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High myopia

Nora W Muakkassa, Eric J Schwaber, Nora Laver, Jay S Duker
The authors report a case of a 57-year-old male with high myopia, extensive bilateral myelination of the retinal nerve fiber layer, bilateral vitreous cysts, and a solitary vasoproliferative tumor in the right eye. He underwent pars plana vitrectomy and multiple transpupillary thermotherapy treatments for recurrent vitreous hemorrhages and subretinal exudation from the vasoproliferative tumor. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first description of this constellation of findings and suggests this represents a new syndrome...
May 1, 2018: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
A A Shpak
To characterize a complex of disorders developing in patients with extreme values of anteroposterior axis of the eye, it is necessary to create an appropriate nomenclature. As a topic for discussion, authors suggest to supplement the existing classifications of myopia and hyperopia with 'character of ametropia' section (axial, refractive, mixed) and the definition of ametropias of very high (ultra-high/extreme) degree (a criterion for myopia is: <-10 D). In prospect, classification of such ametropias should be based on the length of the anteroposterior axis of the eye...
2018: Vestnik Oftalmologii
S E Avetisov
The article reviews development mechanisms of different refractive errors accompanied by marked defocus of light rays reaching the retina. Terminology used for such ametropias includes terms extreme, ultra-high and complicated. Justification of their usage for primary ametropias, whose symptom complex is based on changes in axial eye length, is an ongoing discussion. To comply with thesaurus definitions of 'diagnosis' and 'pathogenesis', to characterize refractive and anatomical-functional disorders in patients with primary ametropias it is proposed to use the terms 'hyperaxial and hypoaxial syndromes' with elaboration of specific symptoms instead of such expressions as extreme (ultra-high) myopia and hypermetropia...
2018: Vestnik Oftalmologii
Adriana I Iglesias, Aniket Mishra, Veronique Vitart, Yelena Bykhovskaya, René Höhn, Henriët Springelkamp, Gabriel Cuellar-Partida, Puya Gharahkhani, Jessica N Cooke Bailey, Colin E Willoughby, Xiaohui Li, Seyhan Yazar, Abhishek Nag, Anthony P Khawaja, Ozren Polašek, David Siscovick, Paul Mitchell, Yih Chung Tham, Jonathan L Haines, Lisa S Kearns, Caroline Hayward, Yuan Shi, Elisabeth M van Leeuwen, Kent D Taylor, Pieter Bonnemaijer, Jerome I Rotter, Nicholas G Martin, Tanja Zeller, Richard A Mills, Sandra E Staffieri, Jost B Jonas, Irene Schmidtmann, Thibaud Boutin, Jae H Kang, Sionne E M Lucas, Tien Yin Wong, Manfred E Beutel, James F Wilson, André G Uitterlinden, Eranga N Vithana, Paul J Foster, Pirro G Hysi, Alex W Hewitt, Chiea Chuen Khor, Louis R Pasquale, Grant W Montgomery, Caroline C W Klaver, Tin Aung, Norbert Pfeiffer, David A Mackey, Christopher J Hammond, Ching-Yu Cheng, Jamie E Craig, Yaron S Rabinowitz, Janey L Wiggs, Kathryn P Burdon, Cornelia M van Duijn, Stuart MacGregor
Central corneal thickness (CCT) is a highly heritable trait associated with complex eye diseases such as keratoconus and glaucoma. We perform a genome-wide association meta-analysis of CCT and identify 19 novel regions. In addition to adding support for known connective tissue-related pathways, pathway analyses uncover previously unreported gene sets. Remarkably, >20% of the CCT-loci are near or within Mendelian disorder genes. These included FBN1, ADAMTS2 and TGFB2 which associate with connective tissue disorders (Marfan, Ehlers-Danlos and Loeys-Dietz syndromes), and the LUM-DCN-KERA gene complex involved in myopia, corneal dystrophies and cornea plana...
May 14, 2018: Nature Communications
Haris Sideroudi, Apostolos Lazaridis, Anke Messerschmidt-Roth, Georgios Labiris, Vassilios Kozobolis, Walter Sekundo
PURPOSE: To evaluate the long-term changes in anterior and posterior corneal irregular astigmatism and curvatures after small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE). METHODS: Fifty eyes of 28 patients underwent SMILE for myopic astigmatism. All procedures were performed using the VisuMax® femtosecond laser. A Scheimpflug camera was used for preoperative and 3-year postoperative tomography. Anterior and posterior corneal Fourier parameters (spherical component, regular astigmatism, asymmetry, and irregularity) and curvature data were evaluated and compared within 2 subgroups according to the magnitude of the refractive correction (low myopia group: spherical equivalent (SEQ) ≥ -6 D; high myopia group: (SEQ) < -6 D)...
