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Agroecology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982151/gmdptoolbox-a-matlab-library-for-designing-spatial-management-policies-application-to-the-long-term-collective-management-of-an-airborne-disease
#1
Marie-Josée Cros, Jean-Noël Aubertot, Nathalie Peyrard, Régis Sabbadin
Designing management policies in ecology and agroecology is complex. Several components must be managed together while they strongly interact spatially. Decision choices must be made under uncertainty on the results of the actions and on the system dynamics. Furthermore, the objectives pursued when managing ecological systems or agroecosystems are usually long term objectives, such as biodiversity conservation or sustainable crop production. The framework of Graph-Based Markov Decision Processes (GMDP) is well adapted to the qualitative modeling of such problems of sequential decision under uncertainty...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969508/rich-food-biodiversity-amid-low-consumption-of-food-items-in-kilosa-district-tanzania
#2
Julius E Ntwenya, Joyce Kinabo, John Msuya, Peter Mamiro, Delphina Mamiro, Elifuraha Njoghomi, Philip Liwei, Megan Huang
BACKGROUND: Indigenous foods, which contribute largely to the majority of the households' food basket in rural Tanzanian communities, have not been fully characterized or documented. OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to document foods available and consumed in Kilosa District, Tanzania, in an attempt to promote, revive use, and build evidence for sustainable utilization of the rich local biodiversity. METHODS: Data were collected from 307 households in 3 agroecological zones in Kilosa District during the beginning of the rainy season (February-May) and immediately after harvest (September-October)...
January 1, 2017: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941689/alternative-amendment-for-vineyards-from-by-products-of-pyro-bituminous-shale-effect-on-wine-amino-acids-and-biogenic-amines
#3
M E Alañón, R Schumacher, M C Díaz-Maroto, S Gómez-Alonso, M S Pérez-Coello
With the aim of looking for a model of agroecological production, the use of by-products from pyro-bituminous shale as amendment, and its effect on wine amino acids and biogenic amines has been evaluated. Field trials aimed to compare the effect of different doses of conventional and limestone shale from by-products of pyro-bituminous. Four replicates for six different fertilization treatments were arranged in a split plot design during 2009/2010 and 2010/2011 vintage. A chromatographic analysis was carried out to evaluate the impact of fertilization treatments on the amino acid and biogenic amine content of wines produced...
November 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915412/aspergillus-section-flavi-community-structure-in-zambia-influences-aflatoxin-contamination-of-maize-and-groundnut
#4
Paul W Kachapulula, Juliet Akello, Ranajit Bandyopadhyay, Peter J Cotty
Aflatoxins are cancer-causing, immuno-suppressive mycotoxins that frequently contaminate important staples in Zambia including maize and groundnut. Several species within Aspergillus section Flavi have been implicated as causal agents of aflatoxin contamination in Africa. However, Aspergillus populations associated with aflatoxin contamination in Zambia have not been adequately detailed. Most of Zambia's arable land is non-cultivated and Aspergillus communities in crops may originate in non-cultivated soil...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893322/bovine-trypanosomosis-changes-in-parasitemia-and-packed-cell-volume-in-dry-and-wet-seasons-at-gidami-district-oromia-regional-state-western-ethiopia
#5
Efrem Degneh, Workineh Shibeshi, Getachew Terefe, Kaleab Asres, Hagos Ashenafi
BACKGROUND: Animal trypanosomosis is one of the major disease problems affecting agricultural productivity in Ethiopia. The impact of the disease is believed to vary with season and agro-ecologies in line with fly vector distribution. A cross-sectional study on bovine trypanosomosis was conducted from November 2015 to June 2016, in seven selected villages of Gidami district, Oromia Regional State, western Ethiopia. A total of 930 blood samples were collected and subjected to parasitological and hematological analysis...
September 11, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783218/evolutionary-agroecology-individual-fitness-and-population-yield-in-wheat-triticum-aestivum
#6
Jacob Weiner, Yan-Lei Du, Cong Zhang, Xiao-Liang Qin, Feng-Min Li
Although the importance of group selection in nature is highly controversial, several researchers have argued that plant breeding for agriculture should be based on group selection, because the goal in agriculture is to optimize population production, not individual fitness. A core hypothesis behind this claim is that crop genotypes with the highest individual fitness in a mixture of genotypes will not produce the highest population yield, because fitness is often increased by "selfish" behaviors, which reduce population performance...
August 7, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763672/application-of-thermography-for-monitoring-stomatal-conductance-of-coffea-arabica-under-different-shading-systems
#7
A C W Craparo, K Steppe, P J A Van Asten, P Läderach, L T P Jassogne, S W Grab
Stomatal regulation is a key process in the physiology of Coffea arabica (C. arabica). Intrinsically linked to photosynthesis and water relations, it provides insights into the plant's adaptive capacity, survival and growth. The ability to rapidly quantify this parameter for C. arabica under different agroecological systems would be an indispensable tool. Using a Flir E6 MIR Camera, an index that is equivalent to stomatal conductance (Ig) was compared with stomatal conductance measurements (gs) in a mature coffee plantation...
