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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436638/-research-progress-on-the-animal-models-and-treatment-strategies-of-diabetic-foot-ulcer
#1
Siqian Gao, Yongmei Shen, Funeng Geng, Yanhua Li, Jianqing Gao
The suitable experimental animal model is important in research of pathogenesis and therapeutic strategies of diabetic foot ulcer, and the murine model is the most commonly used one at present. It can be divided into two types: the animal model simulating pathological conditions and the model simulating clinical symptoms. This article reviews the current research progress on the mechanisms of diabetic ulcer pathogenesis, and relevant treatment strategies, including the inhibition of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) expression, promotion of angiogenesis and anti-inflammatory therapy...
January 25, 2017: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435580/first-and-second-metatarsophalangeal-joint-open-dislocations-a-case-report
#2
A Sharma, R Dosajh, G S Bedi, K Gupta, A Jain
Dislocation of multiple metatarsophalangeal joint is an uncommon injury. The mechanism of injury is a high energy force distal to proximal with foot in hyperextension at the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint. The acute hyperextension of the toe at the moment of injury causes avulsion of the plantar part of the capsule from the junction of head and neck of the metatarsal. If the collateral ligaments remain intact, they maintain the locked fibrocartilaginous plate over the dorsum of the head of the metatarsal, making closed reduction impossible...
March 2017: Malaysian Orthopaedic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428258/deletion-of-inositol-requiring-enzyme-1%C3%AE-in-podocytes-disrupts-glomerular-capillary-integrity-and-autophagy
#3
Daniel Robert Kaufman, Joan Papillon, Louise Larose, Takao Iwawaki, Andrey V Cybulsky
Inositol-requiring enzyme-1α (IRE1α) is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-transmembrane endoribonuclease-kinase, which plays an essential function in extraembryonic tissues during normal development, and is activated during ER stress. To address the functional role of IRE1α in glomerular podocytes, we produced podocyte-specific IRE1α deletion mice. In male mice, deletion of IRE1α in podocytes resulted in albuminuria beginning at 5 months of age, and worsening with time. Electron microscopy revealed focal podocyte foot process effacement in 9-month old male IRE1α deletion mice, as well as microvillous transformation of podocyte plasma membranes...
April 20, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424990/proteomic-analysis-of-the-hippocampus-in-mouse-models-of-trigeminal-neuralgia-and-inescapable-shock-induced-depression
#4
Qing-Huan Guo, Qing-He Tong, Ning Lu, Hong Cao, Liu Yang, Yu-Qiu Zhang
To investigate the behavioral and biomolecular similarity between neuralgia and depression, a trigeminal neuralgia (TN) mouse model was established by constriction of the infraorbital nerve (CION) to mimic clinical trigeminal neuropathic pain. A mouse learned helplessness (LH) model was developed to investigate inescapable foot-shock-induced psychiatric disorders like depression in humans. Mass spectrometry was used to assess changes in the biomolecules and signaling pathways in the hippocampus from TN or LH mice...
April 19, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424289/disruption-of-mda5-mediated-innate-immune-responses-by-the-3c-proteins-of-coxsackievirus-a16-coxsackievirus-a6-and-enterovirus-d68
#5
Yajuan Rui, Jiaming Su, Hong Wang, Junliang Chang, Shaohua Wang, Wenwen Zheng, Yong Cai, Wei Wei, James T Gordy, Richard Markham, Wei Kong, Wenyan Zhang, Xiao-Fang Yu
Coxsackievirus A16 (CV-A16), A6 (CV-A6), and enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) belong to the Picornaviridae family and are major causes of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) and pediatric respiratory disease worldwide. The biological characteristics of these viruses, especially their interplay with the host innate immune system, have not been well investigated. In this study, we discovered that the 3C(pro) proteins from CV-A16, CV-A6, and EV-D68 bind MDA5 and inhibit its interaction with MAVS. Consequently, MDA5-triggered type I IFN signaling in the RLR pathway was blocked by CV-A16, CV-A6, and EV-D68 3C(pro) Furthermore, CV-A16, CV-A6, and EV-D68 3C(pro) all cleave TAK1, resulting in inhibition of NF-κB activation, a host response also critical for toll-like receptor (TLR) mediated signaling...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422522/molecular-genetic-characterization-of-a-chinese-family-with-severe-split-hand-foot-malformation
#6
Lihua Cao, Wei Yang, Shusen Wang, Chen Chen, Xue Zhang, Yang Luo
AIMS: Split hand/foot malformation (SHFM) is a congenital limb malformation characterized by underdeveloped or absent central digital rays, clefts of the hands and feet, and variable syndactyly of the remaining digits. SHFM is a genetically heterogeneous disease; the aim of this study was to identify pathogenic variations in a Chinese family with SHFM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Haplotype analyses with microsatellite markers covering the five SHFM loci were performed to localize the causative locus...
