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foot mechanics

Jasper Stevens, Kenneth Meijer, Wouter Bijnens, Mathijs C H W Fuchs, Lodewijk W van Rhijn, Joris P S Hermus, Sander van Hoeve, Martijn Poeze, Adhiambo M Witlox
BACKGROUND: Arthrodesis of the first metatarsophalangeal (MTP1) joint is an intervention often used in patients with severe MTP1 joint osteoarthritis and relieves pain in approximately 80% of these patients. The kinematic effects and compensatory mechanism of the foot for restoring a more normal gait pattern after this intervention are unknown. The aim of this study was to clarify this compensatory mechanism, in which it was hypothesized that the hindfoot and forefoot would be responsible for compensation after an arthrodesis of the MTP1 joint...
October 21, 2016: Foot & Ankle International
Chaoyun Hao, Zhiqiang Xia, Rui Fan, Lehe Tan, Lisong Hu, Baoduo Wu, Huasong Wu
BACKGROUND: Piper nigrum L., or "black pepper", is an economically important spice crop in tropical regions. Black pepper production is markedly affected by foot rot disease caused by Phytophthora capsici, and genetic improvement of black pepper is essential for combating foot rot diseases. However, little is known about the mechanism of anti- P. capsici in black pepper. The molecular mechanisms underlying foot rot susceptibility were studied by comparing transcriptome analysis between resistant (Piper flaviflorum) and susceptible (Piper nigrum cv...
October 21, 2016: BMC Genomics
Yajie Hu, Jie Song, Longding Liu, Jing Li, Beibei Tang, Jingjing Wang, Xiaolong Zhang, Ying Zhang, Lichun Wang, Yun Liao, Zhanlong He, Qihan Li
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) are the predominant pathogens of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD). Although these viruses exhibit genetic homology, the clinical manifestations caused by the two viruses have some discrepancies. In addition, the underlying mechanisms leading to these differences remain unclear. microRNAs (miRNAs) participate in numerous biological or pathological processes, including host responses to viral infections. Here, we focused on differences in miRNA expression patterns in rhesus monkey peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) infected with EV71 and CA16 at various time points using high-throughput sequencing...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
L Chen, D L Wang, Z R Wei, B Wang, J P Qi, G F Sun
Objective: To investigate the effects of local transplantation of autologous adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) on the formation of hyperplastic scar on rabbit ears. Methods: ADSCs were isolated from inguinal fat of six New Zealand rabbits and then sub-cultured. ADSCs of the third passage of each rabbit were used in the following experiments. Six full-thickness skin defect wounds with diameter of 6 mm on the ventral surface of every rabbit ear were made. Wound healing and local-tissue proliferation were observed, and complete epithelization time of wounds and formation time of hyperplastic scar were recorded...
October 20, 2016: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
Ryo Suzuki, Kohta Ito, Taeyong Lee, Naomichi Ogihara
Accurate identification of the material properties of the plantar soft tissue is important for computer-aided analysis of foot pathologies and design of therapeutic footwear interventions based on subject-specific models of the foot. However, parameter identification of the hyperelastic material properties of plantar soft tissues usually requires an inverse finite element analysis due to the lack of a practical contact model of the indentation test. In the present study, we derive an analytical contact model of a spherical indentation test in order to directly estimate the material properties of the plantar soft tissue...
September 22, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Naseem Jamnia, Janice H Urban, Grace Beth Stuzmann, Sarah Chiren, Emily Reisenbigler, Robert Marr, Daniel A Peterson, Dorothy A Kozlowski
Repeat concussions (RC) can result in significant long-term neurological consequences and increased risk for neurodegenerative disease compared to single concussion (SC). Mechanisms underlying this difference are poorly understood and best elucidated using an animal model. To the best of our knowledge, there is no closed-head model in the adult rat using a commercially available device. We developed a novel and clinically relevant closed-head injury (CHI) model of both single and multiple concussions in the adult rat using a controlled cortical impact (CCI) device...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Markus Ostarek, Gabriella Vigliocco
Previous research has shown that processing words with an up/down association (e.g., bird, foot) can influence the subsequent identification of visual targets in congruent location (at the top/bottom of the screen). However, as facilitation and interference were found under similar conditions, the nature of the underlying mechanisms remained unclear. We propose that word comprehension relies on the perceptual simulation of a prototypical event involving the entity denoted by a word in order to provide a general account of the different findings...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Dong-Lin Xia, Yan-Pei Chen, Yu-Fei Wang, Xiao-Dong Li, Ning Bao, Hong He, Hai-Ying Gu
OBJECTIVES: Diabetic patients are at increased risk of severe skin infections. Covering the wound as early as possible can prevent infection and shorten the course of treatment. In this study, the authors fabricated a waterproof and breathable composite liquid dressing (CLD) that formed a barrier to bacteria and shortened healing time of diabetic rat skin ulcers. METHODS: The CLD was prepared in a formulation that, on evaporation of the liquid carrier, acts as a waterproof, breathable coating on injured skin...