December 31, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28747234/integrating-multiple-criteria-for-the-characterization-of-psammotettix-populations-in-european-cereal-fields
#8
I Abt, M Derlink, R Mabon, M Virant-Doberlet, E Jacquot
The wheat dwarf disease is among the most damaging diseases in cereals. Its aetiological agent is the Wheat dwarf virus (WDV), which is exclusively transmitted from plant to plant by leafhoppers from the genus Psammotettix (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae). The parameters linked to the WDV/Psammotettix pathosystem are still poorly understood. We studied Psammotettix individuals collected in wheat and barley fields in France and, as a comparison, from grassland at agroecological interface in West Slovenia. Species identity of males and females has been determined using multiple criteria...
July 27, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686700/rates-of-return-to-sorghum-and-millet-research-investments-a-meta-analysis
#9
Yacob A Zereyesus, Timothy J Dalton
Sorghum and millet grow in some of the most heterogeneous and austere agroecologies around the world. These crops are amongst the top five cereal sources of food and feed. Yet, few studies document the impact of sorghum and millet genetic enhancement. The Internal Rate of Return (ROR) is one of the most popular metrics used to measure the economic return on investment on agricultural research and development (R&D). This study conducted a meta-analysis of 59 sorghum and millet ROR estimates obtained from 25 sources published between 1958 and 2015...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658282/population-structure-of-elephant-foot-yams-amorphophallus-paeoniifolius-dennst-nicolson-in-asia
#10
Edi Santosa, Chun Lan Lian, Nobuo Sugiyama, Raj Shekhar Misra, Patchareeya Boonkorkaew, Kanokwan Thanomchit
The corms and leaves of elephant foot yams (Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst.) Nicolson) are important foods in the local diet in many Asian regions. The crop has high productivity and wide agroecological adaptation and exhibits suitability for the agroforestry system. Although the plant is assumed to reproduce via panmixia, a comprehensive study on the genetic background across regions to enhance wider consumer palatability is still lacking. Here, ten informative microsatellites were analyzed in 29 populations across regions in India, Indonesia and Thailand to understand the genetic diversity, population structure and distribution to improve breeding and conservation programs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540363/body-weight-and-scrotal-testicular-biometry-in-three-indigenous-breeds-of-bucks-in-arid-and-semiarid-agroecologies-ethiopia
#11
Amare Eshetu Gemeda, Kefelegn Workalemahu
The body weight and testicular and epididymal parameters of Afar, Long-eared Somali (LES), and Woyto-Guji (WG) breeds of goat were investigated. A total of 405 randomly selected bucks of Afar (n = 135), Long-eared Somali (n = 135), and Woyto-Guji (n = 135) were included in this study. The overall mean scrotal circumference (SC), testicular volume (TV), testicular length (TL), testicular weight (TW), body weight (BW), epididymal weight (EW), body condition score, and testicular diameter (TD) measurements in all bucks were 20...
2017: Journal of veterinary medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460006/impact-of-agroecological-infrastructures-on-the-dynamics-of-dysaphis-plantaginea-hemiptera-aphididae-and-its-natural-enemies-in-apple-orchards-in-northwestern-france
#12
Laurence Albert, Pierre Franck, Yann Gilles, Manuel Plantegenest
Apple orchard production is facing new environmental and societal challenges, resulting, in particular, in strong pressure to reduce pesticide use. Cider-apple production, for which the perfect visual aspect of fruits is not a marketability imperative, offers good opportunities to study production systems that are developing new agronomic strategies, which could be subsequently extended to all apple-production types. Agroecological infrastructures play an important role in providing shelter, food resources, or reproduction habitats to many arthropods...
June 1, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429645/homestead-food-production-and-maternal-and-child-dietary-diversity-in-nepal-variations-in-association-by-season-and-agroecological-zone
#13
Bishnu Dulal, Gary Mundy, Rojee Sawal, Pooja Pandey Rana, Kenda Cunningham
BACKGROUND: Suaahara, a large-scale integrated program, aimed to improve diets and nutritional status among women and children, in part by facilitating enhanced homestead food production (EHFP). OBJECTIVE: This study examines associations between EHFP and maternal and child dietary diversity and variations by season and agroecological zone (AEZ): mountains and terai. METHODS: We used data from household monitoring surveys (n = 2101 mothers; n = 994 children, 6-23 months), which included a 7-day dietary recall and maternal report on participation in 5 EHFP activities-received vegetable seeds, chicks, and technical support and participated in training and EHFP groups...
January 1, 2017: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429300/agroecology-and-health-lessons-from-indigenous-populations
#14
REVIEW
José Suárez-Torres, José Ricardo Suárez-López, Dolores López-Paredes, Hilario Morocho, Luis Enrique Cachiguango-Cachiguango, William Dellai
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The article aims to systematize and disseminate the main contributions of indigenous ancestral wisdom in the agroecological production of food, especially in Latin America. For this purpose, it is necessary to ask whether such knowledge can be accepted by academia research groups and international forums as a valid alternative that could contribute to overcome the world's nutritional problems. RECENT FINDINGS: Although no new findings are being made, the validity of ancestral knowledge and agroecology is recognized by scientific research, and by international forums organized by agencies of the United Nations...