April 19, 2017: Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422137/effective-in-vivo-therapeutic-igg-antibody-against-vp3-of-enterovirus-71-with-receptor-competing-activity
#7
Qiang Jia, Qingyong Ng, Wenjie Chin, Tao Meng, Vincent Tak Kwong Chow, Cheng-I Wang, Jimmy Kwang, Fang He
Passive immunization is an effective option for treatment against hand, foot and mouth disease caused by EV71, especially with cross-neutralizing IgG monoclonal antibodies. In this study, an EV71-specific IgG2a antibody designated 5H7 was identified and characterized. 5H7 efficiently neutralizes the major EV71 genogroups (A, B4, C2, C4). The conformational epitope of 5H7 was mapped to the highly conserved amino acid position 74 on VP3 capsid protein using escape mutants. Neutralization with 5H7 is mediated by the inhibition of viral attachment, as revealed by virus-binding and post-attachment assays...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422047/template-for-the-neural-control-of-directed-stepping-generalized-to-all-legs-of-mantisbot
#8
Nicholas Stephen Szczecinski, Roger Quinn
We previously developed a neural controller for one leg of our six-legged robot, MantisBot, that could direct locomotion toward a goal by modulating leg-local reflexes with simple descending commands from a head sensor. In this work, we successfully apply an automated method to tune the control network for all three pairs of legs of our hexapod robot MantisBot in only 90 seconds with a desktop computer. Each foot's motion changes appropriately as the body's intended direction of travel changes. In addition, several results from studies of walking insects are captured by this model...
April 19, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417204/injuries-to-the-chopart-joint-complex-a-current-review
#9
REVIEW
Halah Kutaish, R Stern, L Drittenbass, M Assal
Chopart complex injuries (CCIs) are thought to be uncommon; however, recent literature states the rate of misdiagnosis to be between 20 and 41%. Chopart complex injuries are not ankle injuries, with which they are initially confused due to a similar mechanism of trauma in many cases. Injury to the Chopart complex commonly affects multiple structures. The key to optimal treatment is a high index of clinical suspicion combined with timely accurate imaging studies. Careful diagnostic workup with high-quality radiographs of the foot in neutral position should be obtained...
April 17, 2017: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413894/isolated-gastrocnemius-recession-for-the-treatment-of-achilles-tendinopathy
#10
Kenneth S Smith, Caleb Jones, Zachariah Pinter, Ashish Shah
BACKGROUND: Various treatment modalities have been described for Achilles tendinopathy with varying degrees of success. The rationale for the gastrocnemius recession procedure is to decrease the mechanical overload of the Achilles tendon arising from an equinus contracture. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 25 patients who underwent an isolated gastrocnemius recession procedure at our institution between May 2013 and April 2015 by a single surgeon. Clinical outcome was evaluated on the basis of pain, utilizing visual analog scale (VAS) scores and the Foot Function Index (FFI) by telephonic interview...
