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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038743/mature-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-human-podocytes-reconstitute-kidney-glomerular-capillary-wall-function-on-a-chip
#1
Samira Musah, Akiko Mammoto, Thomas C Ferrante, Sauveur S F Jeanty, Mariko Hirano-Kobayashi, Tadanori Mammoto, Kristen Roberts, Seyoon Chung, Richard Novak, Miles Ingram, Tohid Fatanat-Didar, Sandeep Koshy, James C Weaver, George M Church, Donald E Ingber
An in vitro model of the human kidney glomerulus - the major site of blood filtration - could facilitate drug discovery and illuminate kidney-disease mechanisms. Microfluidic organ-on-a-chip technology has been used to model the human proximal tubule, yet a kidney-glomerulus-on-a-chip has not been possible because of the lack of functional human podocytes - the cells that regulate selective permeability in the glomerulus. Here, we demonstrate an efficient (> 90%) and chemically defined method for directing the differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem (hiPS) cells into podocytes that express markers of the mature phenotype (nephrin+, WT1+, podocin+, Pax2-) and that exhibit primary and secondary foot processes...
2017: Nature biomedical engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032054/role-of-ethanolic-extract-of-bacopa-monnieri-against-1-methyl-4-phenyl-1-2-3-6-tetrahydropyridine-mptp-induced-mice-model-via-inhibition-of-apoptotic-pathways-of-dopaminergic-neurons
#2
Babita Singh, Shivani Pandey, Satyndra Kumar Yadav, Rajesh Verma, Surya Pratap Singh, Abbas Ali Mahdi
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease which causes rigidity, resting tremor and postural instability. The neuroprotective effects of an ethanolic extract of Bacopa monnieri (BM) were evaluated in a Parkinsonian mice model induced by the MPTP. The present study investigates the mechanisms of neuroprotection elicited by BM, an herb traditionally recognized by the Indian system of medicine, Ayurveda. An ethanolic extract of BM was co-treated with the MPTP induced mouse model of PD and was shown to significantly rescue the motor behaviour (Rotarod, Grip Strength and Foot Printing test)...
October 12, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031998/dominant-foot-could-affect-the-postural-control-in-vestibular-neuritis-perceived-by-dynamic-body-balance
#3
Tomoe Yoshida, Toshitake Tanaka, Yuya Tamura, Masahiko Yamamoto, Mitsuya Suzuki
During attacks of vestibular neuritis (VN), patients typically lose postural balance, with resultant postural inclination, gait deviation toward the lesion side, and tendency to fall. In this study, we examined and analyzed static and dynamic postural control during attacks of VN to characterize differences in postural control between right and left VN. Subjects were patients diagnosed with VN at the Department of Otolaryngology, Toho University Sakura Medical Center, and underwent in-patient treatment. Twenty-five patients who had spontaneous nystagmus were assessed within 3days after the onset; all were right-foot dominant...
October 4, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028076/intestinal-probiotics-in-relieving-clinical-symptoms-of-severe-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-and-potential-mechanism-analysis
#4
F Zhu, Z Jiang, H-W Li
OBJECTIVE: In this prospective cohort study, the efficacy and action mechanism of an intestinal probiotic formulation, Golden Bifid, in severe hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) were determined in 63 consecutively admitted patients successfully treated in the Pediatrics Emergency Department of our hospital. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All patients had a persistent fever; 43 patients had rashes on hands, feet, crissum, and hips; and 45 patients had neurological signs and symptoms...
September 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024766/protective-effect-of-an-alpha-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-agonist-against-enterovirus-71-infection-in-neuronal-cells
#5
FengXia Song, LinQin Zhao, RuNan Zhu, QinWei Song, Jie Deng, Run Tian, Fang Wang, Yuan Qian
Enterovirus 71, as one of the dominant pathogens associated with severe hand, foot, and mouth disease, has been well reported to trigger severe neurological symptoms among young children over the last decade, particularly among children in the Asia-Pacific region. To date, no effective antiviral agent has been developed for the treatment of severe enterovirus 71 infection. PNU-282987, a selective alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) agonist, has been reported to have a neuroprotective effect by participating in inflammatory regulation in previous studies...
