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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718807/melanin-and-melanin-related-polymers-as-materials-with-biomedical-and-biotechnological-applications-cuttlefish-ink-and-mussel-foot-proteins-as-inspired-biomolecules
#1
REVIEW
Francisco Solano
The huge development of bioengineering during the last years has boosted the search for new bioinspired materials, with tunable chemical, mechanical, and optoelectronic properties for the design of semiconductors, batteries, biosensors, imaging and therapy probes, adhesive hydrogels, tissue restoration, photoprotectors, etc. These new materials should complement or replace metallic or organic polymers that cause cytotoxicity and some adverse health effects. One of the most interesting biomaterials is melanin and synthetic melanin-related molecules...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717212/a-clinicopathological-analysis-of-153-acral-melanomas-and-the-relevance-of-mechanical-stress
#2
Yi-Shuan Sheen, Yi-Hua Liao, Ming-Hsien Lin, Jau-Shiuh Chen, Jau-Yu Liau, Yu-Ju Tseng, Chih-Hung Lee, Yih-Leong Chang, Chia-Yu Chu
The pathogenesis of melanomas emerging in plantar surfaces remains unclear; however, mechanical stress has been reported to increase the formation of melanomas. In this study, we conducted a multicenter retrospective analysis of 153 acral melanomas diagnosed between 2000 and 2015 in Taiwan. The male-to-female ratio of the patients in question was 1:1.28, and the mean age at diagnosis was 68 years. We examined whether melanomas which developed in different areas of the patients' soles differed in their associations with various clinicopathological characteristics and survival...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714852/the-small-molecule-mimetic-agonist-trimebutine-of-adhesion-molecule-l1-contributes-to-functional-recovery-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-mice
#3
Junping Xu, Chengliang Hu, Qiong Jiang, Hongchao Pan, Huifan Shen, Melitta Schachner
Curing spinal cord injury (SCI) in mammals is a daunting task because of the lack of permissive mechanisms and strong inhibitory responses at and around the lesion. The neural cell adhesion molecule L1CAM (L1) has been shown to favor axonal regrowth and enhance neuronal survival and synaptic plasticity, and thus constitutes a viable target to promote regeneration after SCI. Since delivery of full-length L1 or its extracellular domain could encounter difficulties in translation to therapy in humans, we have identified several small organic compounds that bind to L1 and stimulate neuronal survival, neuronal migration, and neurite outgrowth in an L1-dependent manner...
July 14, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713408/transcriptome-analyses-shed-new-insights-into-primary-metabolism-and-regulation-of-blumeria-graminis-f-sp-tritici-during-conidiation
#4
Fan-Song Zeng, Fabrizio Menardo, Min-Feng Xue, Xue-Jiang Zhang, Shuang-Jun Gong, Li-Jun Yang, Wen-Qi Shi, Da-Zhao Yu
Conidia of the obligate biotrophic fungal pathogen Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici (Bgt) play a vital role in its survival and rapid dispersal. However, little is known about the genetic basis for its asexual reproduction. To uncover the primary metabolic and regulatory events during conidiation, we sequenced the transcriptome of Bgt epiphytic structures at 3 (vegetative hyphae growth), 4 (foot cells initiation), and 5 (conidiophore erection) days post-inoculation (dpi). RNA-seq analyses identified 556 and 404 (combined 685) differentially expressed genes (DEGs) at 4 and 5 dpi compared with their expression levels at 3 dpi, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713254/short-term-effects-of-thoracic-spine-manipulation-on-the-biomechanical-organisation-of-gait-initiation-a-randomized-pilot-study
#5
Sébastien Ditcharles, Eric Yiou, Arnaud Delafontaine, Alain Hamaoui
Speed performance during gait initiation is known to be dependent on the capacity of the central nervous system to generate efficient anticipatory postural adjustments (APA). According to the posturo-kinetic capacity (PKC) concept, any factor enhancing postural chain mobility and especially spine mobility, may facilitate the development of APA and thus speed performance. "Spinal Manipulative Therapy High-Velocity, Low-Amplitude" (SMT-HVLA) is a healing technique applied to the spine which is routinely used by healthcare practitioners to improve spine mobility...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704670/cryo-conditioned-rocky-coast-systems-a-case-study-from-wilczekodden-svalbard
#6
M C Strzelecki, M Kasprzak, M Lim, Z M Swirad, M Jaskólski, Ł Pawłowski, P Modzel
This paper presents the results of an investigation into the processes controlling development of a cryo-conditioned rock coast system in Hornsund, Svalbard. A suite of nested geomorphological and geophysical methods have been applied to characterise the functioning of rock cliffs and shore platforms influenced by lithological control and geomorphic processes driven by polar coast environments. Electrical resistivity tomosgraphy (ERT) surveys have been used to investigate permafrost control on rock coast dynamics and reveal the strong interaction with marine processes in High Arctic coastal settings...