April 1, 2017: Foot & Ankle Specialist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412713/investigation-of-feet-functions-of-large-ruminants-with-a-decoupled-model-of-equivalent-mechanism
#11
Qun Zhang, Kun Xu, Xilun Ding
Cloven hooves of ruminants adapt to diverse terrain, provide propulsive force and support the whole body during movement in natural environments. To reveal how the feet ensure terrain adaptability by choosing the proper configurations and terrain conditions, we model the feet of ruminants as an equivalent mechanism with flexion-extension and lateral movement decoupled. The upper part of the equivalent mechanism can flex and extend, while the lower part performs the lateral movement. Combination of the two parts can adapt to longitudinal slope (anterior-posterior) and transverse slope (medial-lateral), respectively...
April 15, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407522/physiological-arousal-accompanying-postural-responses-to-external-perturbations-after-stroke
#12
C L Pollock, M G Carpenter, M A Hunt, A Gallina, T M Vieira, T D Ivanova, S J Garland
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine simultaneously the level of physiological arousal and the postural response to external perturbations in people post-stroke compared to age-matched controls to build a more comprehensive understanding of the effect of stroke on postural control and balance self-efficacy. METHODS: Participants stood with each foot on separate force platforms. Ten applications of loads of 2% body weight at the hips perturbed the participant anteriorly under two conditions: investigator-triggered or self-triggered (total 20)...
March 18, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406700/moderate-exercise-based-on-artificial-gravity-preserves-orthostatic-tolerance-and-exercise-capacity-during-short-term-head-down-bed-rest
#13
Xiao-Tao Li, Chang-Bin Yang, Yong-Sheng Zhu, Jing Sun, Fei Shi, Yong-Chun Wang, Yuan Gao, Jiang-Dong Zhao, Xi-Qing Sun
Numerous countermeasures have been proposed to minimize microgravity-induced physical deconditioning, but their benefits are limited. The present study aimed to investigate whether personalized aerobic exercise based on artificial gravity (AG) mitigates multisystem physical deconditioning. Fourteen men were assigned to the control group (n=6) and the countermeasure group (CM, n=8). Subjects in the CM group were exposed to AG (2Gz at foot level) for 30 min twice daily, during which time cycling exercise of 80-95% anaerobic threshold (AT) intensity was undertaken...
April 12, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406479/foot-and-mouth-disease-virus-infection-inhibits-lgp2-protein-expression-to-exaggerate-inflammatory-response-and-promote-viral-replication
#14
Zixiang Zhu, Chuntian Li, Xiaoli Du, Guoqing Wang, Weijun Cao, Fan Yang, Huanhuan Feng, Xiangle Zhang, Zhengwang Shi, Huanan Liu, Hong Tian, Dan Li, Keshan Zhang, Xiangtao Liu, Haixue Zheng
The role of the innate immune protein LGP2 (laboratory of genetics and physiology 2) in FMDV-infected cells remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate the antiviral role of LGP2 during FMDV infection. FMDV infection triggered LGP2 mRNA expression but reduced protein expression. Overexpression of LGP2 suppressed FMDV replication, and the inflammatory response was significantly inhibited by LGP2 in virus-infected cells. The N-terminal DExDc and the C-terminal regulatory domain regions of LGP2 were essential for LGP2-mediated antiviral activity against FMDV...
April 13, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399485/interleukin-18-protects-mice-from-enterovirus-71-infection
#15
Zheng Li, Hongbin Wang, Yihui Chen, Junling Niu, Qiuhong Guo, Qibin Leng, Zhong Huang, Zhirui Deng, Guangxun Meng
Previous study has demonstrated that the NLRP3 inflammasome is essential for protecting murine host against Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection. However, the underlying mechanism remained unknown. Here we discovered that the pleiotropic cytokine interleukin-18 (IL-18), an NLRP3 inflammasome-dependent effector protein, exhibits a protective capability against EV71 challenge. Deficiency of IL-18 in mice exacerbated EV71 infection, which was reflected by increased viral replication, elevated production of interferons (IFN-β, IFN-γ), proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6) and chemokine CCL2,as well as decreased survival of experimental animals...
