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Agroecology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201492/agropastoral-mobility-and-rangelands-multiple-uses-in-the-miombo-frontier-ecozone-of-tabora-region-western-tanzania
#1
George Felix Masanja
This study aimed to examine the argument of environmental resource-use conflict as the primary cause of crop farmers and agropastoralists conflicts in Tabora Region, Tanzania. It explored the multiple interdependent phenomena that affect livelihoods relationships between crop farmers and agropastoralists and the nature of their continuing conflicts over the ecozonal resources. A primary dataset of the two groups' conflicts was used. An ex post facto and multistage sampling design was adopted. A total of 252 respondents were interviewed in three separate villages drawn from agroecological zones fringing the miombo woodland where such tensions are high...
2017: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195207/spatial-diversification-of-agroecosystems-to-enhance-biological-control-and-other-regulating-services-an-agroecological-perspective
#2
Séverin Hatt, Fanny Boeraeve, Sidonie Artru, Marc Dufrêne, Frédéric Francis
Spatial diversification of crop and non-crop habitats in farming systems is promising for enhancing natural regulation of insect pests. Nevertheless, results from recent syntheses show variable effects. One explanation is that the abundance and diversity of pests and natural enemies are affected by the composition, design and management of crop and non-crop habitats. Moreover, interactions between both local and landscape elements and practices carried out at different spatial scales may affect the regulation of insect pests...
November 28, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176578/a-multi-country-assessment-of-factors-related-to-smallholder-food-security-in-varying-rainfall-conditions
#3
Meredith T Niles, Molly E Brown
Given that smallholder farmers are frequently food insecure and rely significantly on rain-fed agriculture, it is critical to examine climate variability and food insecurity. We utilize data from smallholder farmer surveys from 12 countries with 30 years of rainfall data to examine how rainfall variability and household resources are correlated with food security. We find that on average, households that experienced a drier than average year are 3.81 months food insecure, while households within a normal range of rainfall were 3...
November 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166981/organic-vs-organic-soil-arthropods-as-bioindicators-of-ecological-sustainability-in-greenhouse-system-experiment-under-mediterranean-conditions
#4
Suzana Madzaric, F G Ceglie, L Depalo, L Al Bitar, G Mimiola, F Tittarelli, G Burgio
Organic greenhouse (OGH) production is characterized by different systems and agricultural practices with diverse environmental impact. Soil arthropods are widely used as bioindicators of ecological sustainability in open field studies, while there is a lack of research on organic production for protected systems. This study assessed the soil arthropod abundance and diversity over a 2-year crop rotation in three systems of OGH production in the Mediterranean. The systems under assessment differed in soil fertility management: SUBST - a simplified system of organic production, based on an input substitution approach (use of guano and organic liquid fertilizers), AGROCOM - soil fertility mainly based on compost application and agroecological services crops (ASC) cultivation (tailored use of cover crops) as part of crop rotation, and AGROMAN - animal manure and ASC cultivation as part of crop rotation...
November 23, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152414/vegetation-structure-of-plantain-based-agrosystems-determines-numerical-dominance-in-community-of-ground-dwelling-ants
#5
Anicet Gbéblonoudo Dassou, Philippe Tixier, Sylvain Dépigny, Dominique Carval
In tropics, ants can represent an important part of animal biomass and are known to be involved in ecosystem services, such as pest regulation. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the structuring of local ant communities is therefore important in agroecology. In the humid tropics of Africa, plantains are cropped in association with many other annual and perennial crops. Such agrosystems differ greatly in vegetation diversity and structure and are well-suited for studying how habitat-related factors affect the ant community...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112753/genome-nutrition-divergence-evolving-understanding-of-the-malnutrition-spectrum
#6
Jacob C Eaton, Lora L Iannotti
Humans adapted over a period of 2.3 million years to a diet high in quality and diversity. Genome-nutrition divergence describes the misalignment between modern global diets and the genome formed through evolution. A survey of hominin diets over time shows that humans have thrived on a broad range of foods. Earlier diets were highly diverse and nutrient dense, in contrast to modern food systems in which monotonous diets of staple cereals and ultraprocessed foods play a more prominent role. Applying the lens of genome-nutrition divergence to malnutrition reveals shared risk factors for undernutrition and overnutrition at nutrient, food, and environmental levels...
November 1, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111139/seroprevalence-of-schmallenberg-virus-in-dairy-cattle-in-ethiopia
#7
Berhanu Sibhat, Gelagay Ayelet, Endrias Zewdu Gebremedhin, Eystein Skjerve, Kassahun Asmare
Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is a recently identified member of the genus Orthobunyavirus of the family Bunyaviridae. It is an arbovirus transmitted by different members of Culicoides spp of biting midges. The virus is more recognized for its effect on reproductive disorders in ruminants characterised by abortion, stillbirth and birth of congenitally defective newborns with hydranencephaly-arthrogryposis syndrome. The current study was undertaken with the objectives of exploring the presence of SBV exposure and identification of factors affecting its distribution among dairy cattle in Ethiopia...
