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foot mechanics

Rachel M Nygaard, Frederick W Endorf
Numerous demographic, socioeconomic, and injury factors influence a burn patient's hospital course. Compared to the typical burn patient, frostbite injury frequently impacts those with high rates of mental illness, substance abuse, and those suffering homelessness. Our aim was to examine differences in the hospital course of frostbite patients compared to those with burns limited to the hands and feet. Patients with frostbite injury and those with isolated hand and/or foot burns were identified in the National Burn Repository...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
Hui Jia, Bohua Yang, Youshan Li, Chen Liang, Haibin Lu, Dongyang Lin, Ju Shang
Objective This study aimed to investigate the mechanism by which Chinese herbal medicine ulcer oil (UO) accelerates ulcer healing in a diabetic ulcer rat model. Methods Sprague Dawley rats were allocated at random into four groups: a control group, a positive control group (PC), a UO treatment group and an ethacridine lactate solution treatment group. Subcutaneous tissue was surgically removed from the rats on days 3, 7 and 14. The levels of protein phosphotyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and advanced glycation end products (AGEs) were detected using western blot analysis...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
Jeannie-Marie S Leoutsakos, Haijuan Yan, William S Anderson, Wael F Asaad, Gordon Baltuch, Anna Burke, M Mallar Chakravarty, Kristen E Drake, Kelly D Foote, Lisa Fosdick, Peter Giacobbe, Zoltan Mari, Mary Pat McAndrews, Cynthia A Munro, Esther S Oh, Michael S Okun, Jo Cara Pendergrass, Francisco A Ponce, Paul B Rosenberg, Marwan N Sabbagh, Stephen Salloway, David F Tang-Wai, Steven D Targum, David Wolk, Andres M Lozano, Gwenn S Smith, Constantine G Lyketsos
BACKGROUND: Given recent challenges in developing new treatments for Alzheimer dementia (AD), it is vital to explore alternate treatment targets, such as neuromodulation for circuit dysfunction. We previously reported an exploratory Phase IIb double-blind trial of deep brain stimulation targeting the fornix (DBS-f) in mild AD (the ADvance trial). We reported safety but no clinical benefits of DBS-f versus the delayed-on (sham) treatment in 42 participants after one year. However, secondary post hoc analyses of the one-year data suggested a possible DBS-f benefit for participants≥65 years...
June 9, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Pasquale Scaramozzino, Alban Y Neziri, Ole K Andersen, Lars Arendt-Nielsen, Michele Curatolo
Aabstract Background and purpose Central hypersensitivity, defined as an increased excitability of the central nervous system, is considered as the main factor behind facilitation of central pain processes and is probably a very important factor in the induction and maintenance of chronic pain. Widespread hyposensitivity is less studied than hypersensitivity states, but recent work indicates that hypoesthesia may be present in chronic non-neuropathic pain conditions and could have negative prognostic value...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
H B Madsen, G Handberg, T Graven-Nielsen
Background/aims Exercise and experimental pain is known to cause an acute decrease of the pain sensitivity. Assessment of pain inhibitory mechanisms is often done by paradigms of exercise and experimental pain in both healthy subjects and pain patients. It is currently unknown whether pain and different types of exercise has similar effects on pain sensitivity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of experimental pain and different types of exercise on deep tissue pain tolerance in healthy subjects...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Thomas Kronborg Larsen, Andreas Egmose, Marianne Enggaard, Rósa Hugosdóttir, Federico Arguissain, José Biurrun Manresa, Carsten Dahl Mørch
Introduction Offset analgesia (OA) is a temporal perceptual mechanism in which subjective pain ratings decrease disproportionally when a noxious heat stimulus is decreased by 1-3 ◦C. Whether OA is a peripheral, spinal or supraspinal mechanism remains unknown. The stimulation of afferent nociceptors in the foot, leads to a spinal nociceptive withdrawal reflex (NWR) which is mediated through the wide dynamic range (WDR) neurons and therefore under descending control. We hypothesized that OA affects the spinal nociceptive neurons resulting in an attenuation of the NWR during OA...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Christopher T Richards, Laura B Porro
Spherical Linear Interpolation (SLERP) has long been used in computer animation to interpolate movements between two 3D orientations. We developed a forward kinematics (FK) approach using quaternions and SLERP to predict how frogs modulate jump kinematics between start posture and takeoff. Frog limb kinematics have been studied during various activities, yet the causal link between differences in joint kinematics and locomotor variation remains unknown. We varied 1) takeoff angle from 8 to 60 degrees; 2) turn angle from 0 to 18 degrees; and 3) initial body pitch from 0 to 70 degrees...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Junchao Guo, Xiaoyu Liu, Xili Ding, Lizhen Wang, Yubo Fan
Plantar fascia (PF) is a heterogeneous thickness structure across plantar foot. It is important significance to investigate the biomechanical behavior of the medial, middle and lateral PF regions. To investigate the non-uniform macro/micro structures of the different PF regions, the uniaxial tensile test of PF strips were performed to assess the mechanical behavior of PF. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to visualize and measure the micro morphology of PF associated with collagen fibers. A three-dimensional foot finite element (FE) model was developed to quantify the tensile behavior of the internal PF...
