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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351777/are-minor-alleles-more-likely-to-be-risk-alleles
#1
Takashi Kido, Weronika Sikora-Wohlfeld, Minae Kawashima, Shinichi Kikuchi, Naoyuki Kamatani, Anil Patwardhan, Richard Chen, Marina Sirota, Keiichi Kodama, Dexter Hadley, Atul J Butte
BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have revealed relationships between over 57,000 genetic variants and diseases. However, unlike Mendelian diseases, complex diseases arise from the interplay of multiple genetic and environmental factors. Natural selection has led to a high tendency of risk alleles to be enriched in minor alleles in Mendelian diseases. Therefore, an allele that was previously advantageous or neutral may later become harmful, making it a risk allele. METHODS: Using data in the NHGRI-EBI Catalog and the VARIMED database, we investigated whether (1) GWASs more easily detect risk alleles and (2) facilitate evolutionary insights by comparing risk allele frequencies of different diseases...
January 19, 2018: BMC Medical Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326854/macular-buckling-surgery-for-retinal-detachment-associated-with-macular-hole-in-high-myopia-eye
#2
Kenan Sönmez, Ali Keleş
A 68-year-old woman presented to our clinic with a 1-month history of central scotoma and visual loss in her right eye. The best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was hand motion in her right eye. Fundus examination showed myopic chorioretinal degeneration in association with posterior staphyloma and the retina was slightly elevated throughout the macula. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) revealed retinal detachment involving the posterior pole with a macular hole and staphyloma. The patient underwent pars plana vitrectomy, internal limiting membrane peeling, macular buckling, and perfluoropropane gas tamponade...
December 2017: Turkish Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323203/an-epidemiological-study-of-the-risk-factors-associated-with-myopia-in-young-adult-men-in-korea
#3
Dong Cheol Lee, Se Youp Lee, Yu Cheol Kim
The prevalence of myopia has been increasing worldwide. Its causes are not completely clear, although genetic and environmental factors are thought to play a role. Data were collected by the Korean Military Manpower Administration. Frequency analysis was used for comparisons of general characteristics. Pearson's chi-square tests and logistic regression analysis were used to verify the correlations between possible risk factors and the prevalence of myopia or high myopia. The prevalence of myopia (50.6-53.0%) and high myopia (11...
January 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315718/experimental-investigation-of-accommodation-in-eyes-fit-with-multifocal-contact-lenses-using-a-clinical-auto-refractor
#4
Basal H Altoaimi, Pete Kollbaum, Dawn Meyer, Arthur Bradley
PURPOSE: Multifocal or multi-zone contact lenses are increasingly being fit to young eyes in an attempt to control myopia progression. However, success in achieving this aim may depend on how much the eye accommodates. The purpose of the current work was to evaluate the ability of an open-field clinical autorefractor to measure on-axis refractive state and accommodation in eyes fit with multifocal contact lenses (CLs). METHODS: Refractive state was measured with a Grand Seiko WAM-5500 autorefractor (www...
January 8, 2018: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310612/impending-extrusion-of-ex-press-shunt-treated-by-shunt-position-adjustment-a-case-report
#5
Yong Ju Song, Sumi Kim, Gil Joong Yoon
BACKGROUND: To report a case of impending extrusion of Ex-PRESS shunt treated by shunt-position adjustment. CASE PRESENTATION: A 56-year-old Asian woman presented with impending extrusion and malposition of Ex-PRESS shunt in her left eye. The bleb of the left eye was shallow and diffuse. In the past, the patient was treated by Ex-PRESS shunt implantation under the scleral flap in both eyes. There had been no Ex-PRESS shunt-related complication in her right eye, and she reported no history of left-eye trauma...
January 8, 2018: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308602/anti-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-vegf-drugs-for-treatment-of-retinopathy-of-prematurity
#6
REVIEW
Mari Jeeva Sankar, Jhuma Sankar, Parijat Chandra
BACKGROUND: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a key role in angiogenesis in foetal life. Researchers have recently attempted to use anti-VEGF agents for the treatment of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), a vasoproliferative disorder. The safety and efficacy of these agents in preterm infants with ROP is currently uncertain. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of anti-VEGF drugs when used either as monotherapy, that is without concomitant cryotherapy or laser therapy, or in combination with planned cryo/laser therapy in preterm infants with type 1 ROP (defined as zone I any stage with plus disease, zone I stage 3 with or without plus disease, or zone II stage 2 or 3 with plus disease)...
January 8, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288031/prevalence-and-characteristics-of-myopic-degeneration-in-an-adult-chinese-american-population-the-chinese-american-eye-study
#7
Farzana Choudhury, Stacy M Meuer, Ronald Klein, Dandan Wang, Mina Torres, Xuejuan Jiang, Roberta McKean-Cowdin, Rohit Varma
PURPOSE: To characterize and provide population-based prevalence estimates of myopic degeneration (MD) among Chinese Americans, the fastest growing minority population in the United States in the last decade. DESIGN: Population-based, cross-sectional study. METHODS: 1523 Chinese American adults with myopia, aged 50 years and older, residing in the City of Monterey Park, California, underwent an interview and comprehensive eye exam, including subjective and objective refraction, and stereoscopic fundus photography...
