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Agroecology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675418/comparative-epidemiology-of-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-virus-h5n1-and-h5n6-in-vietnamese-live-bird-markets-spatiotemporal-patterns-of-distribution-and-risk-factors
#1
Kate C Mellor, Anne Meyer, Doaa A Elkholly, Guillaume Fournié, Pham T Long, Ken Inui, Pawin Padungtod, Marius Gilbert, Scott H Newman, Timothée Vergne, Dirk U Pfeiffer, Kim B Stevens
Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus has been circulating in Vietnam since 2003, whilst outbreaks of HPAI H5N6 virus are more recent, having only been reported since 2014. Although the spatial distribution of H5N1 outbreaks and risk factors for virus occurrence has been extensively studied, there have been no comparative studies for H5N6. Data collected through active surveillance of Vietnamese live bird markets (LBMs) between 2011 and 2015 were used to explore and compare the spatiotemporal distributions of H5N1- and H5N6-positive LBMs...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29576944/the-impact-of-different-agroecological-conditions-on-the-nutritional-composition-of-quinoa-seeds
#2
María Reguera, Carlos Manuel Conesa, Alejandro Gil-Gómez, Claudia Mónika Haros, Miguel Ángel Pérez-Casas, Vilbett Briones-Labarca, Luis Bolaños, Ildefonso Bonilla, Rodrigo Álvarez, Katherine Pinto, Ángel Mujica, Luisa Bascuñán-Godoy
Quinoa cultivation has been expanded around the world in the last decade and is considered an exceptional crop with the potential of contributing to food security worldwide. The exceptional nutritional value of quinoa seeds relies on their high protein content, their amino acid profile that includes a good balance of essential amino acids, the mineral composition and the presence of antioxidants and other important nutrients such as fiber or vitamins. Although several studies have pointed to the influence of different environmental stresses in certain nutritional components little attention has been paid to the effect of the agroecological context on the nutritional properties of the seeds what may strongly impact on the consumer food's quality...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552081/antibacterial-activities-of-five-medicinal-plants-in-ethiopia-against-some-human-and-animal-pathogens
#3
Gebremedhin Romha, Birhanu Admasu, Tsegaye Hiwot Gebrekidan, Hailelule Aleme, Gebreyohans Gebru
Objective: To evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activities of five plant extracts which have been used as traditional medicines by local healers against three multidrug resistant bacteria, namely, Staphylococcus aureus , Escherichia coli , and Pseudomonas aeruginosa . Results: The highest mean zone of inhibition (4.66 mm) was recorded from methanol extract of Calpurnia aurea (Ait.) Benth. at a concentration of 200 mg/ml against S. aureus , followed by Croton macrostachyus Del...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29513654/pursuing-sustainable-productivity-with-millions-of-smallholder-farmers
#4
Zhenling Cui, Hongyan Zhang, Xinping Chen, Chaochun Zhang, Wenqi Ma, Chengdong Huang, Weifeng Zhang, Guohua Mi, Yuxin Miao, Xiaolin Li, Qiang Gao, Jianchang Yang, Zhaohui Wang, Youliang Ye, Shiwei Guo, Jianwei Lu, Jianliang Huang, Shihua Lv, Yixiang Sun, Yuanying Liu, Xianlong Peng, Jun Ren, Shiqing Li, Xiping Deng, Xiaojun Shi, Qiang Zhang, Zhiping Yang, Li Tang, Changzhou Wei, Liangliang Jia, Jiwang Zhang, Mingrong He, Yanan Tong, Qiyuan Tang, Xuhua Zhong, Zhaohui Liu, Ning Cao, Changlin Kou, Hao Ying, Yulong Yin, Xiaoqiang Jiao, Qingsong Zhang, Mingsheng Fan, Rongfeng Jiang, Fusuo Zhang, Zhengxia Dou
Sustainably feeding a growing population is a grand challenge, and one that is particularly difficult in regions that are dominated by smallholder farming. Despite local successes, mobilizing vast smallholder communities with science- and evidence-based management practices to simultaneously address production and pollution problems has been infeasible. Here we report the outcome of concerted efforts in engaging millions of Chinese smallholder farmers to adopt enhanced management practices for greater yield and environmental performance...