July 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702377/dsrna-binding-domain-of-pkr-is-proteolytically-released-by-enterovirus-a71-to-facilitate-viral-replication
#7
Yu-Hsiu Chang, Kean Seng Lau, Rei-Lin Kuo, Jim-Tong Horng
Enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) causes hand, foot and mouth disease in young children and infants, but can also cause severe neurological complications or even death. The double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-dependent protein kinase R (PKR), an interferon-induced antiviral protein, phosphorylates the regulatory α-subunit of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 in response to viral infection, thereby blocking the translation of cellular and viral mRNA and promoting apoptosis. The cleavage of PKR after infection with poliovirus, a prototype enterovirus, has been reported by others, but the underlying mechanism of this cleavage and its role in viral replication remain unclear...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700914/period-robustness-and-entrainability-of-the-kai-system-to-changing-nucleotide-concentrations
#8
Joris Paijmans, David K Lubensky, Pieter Rein Ten Wolde
Circadian clocks must be able to entrain to time-varying signals to keep their oscillations in phase with the day-night rhythm. On the other hand, they must also exhibit input compensation: their period must remain approximately one day in different constant environments. The posttranslational oscillator of the Kai system can be entrained by transient or oscillatory changes in the ATP fraction, yet is insensitive to constant changes in this fraction. We study in three different models of this system how these two seemingly conflicting criteria are met...
July 11, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699352/redox-signaling-in-diabetic-wound-healing-regulates-extracellular-matrix-deposition
#9
Britta Kunkemoeller, Themis Kyriakides
SIGNIFICANCE: Impaired wound healing is a major complication of diabetes, and can lead to development of chronic foot ulcers in a significant portion of patient. Despite the danger posed by poor healing, very few specific therapies exist, leaving patients at risk of hospitalization, amputation, and further decline in overall health. Recent Advances: Redox signaling is a key regulator of wound healing, especially through its influence on the extracellular matrix (ECM). Normal redox signaling is disrupted in diabetes leading to several pathological mechanisms that alter the balance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and scavenging...
July 12, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693353/injury-characteristics-of-low-energy-lisfranc-injuries-compared-with-high-energy-injuries
#10
Christopher H Renninger, Grant Cochran, Trevor Tompane, Joseph Bellamy, Kevin Kuhn
BACKGROUND: Lisfranc injuries result from high- and low-energy mechanisms though the literature has been more focused on high-energy mechanisms. A comparison of high-energy (HE) and low-energy (LE) injury patterns is lacking. The objective of this study was to report injury patterns in LE Lisfranc joint injuries and compare them to HE injury patterns. METHODS: Operative Lisfranc injuries were identified over a 5-year period. Patient demographics, mechanism of injury, injury pattern, associated injuries, missed diagnoses, clinical course, and imaging studies were reviewed and compared...