December 26, 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283117/refractive-lenticule-extraction-small-incision-lenticule-extraction-a-new-refractive-surgery-paradigm
#8
REVIEW
Sri Ganesh, Sheetal Brar, Raghavender Reddy Arra
Small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE), a variant of refractive lenticule extraction technology is becoming increasingly popular, as a flapless and minimally invasive form of laser vision correction (LVC) for the treatment of myopia and myopic astigmatism. This review aims at summarizing the principles, surgical technique, and clinical outcomes in terms of visual and refractive results, safety, efficacy, postoperative dry eye, aberrations, and biomechanics of SMILE and its comparison with other conventional techniques of LVC, such as laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) and photorefractive keratectomy (PRK)...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273016/buffering-zone-of-implantable-collamer-lens-sizing-in-v4c
#9
Seung Wan Nam, Dong Hui Lim, Joo Hyun, Eui-Sang Chung, Tae-Young Chung
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to identify factors related to the unexpected vault in V4c implantable collamer lens (ICL; STAAR Surgical) implantation. METHODS: V4c ICLs were implanted in 43 eyes of 43 patients for the correction of myopia. The implanted V4c ICL sizes were determined individually with our previous V4 ICL sizing nomogram based on the sulcus-to-sulcus diameter (STS), and the V4 ICL sizes were then converted to V4c ICL sizes with a size-converting table...
December 22, 2017: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260192/patchy-chorioretinal-atrophy-changes-at-the-posterior-pole-after-ranibizumab-for-myopic-choroidal-neovascularization
#10
Mariacristina Parravano, Fabio Scarinci, Marta Gilardi, Lea Querques, Monica Varano, Francesco Oddone, Francesco Bandello, Giuseppe Querques
Purpose: To investigate the potential role of ranibizumab treatment on the development or enlargement of chorioretinal atrophy (CRA) at the posterior pole in eyes with myopic choroidal neovascularization (mCNV). Methods: This observational case series included patients having high myopia spherical equivalent refractive error ≥ -6.00 diopters, axial length (AxL) ≥ 26.0 mm in both eyes, and mCNV treated with ranibizumab 0.5 mg in one eye, who were retrospectively enrolled...
December 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260122/unusual-straatsma-syndrome-how-dogmatic-is-a-bad-prognosis
#11
Ana Vide-Escada, Helena Prior Filipe
Purpose: To show that Straatsma Syndrome can have a good outcome and to highlight an unusual presentation of this disease. Observations: A four-year-old boy presents with severe right eye amblyopia in association with high myopia, esotropia, heterochromia iridum and extensive myelinated retinal fibers involving both temporal arcades and the optic nerve head. Right eye initial visual acuity was less than 20/400 for distance and less than R6W10 for near. Left eye examination was unremarkable...
December 2017: American Journal of Ophthalmology Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259905/negative-effects-of-transthyretin-in-high-myopic-vitreous-on-diabetic-retinopathy
#12
Jun Shao, Yong Yao
AIM: To analyze the relationship between vitreous transthyretin (TTR) levels, high myopia and diabetic retinopathy (DR). METHODS: We selected 6722 individuals from the southern Jiangsu Province for diabetes and ophthalmic examinations. The TTR concentration in the vitreous of 50 patients with high myopia and diabetes, 50 patients with only DR, and 20 healthy controls were determined by ELISA. Key factors in Tie2 pathway in DR development including vascular endothecial growth factor (VEGF), Tie2, Angpt1, Angpt2, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) 1 and VEGFR2 were also detected by ELISA...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235262/corrugated-bruch-s-membrane-in-high-myopia
#13
Jost B Jonas, Rahul A Jonas, Kyoko Ohno-Matsui, Leonard Holbach, Songhomitra Panda-Jonas
PURPOSE: To assess the appearance of Bruch's membrane (BM) in axially elongated eyes. METHODS: The light-microscopical investigation included histological anterior-posterior sections of human eyes. Using a light microscope, we assessed whether BM in the posterior segment was straight or locally corrugated. Corrugation of BM was defined as an elevation of BM with a height >20 μm over a basis of 50 μm without collateral proliferations of retinal pigment epithelium or choroidal swelling...
December 13, 2017: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232338/internal-limiting-membrane-peeling-versus-inverted-flap-technique-for-treatment-of-full-thickness-macular-holes-a-comparative-study-in-a-large-series-of-patients
#14
Stanislao Rizzo, Ruggero Tartaro, Francesco Barca, Tomaso Caporossi, Daniela Bacherini, Fabrizio Giansanti
BACKGROUND: The inverted flap (IF) technique has recently been introduced in macular hole (MH) surgery. The IF technique has shown an increase of the success rate in the case of large MHs and in MHs associated with high myopia. This study reports the anatomical and functional results in a large series of patients affected by MH treated using pars plana vitrectomy and gas tamponade combined with internal limiting membrane (ILM) peeling or IF. METHODS: This is a retrospective, consecutive, nonrandomized comparative study of patients affected by idiopathic or myopic MH treated using small-gauge pars plana vitrectomy (25- or 23-gauge) between January 2011 and May 2016...