March 15, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509897/identifying-ant-mirid-spatial-interactions-to-improve-biological-control-in-cacao-based-agroforestry-system
#5
Leïla Bagny Beilhe, Cyril Piou, Zéphirin Tadu, Régis Babin
The use of ants for biological control of insect pests was the first reported case of conservation biological control. Direct and indirect community interactions between ants and pests lead to differential spatial pattern. We investigated spatial interactions between mirids, the major cocoa pest in West Africa and numerically dominant ant species, using bivariate point pattern analysis to identify potential biological control agents. We assume that potential biological control agents should display negative spatial interactions with mirids considering their niche overlap...
March 2, 2018: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501340/invited-review-learning-from-the-future-a-vision-for-dairy-farms-and-cows-in-2067
#6
J H Britt, R A Cushman, C D Dechow, H Dobson, P Humblot, M F Hutjens, G A Jones, P S Ruegg, I M Sheldon, J S Stevenson
The worldwide population in 2067 will reach 10.4 billion with 81% residing in Africa or Asia. Arable land available for food production will decrease to 0.15 ha per person. Temperature will increase in tropical and temperate zones, especially in the Northern Hemisphere, and this will push growing seasons and dairy farming away from arid areas and into more northern latitudes. Dairy consumption will increase because it provides essential nutrients more efficiently than many other agricultural systems. Dairy farming will become modernized in developing countries and milk production per cow will increase, doubling in countries with advanced dairying systems...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29489395/trends-in-global-agricultural-land-use-implications-for-environmental-health-and-food-security
#7
Navin Ramankutty, Zia Mehrabi, Katharina Waha, Larissa Jarvis, Claire Kremen, Mario Herrero, Loren H Rieseberg
The eighteenth-century Malthusian prediction of population growth outstripping food production has not yet come to bear. Unprecedented agricultural land expansions since 1700, and technological innovations that began in the 1930s, have enabled more calorie production per capita than was ever available before in history. This remarkable success, however, has come at a great cost. Agriculture is a major cause of global environmental degradation. Malnutrition persists among large sections of the population, and a new epidemic of obesity is on the rise...
February 28, 2018: Annual Review of Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484152/inter-and-intraspecific-variation-in-leaf-economic-traits-in-wheat-and-maize
#8
Adam R Martin, Christine E Hale, Bruno E L Cerabolini, Johannes H C Cornelissen, Joseph Craine, William A Gough, Jens Kattge, Cairan K F Tirona
Leaf Economics Spectrum (LES) trait variation underpins multiple agroecological processes and many prominent crop yield models. While there are numerous independent studies assessing trait variation in crops, to date there have been no comprehensive assessments of intraspecific trait variation (ITV) in LES traits for wheat and maize: the world's most widespread crops. Using trait databases and peer-reviewed literature, we compiled over 700 records of specific leaf area (SLA), maximum photosynthetic rates ( A max ) and leaf nitrogen (N) concentrations, for wheat and maize...
February 2018: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29476268/landscape-based-upstream-downstream-prevalence-of-land-use-cover-change-drivers-in-southeastern-rift-escarpment-of-ethiopia
#9
Habtamu Temesgen, Wei Wu, Abiyot Legesse, Eshetu Yirsaw, Belew Bekele
Characterized by high population density on a rugged topography, the Gedeo-Abaya landscape dominantly contains a multi-strata traditional agroforests showing the insight of Gedeo farmers on natural resource management practices. Currently, this area has been losing its resilience and is becoming unable to sustain its inhabitants. Based on both RS-derived and GIS-computed land-use/cover changes (LUCC) as well as socioeconomic validations, this article explored the LUCC and agroecological-based driver patterns in Gedeo-Abaya landscape from 1986 to 2015...
