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Agroecology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668001/social-organization-influences-the-exchange-and-species-richness-of-medicinal-plants-in-amazonian-homegardens
#1
(no author information available yet)
Medicinal plants provide indigenous and peasant communities worldwide with means to meet their healthcare needs. Homegardens often act as medicine cabinets, providing easily accessible medicinal plants for household needs. Social structure and social exchanges have been proposed as factors influencing the species diversity that people maintain in their homegardens. Here, we assess the association between the exchange of medicinal knowledge and plant material and medicinal plant richness in homegardens. Using Tsimane' Amazonian homegardens as a case study, we explore whether social organization shapes exchanges of medicinal plant knowledge and medicinal plant material...
March 2016: Ecology and Society: a Journal of Integrative Science for Resilience and Sustainability
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623531/comprehensive-assessment-of-soil-erosion-risk-for-better-land-use-planning-in-river-basins-case-study-of-the-upper-blue-nile-river
#2
Nigussie Haregeweyn, Atsushi Tsunekawa, Jean Poesen, Mitsuru Tsubo, Derege Tsegaye Meshesha, Ayele Almaw Fenta, Jan Nyssen, Enyew Adgo
In the drought-prone Upper Blue Nile River (UBNR) basin of Ethiopia, soil erosion by water results in significant consequences that also affect downstream countries. However, there have been limited comprehensive studies of this and other basins with diverse agroecologies. We analyzed the variability of gross soil loss and sediment yield rates under present and expected future conditions using a newly devised methodological framework. The results showed that the basin generates an average soil loss rate of 27...
September 10, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27478691/food-and-nutritional-security-requires-adequate-protein-as-well-as-energy-delivered-from-whole-year-crop-production
#3
Graeme D Coles, Stephen D Wratten, John R Porter
Human food security requires the production of sufficient quantities of both high-quality protein and dietary energy. In a series of case-studies from New Zealand, we show that while production of food ingredients from crops on arable land can meet human dietary energy requirements effectively, requirements for high-quality protein are met more efficiently by animal production from such land. We present a model that can be used to assess dietary energy and quality-corrected protein production from various crop and crop/animal production systems, and demonstrate its utility...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27475055/agroecology-and-sustainable-food-systems-participatory-research-to-improve-food-security-among-hiv-affected-households-in-northern-malawi
#4
Hanson Nyantakyi-Frimpong, Faith Nankasa Mambulu, Rachel Bezner Kerr, Isaac Luginaah, Esther Lupafya
This article shares results from a long-term participatory agroecological research project in northern Malawi. Drawing upon a political ecology of health conceptual framework, the paper explores whether and how participatory agroecological farming can improve food security and nutrition among HIV-affected households. In-depth interviews were conducted with 27 farmers in HIV-affected households in the area near Ekwendeni Trading Centre in northern Malawi. The results show that participatory agroecological farming has a strong potential to meet the food, dietary, labour and income needs of HIV-affected households, whilst helping them to manage natural resources sustainably...
September 2016: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27449507/tek-and-biodiversity-management-in-agroforestry-systems-of-different-socio-ecological-contexts-of-the-tehuac%C3%A3-n-valley
#5
REVIEW
Mariana Vallejo-Ramos, Ana I Moreno-Calles, Alejandro Casas
Transformation of natural ecosystems into intensive agriculture is a main factor causing biodiversity loss worldwide. Agroforestry systems (AFS) may maintain biodiversity, ecosystem benefits and human wellbeing, they have therefore high potential for concealing production and conservation. However, promotion of intensive agriculture and disparagement of TEK endanger their permanence. A high diversity of AFS still exist in the world and their potentialities vary with the socio-ecological contexts. We analysed AFS in tropical, temperate, and arid environments, of the Tehuacan Valley, Mexico, to investigate how their capacity varies to conserve biodiversity and role of TEK influencing differences in those contexts...