October 27, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062148/morphological-morphometric-and-molecular-characterization-of-intraspecific-variations-within-indian-populations-of-meloidogyne-graminicola
#8
Rajan Salalia, R K Walia, Vishal Singh Somvanshi, Puneet Kumar, Anil Kumar
Fourteen populations of Meloidogyne graminicola were collected from different agroecological regions of India. Morphological and morphometrical comparisons were made for various nematode life stages. Three populations (Hisar, New Delhi, and Samastipur) were different from typical M. graminicola on the basis of the length of eggs; J2 length, a-value, hyaline tail portion; male length, distance up to excretory pore, spicule and gubernaculum lengths; female length and width, stylet length, distance up to excretory pore, EPST (distance of excretory pore from anterior end / stylet length [females]) ratio, and vulval length...
September 2017: Journal of Nematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982151/gmdptoolbox-a-matlab-library-for-designing-spatial-management-policies-application-to-the-long-term-collective-management-of-an-airborne-disease
#9
Marie-Josée Cros, Jean-Noël Aubertot, Nathalie Peyrard, Régis Sabbadin
Designing management policies in ecology and agroecology is complex. Several components must be managed together while they strongly interact spatially. Decision choices must be made under uncertainty on the results of the actions and on the system dynamics. Furthermore, the objectives pursued when managing ecological systems or agroecosystems are usually long term objectives, such as biodiversity conservation or sustainable crop production. The framework of Graph-Based Markov Decision Processes (GMDP) is well adapted to the qualitative modeling of such problems of sequential decision under uncertainty...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969508/rich-food-biodiversity-amid-low-consumption-of-food-items-in-kilosa-district-tanzania
#10
Julius E Ntwenya, Joyce Kinabo, John Msuya, Peter Mamiro, Delphina Mamiro, Elifuraha Njoghomi, Philip Liwei, Megan Huang
BACKGROUND: Indigenous foods, which contribute largely to the majority of the households' food basket in rural Tanzanian communities, have not been fully characterized or documented. OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to document foods available and consumed in Kilosa District, Tanzania, in an attempt to promote, revive use, and build evidence for sustainable utilization of the rich local biodiversity. METHODS: Data were collected from 307 households in 3 agroecological zones in Kilosa District during the beginning of the rainy season (February-May) and immediately after harvest (September-October)...
January 1, 2017: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941689/alternative-amendment-for-vineyards-from-by-products-of-pyro-bituminous-shale-effect-on-wine-amino-acids-and-biogenic-amines
#11
M E Alañón, R Schumacher, M C Díaz-Maroto, S Gómez-Alonso, M S Pérez-Coello
With the aim of looking for a model of agroecological production, the use of by-products from pyro-bituminous shale as amendment, and its effect on wine amino acids and biogenic amines has been evaluated. Field trials aimed to compare the effect of different doses of conventional and limestone shale from by-products of pyro-bituminous. Four replicates for six different fertilization treatments were arranged in a split plot design during 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 vintage. A chromatographic analysis was carried out to evaluate the impact of fertilization treatments on the amino acid and biogenic amine content of wines produced...
November 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915412/aspergillus-section-flavi-community-structure-in-zambia-influences-aflatoxin-contamination-of-maize-and-groundnut
#12
Paul W Kachapulula, Juliet Akello, Ranajit Bandyopadhyay, Peter J Cotty
Aflatoxins are cancer-causing, immuno-suppressive mycotoxins that frequently contaminate important staples in Zambia including maize and groundnut. Several species within Aspergillus section Flavi have been implicated as causal agents of aflatoxin contamination in Africa. However, Aspergillus populations associated with aflatoxin contamination in Zambia have not been adequately detailed. Most of Zambia's arable land is non-cultivated and Aspergillus communities in crops may originate in non-cultivated soil...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893322/bovine-trypanosomosis-changes-in-parasitemia-and-packed-cell-volume-in-dry-and-wet-seasons-at-gidami-district-oromia-regional-state-western-ethiopia
#13
Efrem Degneh, Workineh Shibeshi, Getachew Terefe, Kaleab Asres, Hagos Ashenafi
BACKGROUND: Animal trypanosomosis is one of the major disease problems affecting agricultural productivity in Ethiopia. The impact of the disease is believed to vary with season and agro-ecologies in line with fly vector distribution. A cross-sectional study on bovine trypanosomosis was conducted from November 2015 to June 2016, in seven selected villages of Gidami district, Oromia Regional State, western Ethiopia. A total of 930 blood samples were collected and subjected to parasitological and hematological analysis...
