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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817701/effect-of-exoskeletal-joint-constraint-and-passive-resistance-on-metabolic-energy-expenditure-implications-for-walking-in-paraplegia
#1
Sarah R Chang, Rudi Kobetic, Ronald J Triolo
An important consideration in the design of a practical system to restore walking in individuals with spinal cord injury is to minimize metabolic energy demand on the user. In this study, the effects of exoskeletal constraints on metabolic energy expenditure were evaluated in able-bodied volunteers to gain insight into the demands of walking with a hybrid neuroprosthesis after paralysis. The exoskeleton had a hydraulic mechanism to reciprocally couple hip flexion and extension, unlocked hydraulic stance controlled knee mechanisms, and ankles fixed at neutral by ankle-foot orthoses...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817237/dysregulation-of-wound-healing-mechanisms-in-diabetes-and-the-importance-of-negative-pressure-wound-therapy-npwt
#2
Mogher Khamaisi, Sarit Balanson
Diabetes is a serious disease with severe side effects and comorbidities. Diabetic foot with its chronic non-healing ulcers, or diabetic food ulcers (DFU) as they are commonly called, can be devastating, even leading to amputation. Many therapies exist to assist and improve wound healing. One exciting discovery is the use of negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) as an adjunct to standard treatment. Few studies have substantively explored the molecular mechanisms of NPWT and why we see improved wound healing, a concept that demands more research...
August 17, 2017: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814668/injury-induced-actin-cytoskeleton-reorganization-in-podocytes-revealed-by-super-resolution-microscopy
#3
Hani Y Suleiman, Robyn Roth, Sanjay Jain, John E Heuser, Andrey S Shaw, Jeffrey H Miner
The architectural integrity of tissues requires complex interactions, both between cells and between cells and the extracellular matrix. Fundamental to cell and tissue homeostasis are the specific mechanical forces conveyed by the actomyosin cytoskeleton. Here we used super-resolution imaging methods to visualize the actin cytoskeleton in the kidney glomerulus, an organized collection of capillaries that filters the blood to make the primary urine. Our analysis of both mouse and human glomeruli reveals a network of myosin IIA-containing contractile actin cables within podocyte cell bodies and major processes at the outer aspects of the glomerular tuft...
August 17, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814050/segmental-contributions-to-sagittal-plane-whole-body-angular-momentum-when-using-powered-compared-to-passive-ankle-foot-prostheses-on-ramps
#4
Nathaniel T Pickle, Anne K Silverman, Jason M Wilken, Nicholas P Fey
Understanding the effects of an assistive device on dynamic balance is crucial, particularly for robotic leg prostheses. Analyses of dynamic balance commonly evaluate the range of whole-body angular momentum (H). However, the contributions of individual body segments to overall H throughout gait may yield futher insights, specifically for people with transtibial amputation using powered prostheses. We evaluated segment contributions to H using Statistical Parametric Mapping to assess the effects of prosthesis type (powered vs passive) and ramp angle on segmental coordination...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814000/preliminary-study-of-a-robotic-foot-ankle-prosthesis-with-active-alignment
#5
Andrew K LaPre, Ryan D Wedge, Brian R Umberger, Frank C Sup
Robotic prosthetic foot-ankle prostheses typically aim to replace the lost joint with revolute joints aimed at replicating normal joint biomechanics. In this paper, a previously developed robotic ankle prosthesis with active alignment is evaluated. It uses a four-bar mechanism to inject positive power into the gait cycle while altering the kinematics of the ankle joint and pylon segment to reduce loading on the residual limb. In a single-subject biomechanics analysis, there was a 10% reduction in peak limb pressures and evidence of greater gait symmetry in ground reaction forces when active alignment was implemented compared to walking with the daily use prosthesis...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813975/a-lightweight-robotic-ankle-prosthesis-with-non-backdrivable-cam-based-transmission
#6
Tommaso Lenzi, Marco Cempini, Jeremy Newkirk, Levi J Hargrove, Todd A Kuiken
Below-knee level amputation significantly impacts the ability of an individual to ambulate. Transtibial amputees are typically prescribed energetically passive ankle-foot prostheses that behave as a spring or controlled damper, and therefore cannot fully replace the function of the missing limb. More recently, fully-powered devices have been proposed to more closely match the power generation ability of intact limbs. However, these fully-powered devices are significantly heavier than passive devices, thus increasing the stress on the socket-residual limb interface...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813858/active-impedance-control-of-a-knee-joint-orthosis-during-swing-phase
#7
Fatima El Zahraa Wehbi, Weiguang Huo, Yacine Amirat, Maher El Rafei, Mohamad Khalil, Samer Mohammed