2016: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27401233/whole-genome-sequencing-of-native-sheep-provides-insights-into-rapid-adaptations-to-extreme-environments
#6
Ji Yang, Wen-Rong Li, Feng-Hua Lv, San-Gang He, Shi-Lin Tian, Wei-Feng Peng, Ya-Wei Sun, Yong-Xin Zhao, Xiao-Long Tu, Min Zhang, Xing-Long Xie, Yu-Tao Wang, Jin-Quan Li, Yong-Gang Liu, Zhi-Qiang Shen, Feng Wang, Guang-Jian Liu, Hong-Feng Lu, Juha Kantanen, Jian-Lin Han, Meng-Hua Li, Ming-Jun Liu
Global climate change has a significant effect on extreme environments and a profound influence on species survival. However, little is known of the genome-wide pattern of livestock adaptations to extreme environments over a short time frame following domestication. Sheep (Ovis aries) have become well adapted to a diverse range of agroecological zones, including certain extreme environments (e.g., plateaus and deserts), during their post-domestication (approximately 8-9 kya) migration and differentiation. Here, we generated whole-genome sequences from 77 native sheep, with an average effective sequencing depth of ∼5× for 75 samples and ∼42× for 2 samples...
October 2016: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27378799/what-does-it-cost-to-improve-household-diets-in-nepal-using-the-cost-of-the-diet-method-to-model-lowest-cost-dietary-changes
#7
Erin Biehl, Rolf D W Klemm, Swetha Manohar, Patrick Webb, Devendra Gauchan, Keith P West
BACKGROUND: In Nepal, limited availability and affordability of nutritious foods contribute to malnutrition. OBJECTIVES: To identify nutrient deficiencies in commonly consumed diets and model lowest cost changes that could improve diet quality in 3 agroecological zones of Nepal. METHODS: In August to September 2014, we collected market price and women's food frequency data from 3 representative villages in Nepal's mountains (Mahat Gaun, Jumla, n = 181 households), hills (Sitapur, Arghakhanchi, n = 166), and terai (Saigaun, Banke, n = 232) and verified local diets during women's group discussions...
July 3, 2016: Food and Nutrition Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27346463/-coca-got-us-here-and-now-it-s-our-weakness-fusarium-oxysporum-and-the-political-ecology-of-a-drug-war-policy-alternative-in-bolivia
#8
Zoe Pearson
BACKGROUND: A strain of Fusarium oxysporum fungus is killing coca plants in the Chapare coca growing region of Bolivia. Coca farmers are already constrained in the amount of coca they can grow under the government's community-based coca control approach, "social control." Coca leaf is the main ingredient in cocaine, but it is also a traditional medicine and food, is economically vital to household incomes, and is a political symbol of the current government administration. Bolivia's approach to coca control, now administered without any United States military intervention, is an innovative example of experimentation with drug policy reform...
July 2016: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27316676/current-knowledge-and-future-research-perspectives-on-cassava-manihot-esculenta-crantz-chemical-defenses-an-agroecological-view
#9
REVIEW
Delia M Pinto-Zevallos, Martín Pareja, Bianca G Ambrogi
Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is one of the most important staple crops worldwide. It constitutes the major source of carbohydrates for millions of low-income people living in rural areas, as well as a cash crop for smallholders in tropical and sub-tropical regions. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations predicts that cassava plantations will increase and production systems will intensify in the future, highlighting the need for developing strategies that improve the sustainability of production...
October 2016: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27293786/disentangling-endogenous-versus-exogenous-pattern-formation-in-spatial-ecology-a-case-study-of-the-ant-azteca-sericeasur-in-southern-mexico
#10
Kevin Li, John H Vandermeer, Ivette Perfecto
Spatial patterns in ecology can be described as reflective of environmental heterogeneity (exogenous), or emergent from dynamic relationships between interacting species (endogenous), but few empirical studies focus on the combination. The spatial distribution of the nests of Azteca sericeasur, a keystone tropical arboreal ant, is thought to form endogenous spatial patterns among the shade trees of a coffee plantation through self-regulating interactions with controlling agents (i.e. natural enemies). Using inhomogeneous point process models, we found evidence for both types of processes in the spatial distribution of A...