September 11, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783218/evolutionary-agroecology-individual-fitness-and-population-yield-in-wheat-triticum-aestivum
#14
Jacob Weiner, Yan-Lei Du, Cong Zhang, Xiao-Liang Qin, Feng-Min Li
Although the importance of group selection in nature is highly controversial, several researchers have argued that plant breeding for agriculture should be based on group selection, because the goal in agriculture is to optimize population production, not individual fitness. A core hypothesis behind this claim is that crop genotypes with the highest individual fitness in a mixture of genotypes will not produce the highest population yield, because fitness is often increased by "selfish" behaviors, which reduce population performance...
August 7, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763672/application-of-thermography-for-monitoring-stomatal-conductance-of-coffea-arabica-under-different-shading-systems
#15
A C W Craparo, K Steppe, P J A Van Asten, P Läderach, L T P Jassogne, S W Grab
Stomatal regulation is a key process in the physiology of Coffea arabica (C. arabica). Intrinsically linked to photosynthesis and water relations, it provides insights into the plant's adaptive capacity, survival and growth. The ability to rapidly quantify this parameter for C. arabica under different agroecological systems would be an indispensable tool. Using a Flir E6 MIR Camera, an index that is equivalent to stomatal conductance (Ig) was compared with stomatal conductance measurements (gs) in a mature coffee plantation...
December 31, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747234/integrating-multiple-criteria-for-the-characterization-of-psammotettix-populations-in-european-cereal-fields
#16
I Abt, M Derlink, R Mabon, M Virant-Doberlet, E Jacquot
The wheat dwarf disease is among the most damaging diseases in cereals. Its aetiological agent is the Wheat dwarf virus (WDV), which is exclusively transmitted from plant to plant by leafhoppers from the genus Psammotettix (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae). The parameters linked to the WDV/Psammotettix pathosystem are still poorly understood. We studied Psammotettix individuals collected in wheat and barley fields in France and, as a comparison, from grassland at agroecological interface in West Slovenia. Species identity of males and females has been determined using multiple criteria...
July 27, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686700/rates-of-return-to-sorghum-and-millet-research-investments-a-meta-analysis
#17
Yacob A Zereyesus, Timothy J Dalton
Sorghum and millet grow in some of the most heterogeneous and austere agroecologies around the world. These crops are amongst the top five cereal sources of food and feed. Yet, few studies document the impact of sorghum and millet genetic enhancement. The Internal Rate of Return (ROR) is one of the most popular metrics used to measure the economic return on investment on agricultural research and development (R&D). This study conducted a meta-analysis of 59 sorghum and millet ROR estimates obtained from 25 sources published between 1958 and 2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658282/population-structure-of-elephant-foot-yams-amorphophallus-paeoniifolius-dennst-nicolson-in-asia
#18
Edi Santosa, Chun Lan Lian, Nobuo Sugiyama, Raj Shekhar Misra, Patchareeya Boonkorkaew, Kanokwan Thanomchit
The corms and leaves of elephant foot yams (Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst.) Nicolson) are important foods in the local diet in many Asian regions. The crop has high productivity and wide agroecological adaptation and exhibits suitability for the agroforestry system. Although the plant is assumed to reproduce via panmixia, a comprehensive study on the genetic background across regions to enhance wider consumer palatability is still lacking. Here, ten informative microsatellites were analyzed in 29 populations across regions in India, Indonesia and Thailand to understand the genetic diversity, population structure and distribution to improve breeding and conservation programs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540363/body-weight-and-scrotal-testicular-biometry-in-three-indigenous-breeds-of-bucks-in-arid-and-semiarid-agroecologies-ethiopia
#19
Amare Eshetu Gemeda, Kefelegn Workalemahu
The body weight and testicular and epididymal parameters of Afar, Long-eared Somali (LES), and Woyto-Guji (WG) breeds of goat were investigated. A total of 405 randomly selected bucks of Afar (n = 135), Long-eared Somali (n = 135), and Woyto-Guji (n = 135) were included in this study. The overall mean scrotal circumference (SC), testicular volume (TV), testicular length (TL), testicular weight (TW), body weight (BW), epididymal weight (EW), body condition score, and testicular diameter (TD) measurements in all bucks were 20...
2017: Journal of Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460006/impact-of-agroecological-infrastructures-on-the-dynamics-of-dysaphis-plantaginea-hemiptera-aphididae-and-its-natural-enemies-in-apple-orchards-in-northwestern-france
#20
Laurence Albert, Pierre Franck, Yann Gilles, Manuel Plantegenest
Apple orchard production is facing new environmental and societal challenges, resulting, in particular, in strong pressure to reduce pesticide use. Cider-apple production, for which the perfect visual aspect of fruits is not a marketability imperative, offers good opportunities to study production systems that are developing new agronomic strategies, which could be subsequently extended to all apple-production types. Agroecological infrastructures play an important role in providing shelter, food resources, or reproduction habitats to many arthropods...
June 1, 2017: Environmental Entomology
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