October 9, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021983/an-integrated-framework-for-process-driven-model-construction-in-disease-ecology-and-animal-health
#6
REVIEW
Rebecca Mancy, Patrick M Brock, Rowland R Kao
Process models that focus on explicitly representing biological mechanisms are increasingly important in disease ecology and animal health research. However, the large number of process modelling approaches makes it difficult to decide which is most appropriate for a given disease system and research question. Here, we discuss different motivations for using process models and present an integrated conceptual analysis that can be used to guide the construction of infectious disease process models and comparisons between them...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018655/the-involvement-of-sensory-motor-networks-in-reflex-seizure
#7
Hime Suzuki, Rei Enatsu, Aya Kanno, Satoko Ochi, Takashi Murahara, Shogo Yazawa, Hideaki Shiraishi, Nobuhiro Mikuni
Reflex seizures are epileptic events triggered by specific external stimuli, or less commonly, internal mental stimuli. Understanding the characteristics of reflex seizures is important to elucidate the mechanisms underlying network abnormalities in epileptic conditions. This report details a patient with medically intractable reflex seizures provoked by sensory stimuli to the patient's right foot. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) during the seizure induced by sensory stimulation showed hyperperfusion in broad sensory-motor networks (dorsal column-medial lemniscus pathway, left thalamus, bilateral postcentral gyri and posterior parietal cortices, left supplementary motor area (SMA), and left paracentral lobule) and left caudateputamen...
October 2017: NMC Case Rep J
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994758/using-gold-standard-gait-analysis-methods-to-assess-experience-effects-on-lower-limb-mechanics-during-moderate-high-heeled-jogging-and-running
#8
Yan Zhang, Meizi Wang, Jan Awrejcewicz, Gusztáv Fekete, Feng Ren, Yaodong Gu
A limited number of studies have explored lower-limb biomechanics during high-heeled jogging and running, and most studies have failed to clarify the wearing experience of subjects. This protocol describes the differences in lower-limb kinematics and ground reaction force (GRF) between experienced wearers (EW) and inexperienced wearers (IEW) during moderate high-heeled jogging and running. A three-dimensional (3D) motion analysis system with a configured force platform was used to synchronously capture lower-limb joint movements and GRF...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994638/dendrimers-carotenoids-and-monoclonal-antibodies
#9
Yuriy K Bashmakov, Ivan M Petyaev
Dendrimers are unimolecular architectural nano- or microparticle entities that can accommodate various nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals between their branches (dendrons) and provide targeted delivery of biomimetics into different tissues upon addition of functionalized groups to the dendrimer's surface. Covalent binding, hydrogen bonds, and electrostatic interactions between dendrimer-composing molecules are known to form and stabilize dendrimer structure. Carotenoids have recently been shown to form dendrimer-like structures and promote targeted delivery of "cargo" molecules into organs characterized by high-carotenoid uptake (adrenal glands, prostate, liver, and brain)...