April 8, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398039/influence-of-humidity-on-grip-and-release-adhesion-mechanisms-for-gecko-inspired-microfibrillar-surfaces
#16
Nicholas Cadirov, Jamie A Booth, Kimberly L Turner, Jacob N Israelachvili
Geckos have developed foot pads that allow them to maintain their unique climbing ability despite vast differences of surfaces and environments, from dry desert to humid rainforest. Likewise, successful gecko-inspired mimics should exhibit adhesive and frictional performance across a similarly diverse range of climates. In this work, we focus on the effect of relative humidity (RH) on the "frictional-adhesion" behavior of gecko-inspired adhesive pads. A surface forces apparatus was used to quantitatively measure adhesion and friction forces of a microfibrillar cross-linked polydimethylsiloxane surface against a smooth hemispherical glass disk at varying relative humidity, from 0 to 100% (including fully submerged under water)...
April 11, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398006/a-cost-analysis-of-implementing-a-behavioral-weight-loss-intervention-in-community-mental-health-settings-results-from-the-achieve-trial
#17
Ellen M Janssen, Gerald J Jerome, Arlene T Dalcin, Joseph V Gennusa, Stacy Goldsholl, Kevin D Frick, Nae-Yuh Wang, Lawrence J Appel, Gail L Daumit
OBJECTIVE: In the ACHIEVE randomized controlled trial, an 18-month behavioral intervention accomplished weight loss in persons with serious mental illness who attended community psychiatric rehabilitation programs. This analysis estimates costs for delivering the intervention during the study. It also estimates expected costs to implement the intervention more widely in a range of community mental health programs. METHODS: Using empirical data, costs were calculated from the perspective of a community psychiatric rehabilitation program delivering the intervention...
April 11, 2017: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393971/-mechanical-and-pharmacomechanical-trombolysis-in-deep-venous-thrombosis-with-no-clinical-response-to-conventional-treatment
#18
Leopoldo Marine, Jesús Urbina, Michel Bergoeing, Francisco Valdés, Renato Mertens, Albrecht Kramer
BACKGROUND: Conventional treatment of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is anticoagulation, bed rest and limb elevation. Proximal DVT patients with persisting edema, pain and cyanosis of extremities despite of conventional therapy may develop ischemia. Direct treatment of thrombosis becomes necessary. AIM: To report our experience with mechanical trombolysis of proximal lower extremity DVT. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective review of medical records of proximal DVT patients treated with thrombolysis between March 2012 and August 2015...
January 2017: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391338/what-are-we-missing-in-the-clinical-trials-of-focal-segmental-glomerulosclerosis
#19
Ladan Zand, Richard J Glassock, An S De Vriese, Sanjeev Sethi, Fernando C Fervenza
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is a lesion and not a disease. This conundrum is the crux of controversies regarding interventions to alter its natural history. In the broadest sense, the lesion can be primary (idiopathic), or secondary to a process originating outside the kidneys or to a genetic mutation. The organ-based target is the podocyte, and the mechanisms responsible for the podocytopathy are numerous and diverse. Recurrence of primary FSGS in renal allografts provides the best evidence for the existence of a circulating factor or factors, the nature of which remains uncertain...
January 1, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390293/comparison-of-foot-muscle-morphology-and-foot-kinematics-between-recreational-runners-with-normal-feet-and-with-asymptomatic-over-pronated-feet
#20
Xianyi Zhang, Jeroen Aeles, Benedicte Vanwanseele
Over-pronated feet are common in adults and are associated with lower limb injuries. Studying the foot muscle morphology and foot kinematic patterns is important for understanding the mechanism of over-pronation related injuries. The aim of this study is to compare the foot muscle morphology and foot inter-segmental kinematics between recreational runners with normal feet and those with asymptomatic over-pronated feet. A total of 26 recreational runners (17 had normal feet and 9 had over-pronated feet) participated in this study and their foot type was assessed using the 6-item Foot Posture Index...
March 31, 2017: Gait & Posture
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