May 2016: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27291695/review-towards-the-agroecological-management-of-ruminants-pigs-and-poultry-through-the-development-of-sustainable-breeding-programmes-ii-breeding-strategies
#11
F Phocas, C Belloc, J Bidanel, L Delaby, J Y Dourmad, B Dumont, P Ezanno, L Fortun-Lamothe, G Foucras, B Frappat, E González-García, D Hazard, C Larzul, S Lubac, S Mignon-Grasteau, C R Moreno, M Tixier-Boichard, M Brochard
Agroecology uses ecological processes and local resources rather than chemical inputs to develop productive and resilient livestock and crop production systems. In this context, breeding innovations are necessary to obtain animals that are both productive and adapted to a broad range of local contexts and diversity of systems. Breeding strategies to promote agroecological systems are similar for different animal species. However, current practices differ regarding the breeding of ruminants, pigs and poultry...
June 13, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27256959/sustainable-intensification-a-multifaceted-systemic-approach-to-international-development
#12
Jennifer Himmelstein, Adrian Ares, Emily van Houweling
Sustainable intensification (SI) is a term increasingly used for a type of approach applied to international agricultural projects. Despite its widespread use, many still do not understand or know about the various facets of this composite paradigm. A review of the literature has led to the formalization of three principles, which convey the current characterization of SI-a whole system, participatory, agroecological approach. Specific examples of potential bottlenecks to the SI approach are cited, as are various technologies and techniques that can be applied to overcome these obstacles...
June 3, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27170506/review-towards-the-agroecological-management-of-ruminants-pigs-and-poultry-through-the-development-of-sustainable-breeding-programmes-i-selection-goals-and-criteria
#13
F Phocas, C Belloc, J Bidanel, L Delaby, J Y Dourmad, B Dumont, P Ezanno, L Fortun-Lamothe, G Foucras, B Frappat, E González-García, D Hazard, C Larzul, S Lubac, S Mignon-Grasteau, C R Moreno, M Tixier-Boichard, M Brochard
Agroecology uses natural processes and local resources rather than chemical inputs to ensure production while limiting the environmental footprint of livestock and crop production systems. Selecting to achieve a maximization of target production criteria has long proved detrimental to fitness traits. However, since the 1990s, developments in animal breeding have also focussed on animal robustness by balancing production and functional traits within overall breeding goals. We discuss here how an agroecological perspective should further shift breeding goals towards functional traits rather than production traits...
May 12, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26996463/comparison-of-proteomic-and-metabolomic-profiles-of-two-contrasting-ecotypes-of-sweetpotato-ipomoea-batata-l
#14
Shubhendu Shekhar, Divya Mishra, Saurabh Gayali, Alak Kumar Buragohain, Subhra Chakraborty, Niranjan Chakraborty
UNLABELLED: Sweetpotato has long been acknowledged as a significant contributor of global caloric needs, which continues to be of remarkable economic value. It is an important staple and emergency food in many countries and its annual world production hovers to about 130 million tons. The tubers act as sink and compete for the available photoassimilates eventually leading to the acquisition of nutrients and phytochemicals. Differential display of genes or gene-products, and metabolites causes differences in nutritive value of closely related ecotypes...
June 30, 2016: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26985955/population-genetic-analysis-and-trichothecene-profiling-of-fusarium-graminearum-from-wheat-in-uruguay
#15
D Pan, A Mionetto, N Calero, M M Reynoso, A Torres, L Bettucci
Fusarium graminearum sensu stricto (F. graminearum s.s.) is the major causal agent of Fusarium head blight of wheat worldwide, and contaminates grains with trichothecene mycotoxins that cause serious threats to food safety and animal health. An important aspect of managing this pathogen and reducing mycotoxin contamination of wheat is knowledge regarding its population genetics. Therefore, isolates of F. graminearum s.s. from the major wheat-growing region of Uruguay were analyzed by amplified fragment length polymorphism assays, PCR genotyping, and chemical analysis of trichothecene production...