November 2016: Advances in Skin & Wound Care
Caroline Rouard, Elisabeth Aslangul, Alexandre Rivière, Claire Deback, Marie-José Butel, Florence Doucet-Populaire, Nadège Bourgeois-Nicolaos
Linezolid (LZD) has arisen as an alternative treatment in diabetic foot osteitis due to staphylococci. LZD resistance selection is difficult and involved various molecular mechanisms. As a better knowledge of those mechanisms could be beneficial for pathogenic strains' screening, we simulated in vitro the spontaneous mutagenesis process that leads to LZD-resistant strains from two Staphylococcus epidermidis strains responsible for monomicrobial diabetic foot osteitis. LZD high resistance was selected for both strains, with the same timeline of mutation appearance...
October 18, 2016: Microbial Drug Resistance: MDR: Mechanisms, Epidemiology, and Disease
Peter P Fong, Taylor B S Bury, Elizabeth E Donovan, Olivia J Lambert, Julia R Palmucci, Stephnie K Adamczak
Exposure to human antidepressants has been shown to disrupt locomotion and other foot-mediated mechanisms in aquatic snails. We tested the effect of three selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)- and one selective serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI)-type antidepressants on the righting response in the marine snail, Ilyanassa obsoleta. All four antidepressants (fluoxetine, sertraline, paroxetine, venlafaxine) significantly increased righting time compared with controls with an exposure time as short as 1 h...
October 17, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Songhui Zhai, Lijuan Hu, Lin Zhong, Yannan Guo, Liqun Dong, Ruizhen Jia, Zheng Wang
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between renal injury and reinfection that is caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and to analyze the mechanism of renal injury. Rats were repeatedly infected with RSV on days 4, 8, 14, and 28, then sacrificed and examined on day 56 after the primary infection. Renal injury was examined by transmission electron microscopy and histopathology. The F protein of RSV was detected in the renal tissue by indirect immunofluorescence. Proteinuria and urinary glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), serum levels of albumin, urea nitrogen, and creatinine, secretion of cytokines, T lymphocyte population and subsets, and dendritic cell (DC) activation state were examined...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Carl S Rye, Nicola E A Chessum, Scott Lamont, Kurt G Pike, Paul Faulder, Julie Demeritt, Paul Kemmitt, Julie Tucker, Lorenzo Zani, Matthew D Cheeseman, Rosie Isaac, Louise Goodwin, Joanna Boros, Florence Raynaud, Angela Hayes, Alan T Henley, Emmanuel de Billy, Christopher J Lynch, Swee Y Sharp, Robert Te Poele, Lisa O' Fee, Kevin M Foote, Stephen Green, Paul Workman, Keith Jones
Heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) is a transcription factor that plays key roles in cancer, including providing a mechanism for cell survival under proteotoxic stress. Therefore, inhibition of the HSF1-stress pathway represents an exciting new opportunity in cancer treatment. We employed an unbiased phenotypic screen to discover inhibitors of the HSF1-stress pathway. Using this approach we identified an initial hit (1) based on a 4,6-pyrimidine scaffold (2.00 μM). Optimisation of cellular SAR led to an inhibitor with improved potency (25, 15 nM) in the HSF1 phenotypic assay...
August 1, 2016: MedChemComm
Beom Jin Lim, Jae Won Yang, Woo Sung Do, Agnes B Fogo
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is characterized by focal and segmental obliteration of glomerular capillary tufts with increased matrix. FSGS is classified as collapsing, tip, cellular, perihilar and not otherwise specified variants according to the location and character of the sclerotic lesion. Primary or idiopathic FSGS is considered to be related to podocyte injury, and the pathogenesis of podocyte injury has been actively investigated. Several circulating factors affecting podocyte permeability barrier have been proposed, but not proven to cause FSGS...
