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Agroecology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442413/ongoing-changes-in-migration-phenology-and-winter-residency-at-bracken-bat-cave
#1
Phillip M Stepanian, Charlotte E Wainwright
Bats play an important role in agroecology and are effective bioindicators of environmental conditions, but little is known about their fundamental migration ecology, much less how these systems are responding to global change. Some of the world's largest bat populations occur during the summer in the south-central United States, when millions of pregnant females migrate from lower latitudes to give birth in communal maternity colonies. Despite a relatively large volume of research into these colonies, many fundamental questions regarding their abundance-including their intra- and interseasonal variability-remain unanswered, and even estimating the size of individual populations has been a long-running challenge...
February 14, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408066/seeding-plants-for-long-term-multiple-ecosystem-service-goals
#2
D J Eastburn, Leslie M Roche, Morgan P Doran, Philip R Blake, Chip S Bouril, George Gamble, Elise S Gornish
The historical management of agroecological systems, such as California's rangelands, have received criticism for a singular focus on agricultural production goals, while society has shifting expectations to the supply of multiple ecosystem services from these working landscapes. The sustainability and the multiple benefits derived from these complex social-ecological systems is increasingly threatened by weed invasion, extreme disturbance, urban development, and the impacts of a rapidly changing and increasingly variable climate...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402489/-effectiveness-of-beauveria-bassiana-baubassil%C3%A2-on-the-common-cattle-tick-rhipicephalus-microplus-in-the-department-of-guajira-colombia
#3
Adriana P Tofiño Rivera, Mailen Ortega Cuadros, Bertilda Pedraza Claros, Sandra C Perdomo Ayola, Diana Carolina Moya Romero
The effectiveness of Baubassil®(Beauveria bassiana) on the tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus was evaluated. In the in vitro phase, the optimal germination temperature of the fungus was determined by microcultures at 25, 30 and 35°C and the mortality of ticks. In the field, in a randomized design, 30 cebuine cows; 15 cows were treated with Baubassil® once a week at a 1×106 conidia/ml, and a control group was left untreated. It was observed that at temperatures of 25, 30 and 35°C, germination of the entomopathogen was 97...
February 2, 2018: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338085/the-century-experiment-the-first-twenty-years-of-uc-davis-mediterranean-agroecological-experiment
#4
Kristina M Wolf, Emma E Torbert, Dennis Bryant, Martin Burger, R Ford Denison, Israel Herrera, Jan Hopmans, Will Horwath, Stephen Kaffka, Angela Y Y Kong, R F Norris, Johan Six, Thomas P Tomich, Kate M Scow
The Century Experiment at the Russell Ranch Sustainable Agriculture Facility at the University of California, Davis provides long-term agroecological data from row crop systems in California's Central Valley starting in 1993. The Century Experiment was initially designed to study the effects of a gradient of water and nitrogen availability on soil properties and crop performance in ten different cropping systems to measure tradeoffs and synergies between agricultural productivity and sustainability. Currently systems include 11 different cropping systems-consisting of four different crops and a cover crop mixture-and one native grass system...
January 16, 2018: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304005/investigating-the-mis-match-between-natural-pest-control-knowledge-and-the-intensity-of-pesticide-use
#5
David Mall, Ashley E Larsen, Emily A Martin
Transforming modern agriculture towards both higher yields and greater sustainability is critical for preserving biodiversity in an increasingly populous and variable world. However, the intensity of agricultural practices varies strongly between crop systems. Given limited research capacity, it is crucial to focus efforts to increase sustainability in the crop systems that need it most. In this study, we investigate the match (or mismatch) between the intensity of pesticide use and the availability of knowledge on the ecosystem service of natural pest control across various crop systems...
January 5, 2018: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299679/modeling-and-improving-ethiopian-pasture-systems
#6
S G Parisi, G Cola, G Gilioli, L Mariani
The production of pasture in Ethiopia was simulated by means of a dynamic model. Most of the country is characterized by a tropical monsoon climate with mild temperatures and precipitation mainly concentrated in the June-September period (main rainy season). The production model is driven by solar radiation and takes into account limitations due to relocation, maintenance respiration, conversion to final dry matter, temperature, water stress, and nutrients availability. The model also considers the senescence of grassland which strongly limits the nutritional value of grasses for livestock...
January 3, 2018: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276671/what-drives-diversification-of-national-food-supplies-a-cross-country-analysis
#7
REVIEW
Samira Choudhury, Derek Headey
Little previous research has explored what drives the diversification of national food supplies (DFS) across countries and regions. We construct and analyse a cross-country dataset linking a simple DFS indicator - the share of calories supplied by nonstaple foods - with structural transformation and agroecological indicators. Panel econometric models show that several indicators of structural transformation (economic growth, urbanization and demographic change) are strong predictors of diversification within countries, yet time-invariant agroecological factors are also significantly associated with diversification, which appears to explain why some countries have exceptionally low or high DFS relative to their level of economic development...