June 8, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Nicola Hare, Petros Georgopoulos, Kate E Philips, Joanne E Johnson, Coralie Seary, Jalesh N Panicker, Valerie L Stevenson
OBJECTIVE: Functional electrical stimulation is used to improve walking speed and reduces falls in people with upper motor neurone foot-drop. Following anecdotal observations of changes in bladder symptoms, an observational study was performed to explore this association further. DESIGN: A total of 47 consecutive patients attending for setup with functional electrical stimulation during a six-month period were asked to complete a questionnaire assessing bladder symptoms (ICIQ-OAB (International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire Overactive Bladder)) at baseline and three  months during routine appointments...
June 1, 2018: Clinical Rehabilitation
Han Xu, Na Guan, Ya-Li Ren, Qi-Jiao Wei, Ying-Hong Tao, Guo-Sheng Yang, Xiao-Ya Liu, Ding-Fang Bu, Ying Zhang, Sai-Nan Zhu
BACKGROUND: The mechanism of podocyte apoptosis is not fully understood. In addition, the role of the inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor (IP3 R)/glucose-regulated protein 75 (Grp75)/voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1)/mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) calcium regulation axis, which is located at sites of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) mitochondria coupling, in the mechanism of podocyte apoptosis is unclear. This study aimed to understand the roles of this axis in podocyte apoptosis and explore potential targets for podocyte protection...
June 15, 2018: BMC Nephrology
Horea Gozar, Zoltan Derzsi, Alexandru Chira, Örs Nagy, Theodora Benedek
RATIONALE: In clubfoot deformity, planning of corrective treatment requires a complex understanding of the foot anatomy, as well as of the geometry and distribution of altered mechanical forces acting at the level of the deformed foot. At the same time, treatment success depends largely on the selection of the most appropriate shape and angles of the customized orthesis developed for foot correction. Therefore, a complex assessment of the intensity and distribution of the mechanical forces at this site is mandatory prior to initiation of any corrective therapy...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Monica A Daley
Birds are a diverse and agile lineage of vertebrates that all use bipedal locomotion for at least part of their life. Thus birds provide a valuable opportunity to investigate how biomechanics and sensorimotor control are integrated for agile bipedal locomotion. This review summarizes recent work using terrain perturbations to reveal neuromechanical control strategies used by ground birds to achieve robust, stable and agile running. Early experiments in running guinea fowl aimed to reveal the immediate intrinsic mechanical response to an unexpected drop ('pothole') in terrain...
June 12, 2018: Integrative and Comparative Biology
Gaofeng Song, Pengxun Han, Huili Sun, Mumin Shao, Xuewen Yu, Wenjing Wang, Dongtao Wang, Wuyong Yi, Na Ge, Shunmin Li, Tiegang Yi
Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the renoprotective effects and molecular mechanisms of astragaloside IV (AS-IV) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice. Methods Male C57BL/6 mice were injected intraperitoneally with STZ at 200 mg/kg body weight. AS-IV was administered for 8 consecutive weeks, beginning 1 week after STZ injection. Body weight, 24-hour urinary albumin excretion, and fasting blood glucose were measured. Kidney tissues were examined by histopathological analyses. Total levels and phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase 1/2 (MEK1/2), extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), and ribosomal S6 kinase 2 (RSK2) were determined by Western blotting analysis...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
Madiiha Bibi Mandary, Chit Laa Poh
Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) is a major etiological agent of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) that mainly affects young children less than five years old. The onset of severe HFMD is due to neurological complications bringing about acute flaccid paralysis and pulmonary oedema. In this review, we address how genetic events such as recombination and spontaneous mutations could change the genomic organization of EV-A71, leading to an impact on viral virulence. An understanding of the recombination mechanism of the poliovirus and non-polio enteroviruses will provide further evidence of the emergence of novel strains responsible for fatal HFMD outbreaks...