July 1, 2017: Foot & Ankle International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689681/locomotion-pattern-and-foot-pressure-adjustments-during-gentle-turns-in-healthy-subjects
#11
Kathrin E Peyer, Charlotte A Brassey, Kayleigh A Rose, William I Sellers
People suffering from locomotor impairment find turning manoeuvres more challenging than straight-ahead walking. Turning manoeuvres are estimated to comprise a substantial proportion of steps taken daily, yet research has predominantly focused on straight-line walking, meaning that the basic kinetic, kinematic and foot pressure adaptations required for turning are not as well understood. We investigated how healthy subjects adapt their locomotion patterns to accommodate walking along a gently curved trajectory (radius 2...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688753/antiviral-effects-of-retro-2-cycl-and-retro-2-1-against-enterovirus-71-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo
#12
Wenwen Dai, Yu Wu, Jinpeng Bi, Xiaotong Lu, Ali Hou, Yan Zhou, Bo Sun, Wei Kong, Julien Barbier, Jean-Christophe Cintrat, Feng Gao, Daniel Gillet, Weiheng Su, Chunlai Jiang
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is one of the causative pathogens of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD), especially the form associated with fatal neurological disorders. Sustained outbreaks of EV71 infections remain a serious health threat worldwide. However, no antiviral agent against EV71 for clinical therapy has been approved. Retro-2(cycl) and Retro-2.1 are inhibitors of several pathogens specifically targeting the intracellular vesicle transport, which also participates in the EV71 lifecycle processes including progeny virus release...
July 5, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686846/effect-of-first-tarsometatarsal-joint-derotational-arthrodesis-on-first-ray-dynamic-stability-compared-to-distal-chevron-osteotomy
#13
Tero Klemola, Juhana Leppilahti, Vesa Laine, Ilkka Pentikäinen, Risto Ojala, Pasi Ohtonen, Olli Savola
BACKGROUND: Hallux valgus alters gait, compromising first ray stability and function of the windlass mechanism at the late stance. Hallux valgus correction should restore the stability of the first metatarsal. Comparative studies reporting the impact of different hallux valgus correction methods on gait are rare. We report the results of a case-control study between distal chevron osteotomy and first tarsometatarsal joint derotational arthrodesis (FTJDA). METHODS: Two previously studied hallux valgus cohorts were matched: distal chevron osteotomy and FTJDA...
June 1, 2017: Foot & Ankle International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676748/regularity-of-center-of-pressure-trajectories-in-expert-gymnasts-during-bipedal-closed-eyes-quiet-standing
#14
Brice Isableu, Petra Hlavackova, Bruno Diot, Nicolas Vuillerme
We compared postural control of expert gymnasts (G) to that of non-gymnasts (NG) during bipedal closed-eyes quiet standing using conventional and nonlinear dynamical measures of center of foot pressure (COP) trajectories. Earlier findings based on COP classical variables showed that gymnasts exhibited a better control of postural balance but only in demanding stances. We examined whether the effect of expertise in Gymnastic can be uncovered in less demanding stances, from the analysis of the dynamic patterns of COP trajectories...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670564/comparison-of-mechanical-and-biological-properties-of-zirconia-and-titanium-alloy-orthodontic-micro-implants
#15
Hae Won Choi, Young Seok Park, Shin Hye Chung, Min Ho Jung, Won Moon, Sang Hoon Rhee
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the initial stability as insertion and removal torque and the clinical applicability of novel orthodontic zirconia micro-implants made using a powder injection molding (PIM) technique with those parameters in conventional titanium micro-implants. METHODS: Sixty zirconia and 60 titanium micro-implants of similar design (diameter, 1.6 mm; length, 8.0 mm) were inserted perpendicularly in solid polyurethane foam with varying densities of 20 pounds per cubic foot (pcf), 30 pcf, and 40 pcf...