December 8, 2017: Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227510/postoperative-corneal-asphericity-in-low-moderate-and-high-myopic-eyes-after-transepithelial-prk-using-a-new-pulse-allocation
#15
David T C Lin, Simon P Holland, Shwetabh Verma, John Hogden, Samuel Arba-Mosquera
PURPOSE: To evaluate the postoperative asphericity in low, moderate, and high myopic eyes after combined transepithelial photorefractive keratectomy and SmartSurfACE treatment (SCHWIND eye-tech-solutions GmbH, Kleinostheim, Germany). METHODS: In this retrospective case series, the outcomes of myopic SmartSurfACE were evaluated at 3 months postoperatively in 106 eyes and divided into low (less than -4.125 diopters [D]), moderate (-4.125 to -6.25 D), and high (more than -6...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212820/vision-in-former-very-low-birthweight-young-adults-with-and-without-retinopathy-of-prematurity-compared-with-term-born-controls-the-nz-1986-vlbw-follow-up-study
#16
Brian A Darlow, Mark J Elder, Bridget Kimber, Julia Martin, L John Horwood
OBJECTIVE: There are few data on visual outcomes in adulthood of former very low birthweight (VLBW; <1500 g) infants. We aimed to assess vision at 27-29 years in a national cohort of VLBW infants born in 1986 and assessed for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) when no treatment was available, compared with term born controls. METHODS: The cohort and controls attended a 2-day assessment in Christchurch as part of a larger study. Visual assessment included glasses prescription measured by focimeter, logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR) distance visual acuity (VA), contrast sensitivity, autorefraction, retinal photographs and a questionnaire on vision-related everyday activities...
December 6, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198091/-treatments-for-slowing-the-progression-of-myopia
#17
REVIEW
Nir Erdinest, Yair Morad
Myopia is the most common refractive error and is now endemic over the entire industrial world, particularly in Asia. High myopia is one of the major causes of blindness in the world. Slowing the progress of myopia is possible, the most effective treatment being atropine ophthalmic drops, given in a dose-dependent fashion. Although high-dose atropine (1% and 0.5%) was found to be highly effective in slowing myopia progression, low-dose atropine (0.01%) was found to have the lowest rebound effect (accelerated myopia progression after treatment cessation) and was therefore, the most effective treatment in the long term...
November 2017: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197157/application-of-the-isnt-rules-on-retinal-nerve-fibre-layer-thickness-and-neuroretinal-rim-area-in-healthy-myopic-eyes
#18
Kunliang Qiu, Geng Wang, Xuehui Lu, Riping Zhang, Lixia Sun, Mingzhi Zhang
PURPOSE: We determined the applicability of inferior > superior > nasal > temporal (ISNT) rules on retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness and rim area and evaluated the impact of various ocular factors on the performance of the ISNT rules in healthy myopic eyes. METHODS: A total of 138 eyes from 138 healthy myopic subjects were included in this cross-sectional observational study. The peripapillary RNFL and optic disc in each eye were imaged with Cirrus HD optical coherence tomography (OCT) and Heidelberg Retina Tomograph II (HRT2), respectively...
December 2, 2017: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196762/neuronal-mechanisms-underlying-differences-in-spatial-resolution-between-darks-and-lights-in-human-vision
#19
Carmen Pons, Reece Mazade, Jianzhong Jin, Mitchell W Dul, Qasim Zaidi, Jose-Manuel Alonso
Artists and astronomers noticed centuries ago that humans perceive dark features in an image differently from light ones; however, the neuronal mechanisms underlying these dark/light asymmetries remained unknown. Based on computational modeling of neuronal responses, we have previously proposed that such perceptual dark/light asymmetries originate from a luminance/response saturation within the ON retinal pathway. Consistent with this prediction, here we show that stimulus conditions that increase ON luminance/response saturation (e...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188062/human-aqueous-humor-levels-of-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-2-association-with-matrix-metalloproteinases-tissue-inhibitors-of-matrix-metalloproteinases
#20
Yan Jia, Yu Yue, Dan-Ning Hu, Ji-Li Chen, Ji-Bo Zhou
The present study aims to investigate the association of transforming growth factor-β2 (TGF-β2) and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), MMP-2 and MMP-3, and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (TIMPs), TIMP-1, TIMP-2 and TIMP-3 in the aqueous humor of patients with high myopia or cataracts. The levels of TGF-β2 and MMPs/TIMPs were measured with the Luminex xMAP Technology using commercially available Milliplex xMAP kits. The association between TGF-β2 and MMPs/TIMPs levels was analyzed using the Spearmans correlation test...
December 2017: Biomedical Reports
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