In this paper, an active impedance control strategy for a knee-joint orthosis is proposed to assist individuals suffering from lower-limb muscular weaknesses during the swing phase of walking activities. The goal of the proposed strategy is to decrease the human effort required for ensuring a successful knee joint movement during walking without sacrificing the wearer's control priority. In this study, a gait-phase based desired knee-joint admittance model is designed by analyzing the kinematic and kinetic characteristics of the wearer's shank-foot segment during walking...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813846/closed-loop-emg-informed-model-based-analysis-of-human-musculoskeletal-mechanics-on-rough-terrains
#8
C Varotto, Z Sawacha, L Gizzi, D Farina, M Sartori
This work aims at estimating the musculoskeletal forces acting in the human lower extremity during locomotion on rough terrains. We employ computational models of the human neuro-musculoskeletal system that are informed by multi-modal movement data including foot-ground reaction forces, 3D marker trajectories and lower extremity electromyograms (EMG). Data were recorded from one healthy subject locomoting on rough grounds realized using foam rubber blocks of different heights. Blocks arrangement was randomized across all locomotion trials to prevent adaptation to specific ground morphology...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813832/design-and-experimental-evaluation-of-a-lightweight-high-torque-and-compliant-actuator-for-an-active-ankle-foot-orthosis
#9
Marta Moltedo, Tomislav Bacek, Kevin Langlois, Karen Junius, Bram Vanderborght, Dirk Lefeber
The human ankle joint plays a crucial role during walking. At the push-off phase the ankle plantarflexors generate the highest torque among the lower limb joints during this activity. The potential of the ankle plantarflexors is affected by numerous pathologies and injuries, which cause a decrease in the ability of the subject to achieve a natural gait pattern. Active orthoses have shown to have potential in assisting these subjects. The design of such robots is very challenging due to the contrasting design requirements of wearability (light weight and compact) and high torques capacity...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811893/knowledge-of-obstetric-danger-signs-and-associated-factors-among-pregnant-women-attending-antenatal-care-at-health-facilities-of-yirgacheffe-town-gedeo-zone-southern-ethiopia
#10
Desalegn Tsegaw Hibstu, Yadeshi Demisse Siyoum
BACKGROUND: Obstetric danger signs are not the literal obstetric complications, merely symptoms that are well named by non-clinical personnel. The identification of these danger signs and its relation with complications during pregnancy would increase the capacity of women, their partners and families to seek for timely health care, following the appropriate steps to insure a safe birth and post-partum. The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge of obstetric danger signs and associated factors among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Yirgacheffe town, Gedeo zone, Southern Ethiopia...
2017: Archives of Public Health, Archives Belges de Santé Publique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809629/-talar-neck-fractures-treated-using-percutaneous-screw-fixation
#11
R Veselý, M Kelbl, J Kacián, V Hulka, J Kočiš, R Kunovský
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY Closed reduction and percutaneous fixation of nondisplaced talar neck fractures have been applied by some authors. The aim of this paper is to assess the results and complications of this minimally invasive technique. MATERIAL AND METHODS In the period from 2009 to 2014, twenty-one patients with a talar neck fracture were observed after closed reduction and percutaneous screw fixation in the Traumatological Hospital in Brno. The mean age of the patients was 38 years (range 18-56 years)...
2017: Acta Chirurgiae Orthopaedicae et Traumatologiae Cechoslovaca
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808202/-borneol-is-neuroprotective-against-permanent-cerebral-ischemia-in-rats-by-suppressing-production-of-proinflammatory-cytokines
#12
Lei Chang, Chun-Yu Yin, Hai-Yin Wu, Bin-Bin Tian, Yan Zhu, Chun-Xia Luo, Dong-Ya Zhu
Stroke is one of the leading causes of disability and death globally. It occurs when a major artery is occluded in the brain and leads to death of cells within the injured tissue. (+)-Borneol, a simple bicyclic monoterpene extracted from traditional Chinese medicine, is widely used in various types of diseases. However, no study has proved the effects of (+)-borneol on functional recovery from permanent ischemic stroke and the mechanism is still unknown. Here, we report that in the rat model of permanent cerebral ischemia, we found that (+)-borneol (1...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807213/turkey-model-for-flexor-tendon-research-in%C3%A2-vitro-comparison-of-human-canine-turkey-and-chicken-tendons
#13
Assaf Kadar, Andrew R Thoreson, Ramona L Reisdorf, Peter C Amadio, Steven L Moran, Chunfeng Zhao
BACKGROUND: Flexor tendon injuries are one of the most common hand injuries and remain clinically challenging for functional restoration. Canine and chicken have been the most commonly used animal models for flexor tendon-related research but possess several disadvantages. The purpose of this study was to explore a potential turkey model for flexor tendon research. METHODS: The third digit from human cadaveric hands, canine forepaws, turkey foot, and chicken foot were used for this study...
