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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918542/current-chemotherapeutic-regimens-for-brain-metastases-treatment
#1
Joo Yeon Nam, Barbara J O'Brien
Brain metastasis is a common complication in advanced systemic cancer, with an increasing incidence. The diagnosis of brain metastasis historically portended a dismal prognosis. The successful development of effective treatments for patients with brain metastasis is complicated by the differences among cancer subtypes, the limited understanding of the underlying pathophysiology of BM, the impact of the blood-brain barrier, and other factors. There is now renewed interest in treating this often devastating complication of cancer, and in understanding the underlying mechanisms of disease in this "sanctuary" site...
September 16, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918421/macrophage-activation-syndrome-at-the-onset-of-glucocorticoid-resistant-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-a-case-report
#2
Delia Tulbă, Marius Balea, Cristian Băicuș
INTRODUCTION: Macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) is a life-threatening hyperinflammatory state mediated by uncontrolled cytokine storm and haemophagocytosis. Although rarely reported, MAS might occur in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), notably as an inaugural manifestation. Glucocorticoids (GCs) are the cornerstone of SLE therapy. However, in some cases high doses of GCs are required to achieve remission (i.e. glucocorticoid-resistance), leading to significant side effects. CASE REPORT: A 28-year-old Romani male was admitted to our hospital for polyarthralgia, polyserositis and fatigability...
September 16, 2017: Romanian Journal of Internal Medicine, Revue Roumaine de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916903/merkel-cell-carcinoma-epidemiology-pathogenesis-diagnosis-and-therapy
#3
REVIEW
Teresa Amaral, Ulrike Leiter, Claus Garbe
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and aggressive skin cancer with a neuroendocrine phenotype. Incidence varies according to the geographic regions but is overall increasing. Different risk factors have been identified namely advanced age, immunosuppression, and ultraviolet light exposure. An association between MCC and polyomavirus infection is known. However, the exact mechanism that leads to carcinogenesis is yet to be fully understood. Surgery when feasible is the recommended treatment for localized disease, followed by adjuvant radiation or chemoradiation...
September 16, 2017: Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915410/aiegens-for-biological-process-monitoring-and-disease-theranostics
#4
REVIEW
Xinggui Gu, Ryan T K Kwok, Jacky W Y Lam, Ben Zhong Tang
Biological processes are of great significance for the normal physiological functions of living organisms and closely related to the health. Monitoring of biological processes and diagnosis of diseases based on fluorescent techniques would provide comprehensive insight into mechanism of life and pathogenesis of diseases, precisely guiding therapeutic effect in theranostics. It largely relied on fluorophores with the properties of excellent photostability, large Stokes shift, high signal-to-noise ratio and free of aggregation-caused quenching (ACQ) effect...
September 4, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911515/chronic-chagas-heart-disease%C3%A2-management-from-etiology-to-cardiomyopathy-treatment
#5
REVIEW
Edimar Alcides Bocchi, Reinaldo Bulgarelli Bestetti, Mauricio Ibrahim Scanavacca, Edecio Cunha Neto, Victor Sarli Issa
Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) infection is endemic in Latin America and is becoming a worldwide health burden. It may lead to heterogeneous phenotypes. Early diagnosis of T. cruzi infection is crucial. Several biomarkers have been reported in Chagas heart disease (ChHD), but most are nonspecific for T. cruzi infection. Prognosis of ChHD patients is worse compared with other etiologies, with sudden cardiac death as an important mode of death. Most ChHD patients display diffuse myocarditis with fibrosis and hypertrophy...
September 19, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906488/novel-chimeric-transcript-rrm2-c2orf48-promotes-metastasis-in-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma
#6
Ping Han, Ren-Hui Chen, Fang Wang, Jia-Yi Zeng, Shi-Tong Yu, Li-Hua Xu, Qian Cai, Fa-Ya Liang, Tian-Liang Xia, Zhi-Rui Lin, Qian Zhong, Xiao-Ming Huang
Recently, chimeric transcripts have been found to be associated with the pathogenesis and poor prognosis of malignant tumors. Through our preliminary experiment, a novel chimeric transcript called chimeric transcript RRM2-c2orf48 was detected in C666-1, a classical cell line of human nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Therefore, the objective of this study was to demonstrate the existence and expression of novel chimeric transcript RRM2-c2orf48 and to explore the main functions and mechanisms of RRM2-c2orf48 in NPC...