December 2017: Global Food Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201492/agropastoral-mobility-and-rangelands-multiple-uses-in-the-miombo-frontier-ecozone-of-tabora-region-western-tanzania
#8
George Felix Masanja
This study aimed to examine the argument of environmental resource-use conflict as the primary cause of crop farmers and agropastoralists conflicts in Tabora Region, Tanzania. It explored the multiple interdependent phenomena that affect livelihoods relationships between crop farmers and agropastoralists and the nature of their continuing conflicts over the ecozonal resources. A primary dataset of the two groups' conflicts was used. An ex post facto and multistage sampling design was adopted. A total of 252 respondents were interviewed in three separate villages drawn from agroecological zones fringing the miombo woodland where such tensions are high...
2017: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195207/spatial-diversification-of-agroecosystems-to-enhance-biological-control-and-other-regulating-services-an-agroecological-perspective
#9
Séverin Hatt, Fanny Boeraeve, Sidonie Artru, Marc Dufrêne, Frédéric Francis
Spatial diversification of crop and non-crop habitats in farming systems is promising for enhancing natural regulation of insect pests. Nevertheless, results from recent syntheses show variable effects. One explanation is that the abundance and diversity of pests and natural enemies are affected by the composition, design and management of crop and non-crop habitats. Moreover, interactions between both local and landscape elements and practices carried out at different spatial scales may affect the regulation of insect pests...
November 28, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176578/a-multi-country-assessment-of-factors-related-to-smallholder-food-security-in-varying-rainfall-conditions
#10
Meredith T Niles, Molly E Brown
Given that smallholder farmers are frequently food insecure and rely significantly on rain-fed agriculture, it is critical to examine climate variability and food insecurity. We utilize data from smallholder farmer surveys from 12 countries with 30 years of rainfall data to examine how rainfall variability and household resources are correlated with food security. We find that on average, households that experienced a drier than average year are 3.81 months food insecure, while households within a normal range of rainfall were 3...
November 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166981/organic-vs-organic-soil-arthropods-as-bioindicators-of-ecological-sustainability-in-greenhouse-system-experiment-under-mediterranean-conditions
#11
Suzana Madzaric, F G Ceglie, L Depalo, L Al Bitar, G Mimiola, F Tittarelli, G Burgio
Organic greenhouse (OGH) production is characterized by different systems and agricultural practices with diverse environmental impact. Soil arthropods are widely used as bioindicators of ecological sustainability in open field studies, while there is a lack of research on organic production for protected systems. This study assessed the soil arthropod abundance and diversity over a 2-year crop rotation in three systems of OGH production in the Mediterranean. The systems under assessment differed in soil fertility management: SUBST - a simplified system of organic production, based on an input substitution approach (use of guano and organic liquid fertilizers), AGROCOM - soil fertility mainly based on compost application and agroecological services crops (ASC) cultivation (tailored use of cover crops) as part of crop rotation, and AGROMAN - animal manure and ASC cultivation as part of crop rotation...
November 23, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152414/vegetation-structure-of-plantain-based-agrosystems-determines-numerical-dominance-in-community-of-ground-dwelling-ants
#12
Anicet Gbéblonoudo Dassou, Philippe Tixier, Sylvain Dépigny, Dominique Carval
In tropics, ants can represent an important part of animal biomass and are known to be involved in ecosystem services, such as pest regulation. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the structuring of local ant communities is therefore important in agroecology. In the humid tropics of Africa, plantains are cropped in association with many other annual and perennial crops. Such agrosystems differ greatly in vegetation diversity and structure and are well-suited for studying how habitat-related factors affect the ant community...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112753/genome-nutrition-divergence-evolving-understanding-of-the-malnutrition-spectrum
#13
Jacob C Eaton, Lora L Iannotti
Humans adapted over a period of 2.3 million years to a diet high in quality and diversity. Genome-nutrition divergence describes the misalignment between modern global diets and the genome formed through evolution. A survey of hominin diets over time shows that humans have thrived on a broad range of foods. Earlier diets were highly diverse and nutrient dense, in contrast to modern food systems in which monotonous diets of staple cereals and ultraprocessed foods play a more prominent role. Applying the lens of genome-nutrition divergence to malnutrition reveals shared risk factors for undernutrition and overnutrition at nutrient, food, and environmental levels...
November 1, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111139/seroprevalence-of-schmallenberg-virus-in-dairy-cattle-in-ethiopia
#14
Berhanu Sibhat, Gelagay Ayelet, Endrias Zewdu Gebremedhin, Eystein Skjerve, Kassahun Asmare
Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is a recently identified member of the genus Orthobunyavirus of the family Bunyaviridae. It is an arbovirus transmitted by different members of Culicoides spp of biting midges. The virus is more recognized for its effect on reproductive disorders in ruminants characterised by abortion, stillbirth and birth of congenitally defective newborns with hydranencephaly-arthrogryposis syndrome. The current study was undertaken with the objectives of exploring the presence of SBV exposure and identification of factors affecting its distribution among dairy cattle in Ethiopia...