October 10, 2017: Monoclonal Antibodies in Immunodiagnosis and Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993756/trench-foot-or-non-freezing-cold-injury-as-a-painful-vaso-neuropathy-clinical-and-skin-biopsy-assessments
#10
Praveen Anand, Rosario Privitera, Yiangos Yiangou, Philippe Donatien, Rolfe Birch, Peter Misra
BACKGROUND: Trench foot, or non-freezing cold injury (NFCI), results from cold exposure of sufficient severity and duration above freezing point, with consequent sensory and vascular abnormalities which may persist for years. Based on observations of Trench foot in World War II, the condition was described as a vaso-neuropathy. While some reports have documented nerve damage after extreme cold exposure, sensory nerve fibres and vasculature have not been assessed with recent techniques in NFCI...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993196/long-non-coding-rna-expression-profiles-in-different-severity-ev71-infected-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease-patients
#11
Jun Meng, Zhenyu Yao, Yaqing He, Renli Zhang, Hong Yang, Xiangjie Yao, Long Chen, Hailong Zhang, Jinquan Cheng
Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is associated with the severe hand foot and mouth disease (HFMD) outcomes, however the host-virus interaction mechanism and the pathogenesis remain poorly understood. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in variety physiological and pathological processes, but the functions of lncRNAs in EV71 infection remain elusive. Here we profiled the expression of lncRNAs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from EV71-infected mild patients, severe patients as well as the healthy controls, and identified 8541 lncRNAs were differentially expressed...
October 7, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990512/fighting-type-2-diabetes-present-and-future-perspectives
#12
Cai-Guo Yu, Ying Fu, Yuan Fang, Ning Zhang, Rong-Xin Sun, Dong Zhao, Ying-Mei Feng, Bao-Yu Zhang
BACKGROUND: Type-2 diabetes mellitus accounts for 80-90% of diabetic patients. So far, the treatment of diabetes mainly aims at elevating insulin level and lowering glucose level in the peripheral blood and mitigating insulin resistance. Physiologically, insulin secretion from pancreatic β cells is delicately regulated. Thus, how insulin-related therapies could titrate blood glucose appropriately and avoid the occurrence of hypoglycemia remains an important issue for decades. Similar question is addressed on how to attenuate vascular complication in diabetic subjects...
October 9, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988348/insight-into-the-neuroendocrine-basis-of-signal-evolution-a-case-study-in-foot-flagging-frogs
#13
REVIEW
Lisa A Mangiamele, Matthew J Fuxjager
A hallmark of sexual selection is the evolution of elaborate male sexual signals. Yet, how the physiology of an animal changes to support a new or modified signal is a question that has remained largely unanswered. Androgens are important in regulating male reproductive behavior, therefore, selection for particular signals may drive the evolution of increased androgenic sensitivity in the neuro-motor systems underlying their production. Studies of the neuroendocrine mechanisms of anuran sexual signaling provide evidence to support this idea...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987772/relationship-between-margin-of-stability-and-deviations-in-spatiotemporal-gait-features-in-healthy-young-adults
#14
Shajicaa Sivakumaran, Alison Schinkel-Ivy, Kei Masani, Avril Mansfield
Increased variability of spatio-temporal features while walking is related to increased risk of falls. It is thought that variability in foot placement and timing reflects responses to mechanical instability while walking. The purpose of this study was to determine whether 'extreme' values of step length, width and time follow transient periods of low mechanical stability during the single support phase of gait in healthy young adults. We conducted secondary analysis of a portion of an existing dataset. Eleven healthy adults walked on an instrumented treadmill...
October 4, 2017: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28986174/cell-density-dimethylsulfoxide-concentration-and-needle-gauge-affect-hydrogel-induced-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stromal-cell-viability
#15
Xia Chen, Alexander G Foote, Susan L Thibeault
Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have shown potential therapeutic benefits for a range of medical disorders and continue to be a focus of intense scientific investigation. Transplantation of MSCs into injured tissue can improve wound healing, tissue regeneration and functional recovery. However, implanted cells rapidly lose their viability or fail to integrate into host tissue. Hydrogel-seeded bone marrow (BM)-MSCs offer improved viability in response to mechanical forces caused by syringe needles, cell density and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) concentration, which in turn, will help to clarify which factors are important for enhancing biomaterial-induced cell transplantation efficiency and provide much needed guidance for clinical trials...