June 12, 2018: Viruses
Kyung Suk Shin, Eun-Hyun Lee
AIM: To examine the relationships of health literacy to diabetes self-care behaviors (diet, physical exercise, foot care and blood glucose monitoring) through empowerment controlling for diabetes education. BACKGROUND: Potential mechanisms of how health literacy links to health outcomes have not clearly elucidated. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study design was used. METHODS: Participants were recruited from three community health centers in South Korea from September 2016 - April 2017 using a convenience sampling method...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Advanced Nursing
Xu Ye, Ting Pan, Dang Wang, Liurong Fang, Jun Ma, Xinyu Zhu, Yanling Shi, Keshan Zhang, Haixue Zheng, Huanchun Chen, Kui Li, Shaobo Xiao
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious, severe viral illness notifiable to the World Organization for Animal Health. The causative agent, FMD virus (FMDV), replicates rapidly and efficiently inhibits host translation and the innate immune response for it has developed multiple tactics to evade host defenses and takes over gene expression machinery in the host cell. Here, we report a systemic analysis of the proteome and phosphoproteome of FMDV-infected cells. Bioinformatics analysis suggested that FMDV infection shuts off host cap-dependent translation, but leaves intact internal ribosome entry site (IRES)-mediated translation for viral proteins...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
S R Sundararajan, Abdul Azeem Badurudeen, R Ramakanth, Shanmuganathan Rajasekaran
Fractures of talar body are uncommon injuries often associated with fractures of other long bones and in polytraumatized patients. The integrity of the talus is essential for the normal function of the ankle, subtalar, and midtarsal joints. The relative infrequency of this injury limits the number of studies available to guide treatment. They occur as a result of high-velocity trauma and are therefore associated with considerable soft tissue damage. Axial compression with supination or pronation is the common mechanism of injury...
May 2018: Indian Journal of Orthopaedics
Sarah E Miller, Ava D Segal, Glenn K Klute, Richard R Neptune
Lower-limb amputees have a higher risk of falling compared to non-amputees. Proper regulation of whole-body angular momentum is necessary to prevent falls, particularly in the frontal plane where individuals are most unstable. However, the balance recovery mechanisms used by lower-limb amputees when recovering from a perturbation are not well-understood. This study sought to understand the balance recovery mechanisms used by lower-limb amputees in response to mediolateral foot perturbations by examining changes to frontal plane whole-body angular momentum and hip joint work...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Thilo Hotfiel, Rafael Heiss, Rolf Janka, Raimund Forst, Martine Raithel, Christoph Lutter, Kolja Gelse, Milena Pachowsky, Tobias Golditz
OBJECTIVES: The anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) is the most frequently injured ligament during inversion strains of the ankle. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) elastography and to determine the in vivo mechanical properties of the ATFL in healthy athletes. METHODS: Fifty-one healthy athletes (32 female, 28 male; 29 ±2 years) were recruited from the medical and sports faculty. ARFI values, represented as shear wave velocities (SWV) as well as conventional ultrasound were obtained for the ATFL in neutral ankle position...
June 9, 2018: Physician and Sportsmedicine
Xiaojuan Zhu, Tao Wu, Ying Chi, Yiyue Ge, Bin Wu, Minghao Zhou, Fengcai Zhu, Minjun Ji, Lunbiao Cui
Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) infection can cause hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), and even fatal meningoencephalitis. Unfortunately, there is currently no effective treatment for EV-A71 infection due to the lack of understanding of the mechanism of neurological diseases. In this study, we employed SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells to explore the roles of caspase-1 in neuropathogenesis. The expression and activity of caspase-1 were analyzed. The potential immuneconsequences mediated by caspase-1 including cell death, lysis, DNA degradation, and secretion of pro-inflammatory were also examined...
June 7, 2018: Virology
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