, Ana L Rodríguez-Blanco, Enrique Salazar-Pérez, Juan C Llibre-Guerra, Jorge J Llibre-Guerra, Beatriz Marcheco-Teruel
Aging and Alzheimer is a prospective, longitudinal cohort study involving 2944 adults aged ≥65 years from selected areas in Cuba's Havana and Matanzas Provinces. This door-to-door study, which began in 2003, includes periodic assessments of the cohort based on an interview; physical exam; anthropometric measurements; and diagnosis of dementia and its subtypes, other mental disorders, and other chronic non-communicable diseases and their risk factors. Information was gathered on sociodemographic characteristics; disability, dependency and frailty; use of health services; and characteristics of care and caregiver burden...
January 2017: MEDICC Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225005/autophagy-protects-against-palmitic-acid-induced-apoptosis-in-podocytes-in-vitro
#7
Xu-Shun Jiang, Xue-Mei Chen, Jiang-Min Wan, Hai-Bo Gui, Xiong-Zhong Ruan, Xiao-Gang Du
Autophagy is a highly conserved degradation process that is involved in the clearance of proteins and damaged organelles to maintain intracellular homeostasis and cell integrity. Type 2 diabetes is often accompanied by dyslipidemia with elevated levels of free fatty acids (FFAs). Podocytes, as an important component of the filtration barrier, are susceptible to lipid disorders. The loss of podocytes causes proteinuria, which is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. In the present study, we demonstrated that palmitic acid (PA) promoted autophagy in podocytes...
February 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224405/complications-of-acromegaly-cardiovascular-respiratory-and-metabolic-comorbidities
#8
REVIEW
Rosario Pivonello, Renata S Auriemma, Ludovica F S Grasso, Claudia Pivonello, Chiara Simeoli, Roberta Patalano, Mariano Galdiero, Annamaria Colao
Acromegaly is associated with an enhanced mortality, with cardiovascular and respiratory complications representing not only the most frequent comorbidities but also two of the main causes of deaths, whereas a minor role is played by metabolic complications, and particularly diabetes mellitus. The most prevalent cardiovascular complications of acromegaly include a cardiomyopathy, characterized by cardiac hypertrophy and diastolic and systolic dysfunction together with arterial hypertension, cardiac rhythm disorders and valve diseases, as well as vascular endothelial dysfunction...
February 21, 2017: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223719/hepatitis-c-virus-associated-pruritus-etiopathogenesis-and-therapeutic-strategies
#9
EDITORIAL
Youssef Alhmada, Denis Selimovic, Fadi Murad, Sarah-Lilly Hassan, Youssef Haikel, Mossaad Megahed, Matthias Hannig, Mohamed Hassan
In addition to its contributing role in the development of chronic liver diseases, chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with extrahepatic manifestations, particularly, cutaneous-based disorders including those with pruritus as a symptom. Pruritus is frequently associated with the development of chronic liver diseases such as cholestasis and chronic viral infection, and the accumulation of bile acids in patients' sera and tissues as a consequence of liver damage is considered the main cause of pruritus...
February 7, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223467/hypertension-in-pregnancy-and-offspring-cardiovascular-risk-in-young-adulthood-prospective-and-sibling-studies-in-the-hunt-study-nord-tr%C3%A3-ndelag-health-study-in-norway
#10
Ingvild V Alsnes, Lars J Vatten, Abigail Fraser, Johan Håkon Bjørngaard, Janet Rich-Edwards, Pål R Romundstad, Bjørn O Åsvold
Women with hypertensive disorders in pregnancy are at increased lifetime risk for cardiovascular disease. We examined the offspring's cardiovascular risk profile in young adulthood and their siblings' cardiovascular risk profile. From the HUNT study (Nord-Trøndelag Health Study) in Norway, 15 778 participants (mean age: 29 years), including 210 sibling groups, were linked to information from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Blood pressure, anthropometry, serum lipids, and C-reactive protein were assessed...