2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26928842/use-of-balanced-scorecard-methodology-for-performance-measurement-of-the-health-extension-program-in-ethiopia
#16
Hailay D Teklehaimanot, Awash Teklehaimanot, Aregawi A Tedella, Mustofa Abdella
In 2004, Ethiopia introduced a community-based Health Extension Program to deliver basic and essential health services. We developed a comprehensive performance scoring methodology to assess the performance of the program. A balanced scorecard with six domains and 32 indicators was developed. Data collected from 1,014 service providers, 433 health facilities, and 10,068 community members sampled from 298 villages were used to generate weighted national, regional, and agroecological zone scores for each indicator...
May 4, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26873560/selection-and-characterization-of-argentine-isolates-of-trichoderma-harzianum-for-effective-biocontrol-of-septoria-leaf-blotch-of-wheat
#17
Marina C Stocco, Cecilia I Mónaco, Cecilia Abramoff, Gladys Lampugnani, Graciela Salerno, Natalia Kripelz, Cristina A Cordo, Verónica F Consolo
Species of the genus Trichoderma are economically important as biocontrol agents, serving as a potential alternative to chemical control. The applicability of Trichoderma isolates to different ecozones will depend on the behavior of the strains selected from each zone. The present study was undertaken to isolate biocontrol populations of Trichoderma spp. from the Argentine wheat regions and to select and characterize the best strains of Trichoderma harzianum by means of molecular techniques. A total of 84 out of the 240 strains of Trichoderma were able to reduce the disease severity of the leaf blotch of wheat...
March 2016: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26809943/circulating-serovars-of-leptospira-in-cart-horses-of-central-and-southern-ethiopia-and-associated-risk-factors
#18
K Tsegay, A D Potts, N Aklilu, C Lötter, B Gummow
Little work has been done on diseases of horses in Ethiopia or tropical regions of the world. Yet, Ethiopia has the largest horse population in Africa and their horses play a pivotal role in their economy as traction animals. A serological and questionnaire survey was therefore conducted to determine the circulating serovars of Leptospira and their association with potential risk factors in the cart horse population of Central and Southern Ethiopia. A total of 184 out of 418 cart horses from 13 districts had antibody titres of 1:100 or greater to at least one of 16 serovars of Leptospira species in Central and Southern Ethiopian horses...
March 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26712016/drivers-of-household-food-availability-in-sub-saharan-africa-based-on-big-data-from-small-farms
#19
Romain Frelat, Santiago Lopez-Ridaura, Ken E Giller, Mario Herrero, Sabine Douxchamps, Agnes Andersson Djurfeldt, Olaf Erenstein, Ben Henderson, Menale Kassie, Birthe K Paul, Cyrille Rigolot, Randall S Ritzema, Daniel Rodriguez, Piet J A van Asten, Mark T van Wijk
We calculated a simple indicator of food availability using data from 93 sites in 17 countries across contrasted agroecologies in sub-Saharan Africa (>13,000 farm households) and analyzed the drivers of variations in food availability. Crop production was the major source of energy, contributing 60% of food availability. The off-farm income contribution to food availability ranged from 12% for households without enough food available (18% of the total sample) to 27% for the 58% of households with sufficient food available...
January 12, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26707856/using-genetic-data-to-estimate-diffusion-rates-in-heterogeneous-landscapes
#20
L Roques, E Walker, P Franck, S Soubeyrand, E K Klein
Having a precise knowledge of the dispersal ability of a population in a heterogeneous environment is of critical importance in agroecology and conservation biology as it can provide management tools to limit the effects of pests or to increase the survival of endangered species. In this paper, we propose a mechanistic-statistical method to estimate space-dependent diffusion parameters of spatially-explicit models based on stochastic differential equations, using genetic data. Dividing the total population into subpopulations corresponding to different habitat patches with known allele frequencies, the expected proportions of individuals from each subpopulation at each position is computed by solving a system of reaction-diffusion equations...
August 2016: Journal of Mathematical Biology
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