September 14, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906362/are-we-ever-too-old-characteristics-and-outcome-of-octogenarians-admitted-to-a-medical-intensive-care-unit
#7
Johanna Maria Muessig, Maryna Masyuk, Amir Movahed Nia, Marcus Franz, Bjoern Kabisch, Malte Kelm, Christian Jung
The aging population increases the demand of intensive care unit (ICU) treatments. However, the availability of ICU beds is limited. Thus, ICU admission of octogenarians is considered controversial. The population above 80 years is a very heterogeneous group though, and age alone might not be the best predictor. Aim of this study was to analyze resource consumption and outcome of octogenarians admitted to a medical ICU to identify reliable survival predictors in a senescent society.This retrospective observational study analyzes 930 octogenarians and 5732 younger patients admitted to a medical ICU...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904980/enterovirus-human-rhinovirus-a-rare-cause-of-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#8
Parita Soni, Anand Rai, Nidhi Aggarwal, Stephan Kamholz, Taek Yoon, Yizhak Kupfer
A 22-year-old Asian woman presented with respiratory distress, cough, and wheezing for 1 week. Prior history included asthma and Turner syndrome. On presentation to the emergency department, the patient was hypotensive, tachycardic, tachypneic, with an oxyhemoglobin saturation in the mid 80% range while breathing ambient air. Chest radiograph revealed pulmonary vascular congestion and a left lower lobe infiltrate. Endotracheal intubation, mechanical ventilation, and vasopressors were initiated. Empiric therapy for community-acquired pneumonia was administered utilizing broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics...
July 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine High Impact Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904891/clinical-utility-of-circulating-tumor-cells-in-patients-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Marianna Gallo, Antonella De Luca, Monica Rosaria Maiello, Amelia D'Alessio, Claudia Esposito, Nicoletta Chicchinelli, Laura Forgione, Maria Carmela Piccirillo, Gaetano Rocco, Alessandro Morabito, Gerardo Botti, Nicola Normanno
Several different studies have addressed the role of the circulating tumor cells (CTC) in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In particular, the potential of CTC analysis in the early diagnosis of NSCLC and in the prediction of the outcome of patients with early and advanced NSCLC have been explored. A major limit of these studies is that they used different techniques for CTC isolation and enumeration, they employed different thresholds to discriminate between high- and low-risk patients, and they enrolled heterogeneous and often small cohort of patients...
August 2017: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903607/candida-endocarditis-systematic-literature-review-from-1997-to-2014-and-analysis-of-29-cases-from-the-italian-study-of-endocarditis
#10
Simone Giuliano, Maurizio Guastalegname, Alessandro Russo, Marco Falcone, Veronica Ravasio, Marco Rizzi, Matteo Bassetti, Pierluigi Viale, Maria Bruna Pasticci, Emanuele Durante-Mangoni, Mario Venditti
Candida Endocarditis (CE) is a deadly disease. It is of paramount importance to assess risk factors for acquisition of both Candida native (NVE) and prosthetic (PVE) valve endocarditis and relate clinical features and treatment strategies with the outcome of the disease. Areas covered: We searched the literature using the Pubmed database. Cases of CE from the Italian Study on Endocarditis (SEI) were also included. Overall, 140 cases of CE were analyzed. Patients with a history of abdominal surgery and antibiotic exposure had higher probability of developing NVE than PVE...
September 14, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903378/ago2-involves-the-malignant-phenotypes-and-fak-pi3k-akt-signaling-pathway-in-hypopharyngeal-derived-fadu-cells
#11
Yanhui Zhang, Baoxin Wang, Xinwei Chen, Weidong Li, Pin Dong
Argonaute 2 (AGO2) protein is usually overexpressed in various head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. However, the precise molecular mechanisms of AGO2 in hypopharyngeal cancer have not yet been clearly understood. Here we found the AGO2 expression in hypopharyngeal cancer tissues were generally higher comparing with that of the corresponding adjacent noncancerous epithelium tissues, and these were associated with the more aggressive clinicopathologic features and the poor clinical outcomes. Stable knockdown of AGO2 protein retarded cell proliferation, migration, invasion, arrested cell cycle and induced apoptosis...
August 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902367/identification-of-hub-genes-key-mirnas-and-potential-molecular-mechanisms-of-colorectal-cancer
#12
Shasha Wu, Feixiang Wu, Zheng Jiang
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the most common cancer of the digestive system. The aim of the present study was to identify the potential biomarkers and uncover the underlying mechanisms. The gene and miRNA expression profiles were obtained from GEO database. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and miRNAs (DE miRNAs) were identified by GEO2R. The gene ontology (GO) enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis were performed by KOBAS 3.0. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and miRNA-gene network were constructed by Cytoscape software...
August 29, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902346/prediction-of-radiosensitive-patients-with-gastric-cancer-by-developing-gene-signature
#13
Jin Zhou, Xiaoyu Wu, Gang Li, Xin Gao, Min Zhai, Weichang Chen, Huagang Hu, Zaixiang Tang
Adjuvant radiotherapy is an important clinical treatment for the majority of gastric cancer, a common cancer. However, radiotherapy is a double-edged sword. It is necessary to develop a method to predict radiosensitive patients who are most likely to benefit from radiotherapy. Using the publicly available data of gastric cancer from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), we developed a gene signature that predicts radiosensitive patients through estimating a new index, nominal HR (nHR) (HR product of sensitive genes), for each patient...