October 16, 2016: Journal of Pathology and Translational Medicine
Douglas W Powell, Samantha Andrews, Cris Stickley, D S Blaise Williams
: High- (HA) and low-arched athletes (LA) experience distinct injury patterns. These injuries are the result of the interaction of structure and biomechanics. A suggested mechanism of patellofemoral pain pertains to frontal plane knee moments which may be exaggerated in LA athletes. We hypothesize that LA athletes will exhibit greater peak knee abduction moments than high-arched athletes. METHODS: Twenty healthy female recreational athletes (10HA and 10LA) performed five over-ground barefoot walking and five barefoot running trials at a self-selected velocity while three-dimensional kinematics and ground reaction forces were recorded...
October 13, 2016: Human Movement Science
Jian-Ying Wang, Ying Yuan, Xiao-Jun Chen, Sheng-Guang Fu, Lei Zhang, Yan-Long Hong, Sheng-Fu You, Yong-Qing Yang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Eucommia Ulmoides Oliv., a valuable Chinese herb, has shown a variety of health benefits. Despite the widespread clinical use of this herb to treat rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), very few studies have described its anti-pathological effects or mechanism in RA. The present study investigated the mechanism of Eucommia Ulmoides Oliv. in an experimental collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rat model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effects of four different Eucommia Ulmoides Oliv...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Josué Gómez-Molina, Ana Ogueta-Alday, Christopher Stickley, Jesus Camara Tobalina, Jon Cabrejas-Ugartondo, Juan García-López
The aim of this study was to compare the spatio-temporal parameters of trained runners and untrained participants with the same foot strike pattern (rearfoot) during running at controlled speeds. Twenty-one participants were classified in two groups according to their training experience: Trained (n=10, amateur runners with long distance training experience) and Untrained (n=11, healthy non-trained participants). Anthropometric variables were recorded, and the participants performed both a submaximal (between 9 and 15 km·h) and a graded exercise running test (from 6 km·h until exhaustion) on a treadmill...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Fan Zhang, Peter Bohlen, Michael D Lewek, He Huang
This study investigated the feasibility of predicting intrinsically caused trips (ICTs) in individuals with stroke. Gait kinematics collected from twelve individuals with chronic stroke, who demonstrated ICTs in treadmill walking, were analyzed. A prediction algorithm based on the outlier principle was employed. Sequential forward selection (SFS) and minimum-redundancy- maximum-relevance (mRMR) were used separately to identify the precursors for accurate ICT prediction. The results showed that it was feasible to predict ICTs around 50- 260ms before ICTs occurred in the swing phase by monitoring lower limb kinematics during the preceding stance phase...
October 11, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Won Soek Chae, Sang Hyun Kim, Sung Hwan Cho, Joon Ho Lee, Mi Sun Lee
The superficial peroneal nerve is vulnerable to damage from ankle sprain injuries and fractures as well as surgery to this region. And it is also one of the most commonly involved nerves in complex regional pain syndrome type II in the foot and ankle region. We report two cases of ultrasound-guided pulsed radiofrequency treatment of superficial peroneal nerve for reduction of allodynia in CRPS patients.
October 2016: Korean Journal of Pain
Andrew R Hsu, Robert B Anderson
Physicians need to be aware of a variety of foot and ankle injuries that commonly occur in American football, including turf toe, Jones fractures, Lisfranc injuries, syndesmotic and deltoid disruption, and Achilles ruptures. These injuries are often complex and require early individual tailoring of treatment and rehabilitation protocols. Successful management and return to play requires early diagnosis, a thorough work-up, and prompt surgical intervention when warranted with meticulous attention to restoration of normal foot and ankle anatomy...
September 2016: American Journal of Orthopedics
Adam H Breiteneicher, Bo Norby, Kurt S Schulz, Sharon C Kerwin, Don A Hulse, Derek B Fox, W Brian Saunders
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of sliding humeral osteotomy (SHO) on frontal plane thoracic limb alignment in standing and recumbent limb positions. STUDY DESIGN: Canine cadaveric study. SAMPLE POPULATION: Canine thoracic limbs (n=15 limb pairs). METHODS: Limbs acquired from healthy Labrador Retrievers euthanatized for reasons unrelated to this study were mounted in a limb press and aligned in a standing position followed by axial loading at 30% body weight...
October 13, 2016: Veterinary Surgery: VS
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