February 21, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221789/raman-spectroscopy-reveals-selective-interactions-of-cytochrome-c-with-cardiolipin-that-correlate-with-membrane-permeability
#11
Jay P Kitt, David A Bryce, Shelley D Minteer, Joel M Harris
Permeabilization of the outer mitochondrial membrane is an integral step in apoptosis. The resulting release of pro-apoptotic signaling proteins leads to cell destruction through activation of the cysteine-aspartic protease (caspase) cascade. However, the mechanism of outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) permeabilization remains unclear. It was recently shown that cytochrome c can induce pore formation in cardiolipin-containing phospholipid membranes leading to large dextran and protein permeability. In this work, the interaction of cytochrome c with cardiolpin-containing phospholipid vesicles, serving as models of the OMM, is investigated to probe cytochrome c-induced permeability...
February 21, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220655/ppars-in-the-central-nervous-system-roles-in-neurodegeneration-and-neuroinflammation
#12
Juan M Zolezzi, Manuel J Santos, Sussy Bastías-Candia, Claudio Pinto, Juan A Godoy, Nibaldo C Inestrosa
Over 25 years have passed since peroxisome proliferators-activated receptors (PPARs), were first described. Like other members of the nuclear receptors superfamily, PPARs have been defined as critical sensors and master regulators of cellular metabolism. Recognized as ligand-activated transcription factors, they are involved in lipid, glucose and amino acid metabolism, taking part in different cellular processes, including cellular differentiation and apoptosis, inflammatory modulation and attenuation of acute and chronic neurological damage in vivo and in vitro...
February 20, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218306/plin5-alleviates-myocardial-ischaemia-reperfusion-injury-by-reducing-oxidative-stress-through-inhibiting-the-lipolysis-of-lipid-droplets
#13
Pengfei Zheng, Zhonglin Xie, Yuan Yuan, Wen Sui, Chao Wang, Xing Gao, Yuanlin Zhao, Feng Zhang, Yu Gu, Peizhen Hu, Jing Ye, Xuyang Feng, Lijun Zhang
Myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is a complex pathophysiological process. Current research has suggested that energy metabolism disorders, of which the abnormal consumption of fatty acids is closely related, compose the main pathological basis for myocardial I/R injury. Lipid droplets (LD) are critical regulators of lipid metabolism by LD-associated proteins. Among the lipid droplet proteins, the perilipin family members regulate lipolysis and lipogenesis through different mechanisms. Plin5, an important perilipin protein, promotes LD generation and lowers fatty acid oxidation, thus protecting the myocardium from lipotoxicity...
February 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216905/green-biosynthesis-characterization-in-vitro-antidiabetic-activity-and-investigational-acute-toxicity-studies-of-some-herbal-mediated-silver-nanoparticles-on-animal-models
#14
Kalakotla Shanker, Gottumukkala Krishna Mohan, Md Ashwaq Hussain, Naradala Jayarambabu, Poka Lakshmi Pravallika
: Diabetes is a metabolic disorder characterized by hyperglycemia, altered carbohydrate, lipid and protein metabolism. In recent studies, Nanoscience and nanotechnology are blazing fields for researchers; for researchers; of late there has been a prodigious excitement in the field of nanopharmacology to study silver nanoparticle (SNP) synthesis using natural products. Biological methods have been used to synthesize SNPs using medicinally active plants having an antidiabetic role, and this made us to assess the biologically synthesized SNPs from the seed extract of Psoralea corylifolia using 1 mM silver nitrate solution...
January 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216901/technological-evaluation-of-emulsions-containing-the-volatile-oil-from-leaves-of-plectranthus-amboinicus-lour
#15
Pablo Queiroz Lopes, Fabíola Bernardo Carneiro, Ana Letícia Braz de Sousa, Sócrates Golziodo Santos, Elquio Eleamen Oliveira, Luiz Alberto Lira Soares
BACKGROUND: Plectranthus amboinicus Lour is a species which is widespread throughout tropical countries where it is widely used against respiratory tract disorders such as bronchodilator, antitussive, and expectorant conditions. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to characterize the essential oil of P. amboinicus (PaEO) and produce and evaluate emulsions containing PaEO. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The essential oil was characterized by physical-chemical analyses for density, refractive index, 90% ethanol solubility, color, appearance, and identification by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry detection...