August 30, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901528/beyond-symptomatic-effects-donepezil-s-potential-for-neuroprotection-and-disease-modification-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
REVIEW
Seung Hyun Kim, Nagaendran Kandiah, Jung-Lung Hsu, Chuthamanee Suthisisang, Chesda Udommongkol, Amitabh Dash
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with neurodegenerative changes resulting clinically in progressive cognitive and functional deficits. The only therapies are the cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs) donepezil, galantamine, and rivastigmine and the N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor antagonist memantine. Donepezil acts primarily on the cholinergic system as symptomatic treatment, but it also has potential for disease modification and may reduce the rate of progression of AD. This review explores the potential for a disease modifying effect of donepezil...
September 13, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898185/thoracic-complications-of-precision-cancer-therapies-a-practical-guide-for-radiologists-in-the-new-era-of-cancer-care
#15
Mizuki Nishino, Hiroto Hatabu, Lynette M Sholl, Nikhil H Ramaiya
Recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms of cancer have opened a new era of precision medicine for cancer treatment. Precision cancer therapies target specific molecules that are responsible for cancer development and progression, and they achieve marked treatment benefits in specific cohorts of patients. However, these therapies are also associated with a variety of complications that are often unique to specific groups of anticancer agents. The rapidly increasing use of immune checkpoint inhibitors in the treatment of various advanced malignancies has brought new challenges in diagnosing and monitoring a unique set of toxic effects termed immune-related adverse events...
September 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894736/synthetic-gene-expression-circuits-for-designing-precision-tools-in-oncology
#16
REVIEW
Angela Re
Precision medicine in oncology needs to enhance its capabilities to match diagnostic and therapeutic technologies to individual patients. Synthetic biology streamlines the design and construction of functionalized devices through standardization and rational engineering of basic biological elements decoupled from their natural context. Remarkable improvements have opened the prospects for the availability of synthetic devices of enhanced mechanism clarity, robustness, sensitivity, as well as scalability and portability, which might bring new capabilities in precision cancer medicine implementations...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894420/exosomes-as-potential-biomarkers-and-targeted-therapy-in-colorectal-cancer-a-mini-review
#17
REVIEW
Kha Wai Hon, Nadiah Abu, Nurul-Syakima Ab Mutalib, Rahman Jamal
The number of colorectal cancer (CRC) cases have increased gradually year by year. In fact, CRC is one of the most widely diagnosed cancer in men and women today. This disease is usually diagnosed at a later stage of the development, and by then, the chance of survival has declined significantly. Even though substantial progress has been made in understanding the basic molecular mechanism of CRC, there is still a lack of understanding in using the available information for diagnosing CRC effectively. Liquid biopsies are minimally invasive and have become the epitome of a good screening source for stage-specific diagnosis, measuring drug response and severity of the disease...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893210/distinct-molecular-subtypes-of-uterine-leiomyosarcoma-respond-differently-to-chemotherapy-treatment
#18
Yang An, Shuzhen Wang, Songlin Li, Lulu Zhang, Dayong Wang, Haojie Wang, Shibai Zhu, Wan Zhu, Yongqiang Li, Wenwu Chen, Shaoping Ji, Xiangqian Guo
BACKGROUND: Uterine leiomyosarcoma (ULMS) is an aggressive form of soft tissue tumors. The molecular heterogeneity and pathogenesis of ULMS are not well understood. METHODS: Expression profiling data were used to determine the possibility and optimal number of ULMS molecular subtypes. Next, clinicopathological characters and molecular pathways were analyzed in each subtype to prospect the clinical applications and progression mechanisms of ULMS. RESULTS: Two distinct molecular subtypes of ULMS were defined based on different gene expression signatures...
September 11, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892299/research-progress-on-the-relationship-between-zinc-deficiency-related-micrornas-and-esophageal-carcinoma
#19
REVIEW
Cong-Min Liu, Di Liang, Jing Jin, Dao-Juan Li, Ya-Chen Zhang, Zhao-Yu Gao, Yu-Tong He
Esophageal cancer (EC) is a common malignant tumor of the gastrointestinal tract with a high incidence in China. Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a key risk factor for the occurrence and development of EC and affects progression by regulating microRNA (miRNA, miR) expression. In addition, the dysregulation of miRNAs is accompanied by the dysregulation of their target genes in EC. In this paper, we review the potential molecular mechanisms between Zn deficiency and EC with the aim of providing new strategies and methods for early diagnosis, targeted therapy, and prognostic evaluation...
September 11, 2017: Thoracic Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890877/pulmonary-hypertension-diagnosis-imaging-techniques-and-novel-therapies
#20
REVIEW
Alan B Goldberg, Wojciech Mazur, Dinesh K Kalra
Pulmonary hypertension (PH), defined as the elevation of mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) above 25 mmHg, has numerous causes, which the World Health Organization (WHO) has divided into five distinct categories based upon the underlying mechanism of action. This review will explore the pathophysiology, diagnostic testing, and treatment of PH. Identification of PH depends on a strong clinical suspicion, a detailed history, and a thorough physical exam. We review the evidence supporting experimental and clinical laboratory parameters for diagnosis and monitoring of PH...
August 2017: Cardiovascular Diagnosis and Therapy
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