April 27, 2018: Cornea
Zhongcui Sun, Hua Gao, Min Wang, Qing Chang, Gezhi Xu
PURPOSE: To describe a foveomacular retinoschisis that has not been described. METHODS: Patients with foveomacular retinoschisis were included. Exclusion criteria included refractive error over -6.00 diopters, presence of posterior staphyloma, positive RS1-gene mutation, family history of retinoschisis, optic disk abnormalities, or glaucoma. Vitrectomy was performed on eyes with functional or structural deterioration. RESULTS: Seventeen eyes from 10 patients (15-30 years old, 8 females and 2 males) with foveoschisis were recruited, with bilateral involvement in 7 patients and unilateral in 3 patients...
May 2, 2018: Retina
Xi Zhang, Xun Chen, Xiaoying Wang, Fei Yuan, Xingtao Zhou
BACKGROUND: To analyze the positions of intraocular posterior Implantable Collamer Lens (ICL) and its possible relationship with vault. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 72 patients with high myopia (134 eyes) who were followed up after phakic intraocular lens implantation. The postoperative time ranged from 1 week to 7 years. We obtained the images of ICL by using Compact Touch STS UBM and observed the position of ICL in posterior chamber and ciliary sulcus...
May 9, 2018: BMC Ophthalmology
Gernot Steinwender, Mehdi Shajari, Thomas Kohnen
PURPOSE: To report the efficacy, predictability, and safety of femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery (FLACS) in eyes with anterior chamber phakic intraocular lenses (IOLs). METHODS: This retrospective case series included eyes with previous implantation of an angle-supported and an iris-fixated phakic IOL for the correction of myopia that underwent a combined procedure of phakic IOL ex-plantation and FLACS with in-the-bag implantation of a posterior chamber IOL...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Refractive Surgery
Antonio García-Ben, Ignacio Garcia-Basterra, Ana González-Gómez, Isabel Baquero-Aranda, María José Morillo-Sanchez, Antonio Soler-García, Jose Manuel García-Campos
BACKGROUND: To compare the long-term clinical evolution of highly myopic eyes with vertical oval-shaped dome associated with or without untreated serous retinal detachment. METHODS: Twenty-eight patients with high myopia (40 eyes) with smooth macular elevations related to a vertical oval-shaped dome were recruited. Serous retinal detachment was investigated; 11 eyes had persistent submacular fluid (study group) and 29 eyes lacked submacular fluid (control group)...
May 7, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
Roberto dell'Omo, Gianni Virgili, Ferdinando Bottoni, Barbara Parolini, Serena De Turris, Attilo Di Salvatore, Ermanno dell'Omo, Ciro Costagliola
PURPOSE: To study the natural history and morphologic characteristics of lamellar macular holes (LMHs) in the eyes with pathological myopia. METHODS: Retrospective observational case series of 44 eyes of 44 patients examined at a single institutional vitreoretinal practice. The included eyes must present an irregular foveal contour and schitic or cavitated lamellar separation of neurosensory retina on spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and an area of increased autofluorescence on blue fundus autofluorescence (B-FAF) to be included...
May 3, 2018: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
Yoshikatsu Hosoda, Munemitsu Yoshikawa, Masahiro Miyake, Yasuharu Tabara, Noriaki Shimada, Wanting Zhao, Akio Oishi, Hideo Nakanishi, Masayuki Hata, Tadamichi Akagi, Sotaro Ooto, Natsuko Nagaoka, Yuxin Fang, Kyoko Ohno-Matsui, Ching-Yu Cheng, Seang Mei Saw, Ryo Yamada, Fumihiko Matsuda, Akitaka Tsujikawa, Kenji Yamashiro
The incidence of high myopia is increasing worldwide with myopic maculopathy, a complication of myopia, often progressing to blindness. Our two-stage genome-wide association study of myopic maculopathy identifies a susceptibility locus at rs11873439 in an intron of CCDC102B (P = 1.77 × 10-12 and Pcorr  = 1.61 × 10-10 ). In contrast, this SNP is not significantly associated with myopia itself. The association between rs11873439 and myopic maculopathy is further confirmed in 2317 highly myopic patients (P = 2...
May 3, 2018: Nature Communications
Jing Wang, Yanlin Ren, Kun Liang, Zhengxuan Jiang, Liming Tao
BACKGROUND: Femtosecond laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (FS-LASIK) has gained widespread popularity as a safe, effective and predictable treatment for correcting myopia and myopic astigmatism.However, complications such as biomechanical changes, structural weakness, dry eye and induction of high-order aberrations (HOAs) have been associated with FS laser excision. The induction of HOAs has been reported to reduce quality of vision, leading to increased glare, halos, starburst and deterioration of contrast function corneal HOAs play a significant role in whole-eye aberration...