February 23, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442413/ongoing-changes-in-migration-phenology-and-winter-residency-at-bracken-bat-cave
#10
Phillip M Stepanian, Charlotte E Wainwright
Bats play an important role in agroecology and are effective bioindicators of environmental conditions, but little is known about their fundamental migration ecology, much less how these systems are responding to global change. Some of the world's largest bat populations occur during the summer in the south-central United States, when millions of pregnant females migrate from lower latitudes to give birth in communal maternity colonies. Despite a relatively large volume of research into these colonies, many fundamental questions regarding their abundance-including their intra- and interseasonal variability-remain unanswered, and even estimating the size of individual populations has been a long-running challenge...
February 14, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408066/seeding-plants-for-long-term-multiple-ecosystem-service-goals
#11
D J Eastburn, Leslie M Roche, Morgan P Doran, Philip R Blake, Chip S Bouril, George Gamble, Elise S Gornish
The historical management of agroecological systems, such as California's rangelands, have received criticism for a singular focus on agricultural production goals, while society has shifting expectations to the supply of multiple ecosystem services from these working landscapes. The sustainability and the multiple benefits derived from these complex social-ecological systems is increasingly threatened by weed invasion, extreme disturbance, urban development, and the impacts of a rapidly changing and increasingly variable climate...
January 27, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402489/-effectiveness-of-beauveria-bassiana-baubassil%C3%A2-on-the-common-cattle-tick-rhipicephalus-microplus-in-the-department-of-guajira-colombia
#12
Adriana P Tofiño Rivera, Mailen Ortega Cuadros, Bertilda Pedraza Claros, Sandra C Perdomo Ayola, Diana Carolina Moya Romero
The effectiveness of Baubassil®(Beauveria bassiana) on the tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus was evaluated. In the in vitro phase, the optimal germination temperature of the fungus was determined by microcultures at 25, 30 and 35°C and the mortality of ticks. In the field, in a randomized design, 30 cebuine cows; 15 cows were treated with Baubassil® once a week at a 1×106 conidia/ml, and a control group was left untreated. It was observed that at temperatures of 25, 30 and 35°C, germination of the entomopathogen was 97...
February 2, 2018: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338085/the-century-experiment-the-first-twenty-years-of-uc-davis-mediterranean-agroecological-experiment
#13
Kristina M Wolf, Emma E Torbert, Dennis Bryant, Martin Burger, R Ford Denison, Israel Herrera, Jan Hopmans, Will Horwath, Stephen Kaffka, Angela Y Y Kong, R F Norris, Johan Six, Thomas P Tomich, Kate M Scow
The Century Experiment at the Russell Ranch Sustainable Agriculture Facility at the University of California, Davis provides long-term agroecological data from row crop systems in California's Central Valley starting in 1993. The Century Experiment was initially designed to study the effects of a gradient of water and nitrogen availability on soil properties and crop performance in ten different cropping systems to measure tradeoffs and synergies between agricultural productivity and sustainability. Currently systems include 11 different cropping systems-consisting of four different crops and a cover crop mixture-and one native grass system...
February 2018: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304005/investigating-the-mis-match-between-natural-pest-control-knowledge-and-the-intensity-of-pesticide-use
#14
David Mall, Ashley E Larsen, Emily A Martin
Transforming modern agriculture towards both higher yields and greater sustainability is critical for preserving biodiversity in an increasingly populous and variable world. However, the intensity of agricultural practices varies strongly between crop systems. Given limited research capacity, it is crucial to focus efforts to increase sustainability in the crop systems that need it most. In this study, we investigate the match (or mismatch) between the intensity of pesticide use and the availability of knowledge on the ecosystem service of natural pest control across various crop systems...