June 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428873/a-maize-landrace-that-emits-defense-volatiles-in-response-to%C3%A2-herbivore-eggs-possesses-a-strongly-inducible-terpene-synthase-gene
#15
Amanuel Tamiru, Toby J A Bruce, Annett Richter, Christine M Woodcock, Charles A O Midega, Jörg Degenhardt, Segenet Kelemu, John A Pickett, Zeyaur R Khan
Maize (Zea mays) emits volatile terpenes in response to insect feeding and egg deposition to defend itself against harmful pests. However, maize cultivars differ strongly in their ability to produce the defense signal. To further understand the agroecological role and underlying genetic mechanisms for variation in terpene emission among maize cultivars, we studied the production of an important signaling component (E)-caryophyllene in a South American maize landrace Braz1006 possessing stemborer Chilo partellus egg inducible defense trait, in comparison with the European maize line Delprim and North American inbred line B73...
April 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419861/agroecological-and-environmental-factors-influence-barley-yellow-dwarf-viruses-in-grasslands-in-the-us-pacific-northwest
#16
Laura L Ingwell, Christelle Lacroix, Paul R Rhoades, Alexander V Karasev, Nilsa A Bosque-Pérez
Plant pathogens can play a role in the competitive interactions between plant species and have been understudied in native prairies, which are declining globally, and in Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) lands in the United States. Barley/Cereal yellow dwarf virus (B/CYDV) are among the most economically important disease-causing agents of small grain cereal crops, such as wheat, and are known to infect over 150 Poaceae species, including many of the grass species present in prairies and CRP lands. Field surveys of Poaceae species were conducted in endangered Palouse Prairie and CRP habitats of southeastern Washington and adjacent northern Idaho, USA from 2010-2012 to examine for the presence of B/CYDV among plant hosts and aphid vectors...
April 15, 2017: Virus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301710/aflatoxin-contamination-of-groundnut-and-maize-in-zambia-observed-and-potential-concentrations
#17
P W Kachapulula, J Akello, R Bandyopadhyay, P J Cotty
AIMS: The aims of the study were to quantify aflatoxins, the potent carcinogens associated with stunting and immune suppression, in maize and groundnut across Zambia's three agroecologies and to determine the vulnerability to aflatoxin increases after purchase. METHODS AND RESULTS: Aflatoxin concentrations were determined for 334 maize and groundnut samples from 27 districts using lateral-flow immunochromatography. Seventeen per cent of crops from markets contained aflatoxin concentrations above allowable levels in Zambia (10 μg kg(-1) )...
June 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284373/reframing-the-food-biodiversity-challenge
#18
REVIEW
Joern Fischer, David J Abson, Arvid Bergsten, Neil French Collier, Ine Dorresteijn, Jan Hanspach, Kristoffer Hylander, Jannik Schultner, Feyera Senbeta
Given the serious limitations of production-oriented frameworks, we offer here a new conceptual framework for how to analyze the nexus of food security and biodiversity conservation. We introduce four archetypes of social-ecological system states corresponding to win-win (e.g., agroecology), win-lose (e.g., intensive agriculture), lose-win (e.g., fortress conservation), and lose-lose (e.g., degraded landscapes) outcomes for food security and biodiversity conservation. Each archetype is shaped by characteristic external drivers, exhibits characteristic internal social-ecological features, and has characteristic feedbacks that maintain it...
May 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211017/examining-adaptations-to-water-stress-among-farming-households-in-sri-lanka-s-dry-zone
#19
Nicholas E Williams, Amanda Carrico
Climate change is increasing water scarcity in Sri Lanka. Whether these changes will undermine national-level food security depends upon the ability of the small-scale farmers that dominate rice production and the institutions that support them to overcome the challenges presented by changing water availability. Analyzing household survey data, this research identifies household, institutional, and agroecological factors that influence how water-stressed farmers are working to adapt to changing conditions and how the strategies they employ impact rice yields...
September 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117685/a-survey-of-aflatoxin-producing-aspergillus-sp-from-peanut-field-soils-in-four-agroecological-zones-of-china
#20
Chushu Zhang, Jonathan Nimal Selvaraj, Qingli Yang, Yang Liu
Peanut pods are easily infected by aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus sp.ecies from field soil. To assess the aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus sp. in different peanut field soils, 344 aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus strains were isolated from 600 soil samples of four agroecological zones in China (the Southeast coastal zone (SEC), the Yangtze River zone (YZR), the Yellow River zone (YR) and the Northeast zone (NE)). Nearly 94.2% (324/344) of strains were A. flavus and 5.8% (20/344) of strains were A. parasiticus...
January 20, 2017: Toxins
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