August 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800707/radiographic-results-and-return-to-activity-after-sesamoidectomy-for-fracture
#14
Justin M Kane, James W Brodsky, Yahya Daoud
BACKGROUND: Limited data are available comparing the results of lateral sesamoidectomy and medial sesamoidectomy for the treatment of fractures recalcitrant to nonoperative treatment interventions. The hypothesis of this study was that sesamoidectomy for either lateral or medial sesamoid fractures would not change radiographic alignment of the first ray given the use of identical reconstruction of the plantar plate, intersesamoid ligament, and plantar ligament complex at the time of surgery...
August 1, 2017: Foot & Ankle International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794494/evidence-of-energetic-optimization-during-adaptation-differs-for-metabolic-mechanical-and-perceptual-estimates-of-energetic-cost
#15
Natalia Sánchez, Sungwoo Park, James M Finley
The theory that the sensorimotor system minimizes energetic cost during locomotion has long been supported by both computational models and empirical studies. However, it has yet to be determined if the behavior to which people converge when exposed to a novel perturbation during locomotion is also energetically optimal. We address this issue in the context of adaptation to walking on a split-belt treadmill, which can impose a left-right asymmetry in step lengths. In response to this asymmetry, participants gradually adjust their foot placement to adopt steps of equal length...
August 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783556/foot-structure-is-significantly-associated-to-subtalar-joint-kinetics-and-mechanical-energetics
#16
Jayishni N Maharaj, Andrew G Cresswell, Glen A Lichtwark
INTRODUCTION/AIM: Foot structure has been implicated as a risk factor of numerous overuse injuries, however, the mechanism linking foot structure and the development of soft-tissue overuse injuries are not well understood. The aim of this study was to identify factors that could predict foot function during walking. METHODS: A total of eleven variables (including measures of foot structure, anthropometry and spatiotemporal gait characteristics) were investigated for their predictive ability on identifying kinematic, kinetic and energetic components of the foot...
July 21, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783067/a-study-of-thermistor-performance-within-a-textile-structure
#17
Theodore Hughes-Riley, Pasindu Lugoda, Tilak Dias, Christophe L Trabi, Robert H Morris
Textiles provide an ideal structure for embedding sensors for medical devices. Skin temperature measurement is one area in which a sensor textile could be particularly beneficial; pathological skin is normally very sensitive, making the comfort of anything placed on that skin paramount. Skin temperature is an important parameter to measure for a number of medical applications, including for the early detection of diabetic foot ulcer formation. To this end an electronic temperature-sensor yarn was developed by embedding a commercially available thermistor chip into the fibres of a yarn, which can be used to produce a textile or a garment...
August 5, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777065/possible-role-of-antioxidative-capacity-of-epigallocatechin-3-gallate-treatment-in-morphological-and-neurobehavioral-recovery-after-sciatic-nerve-crush-injury
#18
Waleed M Renno, Ludmil Benov, Khalid M Khan
OBJECTIVE This study examined the capacity of the major polyphenolic green tea extract (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) to suppress oxidative stress and stimulate the recovery and prompt the regeneration of sciatic nerve after crush injury. METHODS Adult male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of 4 groups: 1) Naïve, 2) Sham (sham injury, surgical control group), 3) Crush (sciatic nerve crush injury treated with saline), and 4) Crush+EGCG (sciatic nerve crush injury treated with intraperitoneally administered EGCG, 50 mg/kg)...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776974/mechanistic-aspects-of-vesicle-opening-during-analysis-with-vesicle-impact-electrochemical-cytometry
#19
Xianchan Li, Johan Dunevall, Lin Ren, Andrew G Ewing
Vesicle impact electrochemical cytometry (VIEC) has been used to quantify the vesicular transmitter content in mammalian vesicles. In the present study, we studied the mechanism of VIEC by quantifying the catecholamine content in single vesicles isolated from pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. These vesicles contain about one tenth of the catecholamine compared with adrenal chromaffin vesicles. The existence of a pre-spike foot for many events suggests the formation of an initial transiently stable pore at the beginning of vesicle rupture...
August 4, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775002/kindlin-2-association-with-rho-gdp-dissociation-inhibitor-%C3%AE-suppresses-rac1-activation-and-podocyte-injury
#20
Ying Sun, Chen Guo, Ping Ma, Yumei Lai, Fan Yang, Jun Cai, Zhehao Cheng, Kuo Zhang, Zhongzhen Liu, Yeteng Tian, Yue Sheng, Ruijun Tian, Yi Deng, Guozhi Xiao, Chuanyue Wu
Alteration of podocyte behavior is critically involved in the development and progression of many forms of human glomerular diseases. The molecular mechanisms that control podocyte behavior, however, are not well understood. Here, we investigated the role of Kindlin-2, a component of cell-matrix adhesions, in podocyte behavior in vivo Ablation of Kindlin-2 in podocytes resulted in alteration of actin cytoskeletal organization, reduction of the levels of slit diaphragm proteins, effacement of podocyte foot processes, and ultimately massive proteinuria and death due to kidney failure...
August 3, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
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