October 3, 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985768/immune-thrombocytopenia-with-multi-organ-dysfunction-syndrome-as-a-rare-presentation-of-scrub-typhus-a-case-report
#16
Abraham M Ittyachen, Saramma P Abraham, Smitha Krishnamoorthy, Anuroopa Vijayan, Jayamohan Kokkat
BACKGROUND: Scrub typhus is an acute infectious illness caused by Orientia tsutsugamushi. It is endemic to a part of the world known as the "tsutsugamushi triangle". Humans are accidental hosts in this zoonotic disease. About a third of patients admitted with scrub typhus have evidence of multi-organ dysfunction. Multi-organ dysfunction secondary to scrub typhus carries a high mortality rate. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a 65-year old lady who was admitted in a Tertiary Care Center in the state of Kerala in India, with 7 day history of fever, myalgia and reduced urine output...
October 6, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985577/characteristics-of-clinical-measurements-between-biomechanical-responders-and-non-responders-to-a-shoe-designed-for-knee-osteoarthritis
#17
Yongwook Kim, Jim Richards, Roy H Lidtke, Renato Trede
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of biomechanical and clinical measurements in relation to the knee adduction moment when wearing a standard shoe and a shoe design for individuals with knee osteoarthritis (Flex-OA). METHODS: Kinematic and kinetic data were collected from thirty-two healthy individuals (64 knees) using a ten camera motion analysis system and four force plates. Subjects performed 5 walking trials under the two conditions and the magnitude of individuals' biomechanical responses where explored in relation to the clinical assessment of the Foot Posture Index, hip rotation range, strength of hip rotators, and active ankle-foot motion, all of which have been described as possible compensation mechanisms in knee osteoarthritis...
September 29, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985487/lower-extremity-dynamics-of-walking-in-neuropathic-diabetic-patients-who-wear-a-forefoot-offloading-shoe
#18
Sicco A Bus, Josina C Maas, Nicoline M Otterman
BACKGROUND: A forefoot-offloading shoes has a negative-heel rocker outsole and is used to treat diabetic plantar forefoot ulcers, but its mechanisms of action and their association with offloading and gait stability are not sufficiently clear. METHODS: Ten neuropathic diabetic patients were tested in a forefoot-offloading shoe and subsequently in a control shoe with no specific offloading construction, both worn on the right foot (control shoe on left), while walking at 1...
October 2, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983285/microbiota-of-chronic-diabetic-wounds-ecology-impact-and-potential-for-innovative-treatment-strategies
#19
REVIEW
Sónia G Pereira, João Moura, Eugénia Carvalho, Nuno Empadinhas
World Health Organization considered diabetes as one of the 20th century epidemics, estimating that over 10% of the world population is diabetic or at high risk. Self-assessment studies indicate that diabetic patients consider chronic wounds to affect their quality of life more dramatically than vision loss or renal failure. In addition to being the main reason for diabetic patients' hospitalization, the economic burden of diabetic chronic wounds is close to 1% of United Kingdom and United States health systems budgets, which exceeds the funds allocated to the treatment of some types of cancer in both countries...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982981/the-hippo-pathway-regulator-kibra-promotes-podocyte-injury-by-inhibiting-yap-signaling-and-disrupting-actin-cytoskeletal-dynamics
#20
Kristin Meliambro, Jenny S Wong, Justina Ray, Rhodora C Calizo, Sara Towne, Beatriz Cole, Fadi El Salem, Ronald E Gordon, Lewis Kaufman, John C He, Evren U Azeloglu, Kirk N Campbell
Kidney podocytes represent a key constituent of the glomerular filtration barrier. Identifying the molecular mechanisms of podocyte injury and survival is important for better understanding and management of kidney diseases. KIBRA (KIdney BRAin protein), an upstream regulator of the Hippo signaling pathway encoded by the Wwc1 gene, shares the pro-injury properties of its putative binding partner dendrin and antagonizes the pro-survival signaling of the downstream Hippo pathway effector YAP (Yes-associated protein) in Drosophila and MCF10A cells...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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