May 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Ho Sik Hwang, Min Young Chun, Jin Sun Kim, Bumjo Oh, Sang Ho Yoo, Bum-Joo Cho
PURPOSE: To investigate risk factors for high myopia in the general Korean population. METHODS: In this nationwide population study, the dataset of the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2012 was analyzed. The study cohort included 11,703 participants, aged 25-49 years, who underwent neither refractive nor cataract surgery. The association between demographic, socioeconomic, behavioral, and systemic variables and high myopia were investigated...
May 2, 2018: Current Eye Research
Kosei Shinohara, Noriko Tanaka, Jost B Jonas, Noriaki Shimada, Muka Moriyama, Takeshi Yoshida, Kyoko Ohno-Matsui
PURPOSE: To investigate the relationships between myopic macular retinoschisis (MRS) and posterior staphylomas and to reveal the characteristics of other retinal lesions associated with MRS. DESIGN: Retrospective, observational case series. PARTICIPANTS: Seven hundred twenty-nine eyes of 420 patients with high myopia, which was defined as myopic refractive error of more than -8.0 diopters or an axial length longer than 26.5 mm. METHODS: Highly myopic eyes were examined by ultrawide-field (UWF) swept-source (SS) OCT with scan width of up to 23 mm and scan depth of 5 mm...
April 28, 2018: Ophthalmology
Huy D M Tran, Yen H Tran, Tuan D Tran, Monica Jong, Minas Coroneo, Padmaja Sankaridurg
Myopia is a global public health issue with a worldwide prevalence of ∼30% and is estimated to rise to 50% by 2050. In addition to the burden associated with routine management of the condition, high myopia predisposes the eye to sight-threatening complications such as myopic maculopathy and glaucoma in adult life. Controlling onset and progression of myopia at a young age can reduce the risk of morbidity associated with high myopia. Progression of myopia can be slowed with various optical, environmental, and pharmaceutical strategies, of which atropine has proven to be the most effective...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Yen-Chih Chen, San-Ni Chen, Benjamin Chi-Lan Yang, Kun-Hsien Lee, Chih-Chun Chuang, Chieh-Yin Cheng
Purpose: To compare refractive and biometric outcomes in patients with type 1 retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) treated with intravitreal injection of ranibizumab (IVR) versus bevacizumab (IVB), at a corrected age of 3 years. Methods: A retrospective case series compared cycloplegic refractive statuses and biometric statuses in patients who received either IVR or IVB for type 1 ROP, from April 2011 to April 2014. Results: A total of 62 eyes (33 patients) with type 1 ROP were evaluated (26 eyes in 13 IVR patients and 36 eyes in 20 IVB patients)...
2018: Journal of Ophthalmology
Dongmei Qi, Lixia Gao, Jing Xie, Tao Yu
PURPOSE: To investigate the efficacy of a modified surgical procedure for esotropia fixus with high myopia. METHODS: Thirteen patients (15 eyes) with esotropia fixus and high myopia who underwent the Jensen procedure for superior and lateral rectus muscles at Southwest Hospital between February 2014 and December 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. Intraoperatively, the superior rectus and lateral rectus muscles were separated up to 12 to 14 mm posterior to their respective insertion...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
Xian Xu, Yuxin Fang, Tae Yokoi, Kosei Shinohara, Akito Hirakata, Takeshi Iwata, Kazushige Tsunoda, Jost B Jonas, Kyoko Ohno-Matsui
PURPOSE: To describe features of posterior staphylomas in nonhighly myopic eyes with retinitis pigmentosa (RP). METHODS: The retrospective observational case series study included patients with RP and an axial length of <26.5 mm and searched for eyes with posterior staphylomas. All study participants underwent fundus photography and optical coherence tomography. RESULTS: The study identified 13 eyes of 7 patients with a narrow macular staphyloma...
April 26, 2018: Retina
Stephen Slade, Teresa Ignacio, Scott Spector
PURPOSE: To characterize the performance of a multifunctional femtosecond laser system (Lensx) for the creation of laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) flaps. SETTING: Two surgical sites in the United States. DESIGN: Prospective case series pilot study. METHODS: Patients with myopia or hyperopia who were eligible for femtosecond laser-initiated LASIK surgery with corrected distance visual acuities (CDVA) correctable to at least 20/25 were enrolled...
March 2018: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
Timothy R Fricke, Monica Jong, Kovin S Naidoo, Padmaja Sankaridurg, Thomas J Naduvilath, Suit May Ho, Tien Yin Wong, Serge Resnikoff
PURPOSE: We used systematic review and meta-analysis to identify and assimilate evidence quantifying blindness and visual impairment (VI) associated with myopic macular degeneration (MMD), then derived models to predict global patterns. The models were used to estimate the global prevalence of blindness and VI associated with MMD from 2000 to 2050. METHODS: The systematic review identified 17 papers with prevalence data for MMD VI fitting our inclusion criteria...
April 26, 2018: British Journal of Ophthalmology
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