October 27, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062148/morphological-morphometric-and-molecular-characterization-of-intraspecific-variations-within-indian-populations-of-meloidogyne-graminicola
#15
Rajan Salalia, R K Walia, Vishal Singh Somvanshi, Puneet Kumar, Anil Kumar
Fourteen populations of Meloidogyne graminicola were collected from different agroecological regions of India. Morphological and morphometrical comparisons were made for various nematode life stages. Three populations (Hisar, New Delhi, and Samastipur) were different from typical M. graminicola on the basis of the length of eggs; J2 length, a-value, hyaline tail portion; male length, distance up to excretory pore, spicule and gubernaculum lengths; female length and width, stylet length, distance up to excretory pore, EPST (distance of excretory pore from anterior end / stylet length [females]) ratio, and vulval length...
September 2017: Journal of Nematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982151/gmdptoolbox-a-matlab-library-for-designing-spatial-management-policies-application-to-the-long-term-collective-management-of-an-airborne-disease
#16
Marie-Josée Cros, Jean-Noël Aubertot, Nathalie Peyrard, Régis Sabbadin
Designing management policies in ecology and agroecology is complex. Several components must be managed together while they strongly interact spatially. Decision choices must be made under uncertainty on the results of the actions and on the system dynamics. Furthermore, the objectives pursued when managing ecological systems or agroecosystems are usually long term objectives, such as biodiversity conservation or sustainable crop production. The framework of Graph-Based Markov Decision Processes (GMDP) is well adapted to the qualitative modeling of such problems of sequential decision under uncertainty...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969508/rich-food-biodiversity-amid-low-consumption-of-food-items-in-kilosa-district-tanzania
#17
Julius E Ntwenya, Joyce Kinabo, John Msuya, Peter Mamiro, Delphina Mamiro, Elifuraha Njoghomi, Philip Liwei, Megan Huang
BACKGROUND: Indigenous foods, which contribute largely to the majority of the households' food basket in rural Tanzanian communities, have not been fully characterized or documented. OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to document foods available and consumed in Kilosa District, Tanzania, in an attempt to promote, revive use, and build evidence for sustainable utilization of the rich local biodiversity. METHODS: Data were collected from 307 households in 3 agroecological zones in Kilosa District during the beginning of the rainy season (February-May) and immediately after harvest (September-October)...
January 1, 2017: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941689/alternative-amendment-for-vineyards-from-by-products-of-pyro-bituminous-shale-effect-on-wine-amino-acids-and-biogenic-amines
#18
M E Alañón, R Schumacher, M C Díaz-Maroto, S Gómez-Alonso, M S Pérez-Coello
With the aim of looking for a model of agroecological production, the use of by-products from pyro-bituminous shale as amendment, and its effect on wine amino acids and biogenic amines has been evaluated. Field trials aimed to compare the effect of different doses of conventional and limestone shale from by-products of pyro-bituminous. Four replicates for six different fertilization treatments were arranged in a split plot design during 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 vintage. A chromatographic analysis was carried out to evaluate the impact of fertilization treatments on the amino acid and biogenic amine content of wines produced...
November 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915412/aspergillus-section-flavi-community-structure-in-zambia-influences-aflatoxin-contamination-of-maize-and-groundnut
#19
Paul W Kachapulula, Juliet Akello, Ranajit Bandyopadhyay, Peter J Cotty
Aflatoxins are cancer-causing, immuno-suppressive mycotoxins that frequently contaminate important staples in Zambia including maize and groundnut. Several species within Aspergillus section Flavi have been implicated as causal agents of aflatoxin contamination in Africa. However, Aspergillus populations associated with aflatoxin contamination in Zambia have not been adequately detailed. Most of Zambia's arable land is non-cultivated and Aspergillus communities in crops may originate in non-cultivated soil...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893322/bovine-trypanosomosis-changes-in-parasitemia-and-packed-cell-volume-in-dry-and-wet-seasons-at-gidami-district-oromia-regional-state-western-ethiopia
#20
Efrem Degneh, Workineh Shibeshi, Getachew Terefe, Kaleab Asres, Hagos Ashenafi
BACKGROUND: Animal trypanosomosis is one of the major disease problems affecting agricultural productivity in Ethiopia. The impact of the disease is believed to vary with season and agro-ecologies in line with fly vector distribution. A cross-sectional study on bovine trypanosomosis was conducted from November 2015 to June 2016, in seven selected villages of Gidami district, Oromia Regional State, western Ethiopia. A total of 930 blood samples were collected and subjected to parasitological and hematological analysis...
September 11, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
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