July 2017: Korean Journal of Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667410/pollen-wall-ontogeny-in-polemonium-caeruleum-polemoniaceae-and-suggested-underlying-mechanisms-of-development
#16
Valentina V Grigorjeva, Nina Gabarayeva
By a detailed ontogenetic study of Polemonium caeruleum pollen, tracing each stage of development at high TEM resolution, we aim to understand the establishment of the pollen wall and to unravel the mechanisms underlying sporoderm development. The main steps of exine ontogeny in Polemonium caeruleum, observed in the microspore periplasmic space, are spherical units, gradually transforming into columns, then to rod-like units (procolumellae), the appearance of the initial tectum, growth of columellae in height and tectum in thickness and initial sporopollenin accumulation on them, the appearance of the endexine lamellae and of dark-contrasted particles on the tectum, the appearance of a sponge-like layer and of the intine in aperture sites, the appearance of the foot layer on the base of the sponge-like layer and of spinules on the tectum, and massive sporopollenin accumulation...
June 30, 2017: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664407/combined-use-of-electron-microscopy-and-intravital-imaging-captures-morphological-and-functional-features-of-podocyte-detachment
#17
REVIEW
James L Burford, Georgina Gyarmati, Isao Shirato, Wilhelm Kriz, Kevin V Lemley, János Peti-Peterdi
The development of podocyte injury and albuminuria in various glomerular pathologies is still incompletely understood due to technical limitations in studying the glomerular filtration barrier (GFB) in real-time. We aimed to directly visualize the early morphological and functional changes of the GFB during the development of focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) using a combination of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and in vivo multiphoton microscopy (MPM) in the rat puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN) model...
June 29, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663374/extra-and-intra-cranial-blood-flow-regulation-during-the-cold-pressor-test-influence-of-age
#18
Daniela Flück, Philip N Ainslie, Anthony R Bain, Kevin W Wildfong, Laura Emily Morris, James P Fisher
We determined how the extra- and intra-cranial circulations respond to generalized sympathetic activation evoked by a cold pressor test (CPT) and whether this was affected by healthy aging. Ten young (23±2 yr; mean±SD) and nine older (66±3 yr) individuals performed a 3-min CPT by immersing the left foot into 0.8±0.3°C water. Common carotid artery (CCA) and internal carotid artery (ICA) diameter, velocity and flow were simultaneously measured (duplex ultrasound), along with middle cerebral artery and posterior cerebral artery mean blood velocity (MCAvmean and PCAvmean), and cardiorespiratory variables...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663110/sucrose-and-naltrexone-prevent-increased-pain-sensitivity-and-impaired-long-term-memory-induced-by-repetitive-neonatal-noxious-stimulation-role-of-bdnf-and-%C3%AE-endorphin
#19
Khawla Q Nuseir, Karem H Alzoubi, Ahmed Alhusban, Areej Bawaane, Mohammed Al-Azzani, Omar F Khabour
Pain in neonates is associated with short and long-term adverse outcomes. Data demonstrated that long-term consequences of untreated pain are linked to the plasticity of the neonate's brain. Sucrose is effective and safe for reducing painful procedures from single events. However, the mechanism of sucrose-induced analgesia is not fully understood. The role of the opioid system in this analgesia using the opioid receptor antagonist Naltrexone was investigated, plus the long-term effects on learning and memory formation during adulthood...
June 27, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661227/a-preliminary-study-of-patient-specific-mechanical-properties-of-diabetic-and-healthy-plantar-soft-tissue-from-gated-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#20
Evan D Williams, Michael J Stebbins, Peter R Cavanagh, David R Haynor, Baocheng Chu, Michael J Fassbind, Vara Isvilanonda, William R Ledoux
Foot loading rate, load magnitude, and the presence of diseases such as diabetes can all affect the mechanical properties of the plantar soft tissues of the human foot. The hydraulic plantar soft tissue reducer instrument was designed to gain insight into which variables are the most significant in determining these properties. It was used with gated magnetic resonance imaging to capture three-dimensional images of feet under dynamic loading conditions. Custom electronics controlled by LabVIEW software simultaneously recorded system pressure, which was then translated to applied force values based on calibration curves...
July 2017: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
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