January 5, 2018: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299679/modeling-and-improving-ethiopian-pasture-systems
#15
S G Parisi, G Cola, G Gilioli, L Mariani
The production of pasture in Ethiopia was simulated by means of a dynamic model. Most of the country is characterized by a tropical monsoon climate with mild temperatures and precipitation mainly concentrated in the June-September period (main rainy season). The production model is driven by solar radiation and takes into account limitations due to relocation, maintenance respiration, conversion to final dry matter, temperature, water stress, and nutrients availability. The model also considers the senescence of grassland which strongly limits the nutritional value of grasses for livestock...
January 3, 2018: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276671/what-drives-diversification-of-national-food-supplies-a-cross-country-analysis
#16
REVIEW
Samira Choudhury, Derek Headey
Little previous research has explored what drives the diversification of national food supplies (DFS) across countries and regions. We construct and analyse a cross-country dataset linking a simple DFS indicator - the share of calories supplied by nonstaple foods - with structural transformation and agroecological indicators. Panel econometric models show that several indicators of structural transformation (economic growth, urbanization and demographic change) are strong predictors of diversification within countries, yet time-invariant agroecological factors are also significantly associated with diversification, which appears to explain why some countries have exceptionally low or high DFS relative to their level of economic development...
December 2017: Global Food Security
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201492/agropastoral-mobility-and-rangelands-multiple-uses-in-the-miombo-frontier-ecozone-of-tabora-region-western-tanzania
#17
George Felix Masanja
This study aimed to examine the argument of environmental resource-use conflict as the primary cause of crop farmers and agropastoralists conflicts in Tabora Region, Tanzania. It explored the multiple interdependent phenomena that affect livelihoods relationships between crop farmers and agropastoralists and the nature of their continuing conflicts over the ecozonal resources. A primary dataset of the two groups' conflicts was used. An ex post facto and multistage sampling design was adopted. A total of 252 respondents were interviewed in three separate villages drawn from agroecological zones fringing the miombo woodland where such tensions are high...
2017: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195207/spatial-diversification-of-agroecosystems-to-enhance-biological-control-and-other-regulating-services-an-agroecological-perspective
#18
Séverin Hatt, Fanny Boeraeve, Sidonie Artru, Marc Dufrêne, Frédéric Francis
Spatial diversification of crop and non-crop habitats in farming systems is promising for enhancing natural regulation of insect pests. Nevertheless, results from recent syntheses show variable effects. One explanation is that the abundance and diversity of pests and natural enemies are affected by the composition, design and management of crop and non-crop habitats. Moreover, interactions between both local and landscape elements and practices carried out at different spatial scales may affect the regulation of insect pests...
April 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176578/a-multi-country-assessment-of-factors-related-to-smallholder-food-security-in-varying-rainfall-conditions
#19
Meredith T Niles, Molly E Brown
Given that smallholder farmers are frequently food insecure and rely significantly on rain-fed agriculture, it is critical to examine climate variability and food insecurity. We utilize data from smallholder farmer surveys from 12 countries with 30 years of rainfall data to examine how rainfall variability and household resources are correlated with food security. We find that on average, households that experienced a drier than average year are 3.81 months food insecure, while households within a normal range of rainfall were 3...
November 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166981/organic-vs-organic-soil-arthropods-as-bioindicators-of-ecological-sustainability-in-greenhouse-system-experiment-under-mediterranean-conditions
#20
Suzana Madzaric, F G Ceglie, L Depalo, L Al Bitar, G Mimiola, F Tittarelli, G Burgio
Organic greenhouse (OGH) production is characterized by different systems and agricultural practices with diverse environmental impact. Soil arthropods are widely used as bioindicators of ecological sustainability in open field studies, while there is a lack of research on organic production for protected systems. This study assessed the soil arthropod abundance and diversity over a 2-year crop rotation in three systems of OGH production in the Mediterranean. The systems under assessment differed in soil fertility management: SUBST - a simplified system of organic production, based on an input substitution approach (use of guano and organic liquid fertilizers), AGROCOM - soil fertility mainly based on compost application and agroecological services crops (ASC) cultivation (tailored use of cover crops) as part of crop rotation, and AGROMAN - animal manure and ASC cultivation as part of crop rotation...
November 23, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
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