January 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215937/long-term-treatment-with-evolocumab-added-to-conventional-drug-therapy-with-or-without-apheresis-in-patients-with-homozygous-familial-hypercholesterolaemia-an-interim-subset-analysis-of-the-open-label-taussig-study
#16
Frederick J Raal, G Kees Hovingh, Dirk Blom, Raul D Santos, Mariko Harada-Shiba, Eric Bruckert, Patrick Couture, Handrean Soran, Gerald F Watts, Christopher Kurtz, Narimon Honarpour, Lihua Tang, Sree Kasichayanula, Scott M Wasserman, Evan A Stein
BACKGROUND: Homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia is a genetic disorder characterised by substantially raised LDL cholesterol, reduced LDL receptor function, xanthomas, and cardiovascular disease before age 20 years. Conventional therapy is with statins, ezetimibe, and apheresis. We aimed to assess the long-term safety and efficacy of the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) inhibitor evolocumab in a subset of patients with homozygous familial hypercholesterolaemia enrolled in an open-label, non-randomised phase 3 trial...
February 16, 2017: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215471/dopamine-serotonin-stabilizer-rp5063-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-multicenter-trial-of-safety-and-efficacy-in-exacerbation-of-schizophrenia-or-schizoaffective-disorder
#17
Marc Cantillon, Arul Prakash, Ajay Alexander, Robert Ings, Dennis Sweitzer, Laxminarayan Bhat
The study objectives were to evaluate the efficacy, safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of RP5063 versus placebo. The study was conducted in adults with acute exacerbation of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. This 28-day, multicenter, placebo-controlled, double-blind study randomized 234 subjects to RP5063 15, 30, or 50mg; aripiprazole; or placebo (3:3:3:1:2) once daily. The aripiprazole arm was included solely to show assay sensitivity and was not powered to show efficacy. The primary endpoint was change from baseline to Day 28/EOT (End-of-Treatment) in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total score; secondary endpoints included PANSS subscales, improvement ≥1 point on the Clinical Global Impressions-Severity (CGI-S), depression and cognition scales...
February 16, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215162/gut-brain-axis-role-of-lipids-in-the-regulation-of-inflammation-pain-and-cns-diseases
#18
Roberto Russo, Claudia Cristiano, Carmen Avagliano, Carmen De Caro, Giovanna La Rana, Giuseppina Mattace Raso, Roberto Berni Canani, Rosaria Meli, Antonio Calignano
The human gut is a composite anaerobic environment with a large, diverse and dynamic enteric microbiota, represented by more than 100 trillion microorganisms, including at least 1000 distinct species. The discovery that a different microbial composition can influence behavior and cognition, and in turn the nervous system can indirectly influence enteric microbiota composition, has significantly contributed to establish the well-accepted concept of gut-brain axis. This hypothesis is supported by several evidence showing mutual mechanisms, which involve the vague nerve, the immune system, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis modulation and the bacteria-derived metabolites...
February 16, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214513/molecular-dynamics-simulation-study-of-the-effect-of-glycerol-dialkyl-glycerol-tetraether-hydroxylation-on-membrane-thermostability
#19
Carme Huguet, Susanne Fietz, Antoni Rosell-Melé, Xavier Daura, Lionel Costenaro
Archaeal tetraether membrane lipids span the whole membrane width and present two C40 isoprenoid chains bound by two glycerol groups (or one glycerol and calditol). These lipids confer stability and maintain the membrane fluidity in mesophile to extremophile environments, making them very attractive for biotechnological applications. The isoprenoid lipid composition in archaeal membranes varies with temperature, which has placed these lipids in the focus of paleo-climatological studies for about a decade. Non-hydroxylated isoprenoid archaeal lipids are typically used as paleo-thermometry proxies, but recently identified hydroxylated (OH) derivatives have also been proposed as temperature proxies...
February 15, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213845/topical-formulation-containing-beeswax-based-nanoparticles-improved-in-vivo-skin-barrier-function
#20
Carla Souza, Luis Alexandre Pedro de Freitas, Patrícia Maria Berardo Gonçalves Maia Campos
Lipid nanoparticles have shown many advantages for treatment/prevention of skin disorders with damaged skin barrier function. Beeswax is a favorable candidate for the development of nanosystems in the cosmetic and dermatological fields because of its advantages for the development of products for topical application. In the present study, beeswax-based nanoparticles (BNs) were prepared using the hot melt microemulsion technique and incorporated to a gel-cream formulation. The formulation was subsequently evaluated for its rheological stability and effect on stratum corneum water content (SCWC) and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) using in vivo biophysical techniques...
February 17, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
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